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  Anatomy of Prostate and Bladder Picture. Anaotmy of urinary track Prostate is accessory gland who secrete most of the liquid portion of semen. Other accessory sex gland is seminal vesicles and bulbourehtal glands. Prostate is a single, doughnut-shaped gland, it measures about 4 cm from side to side, about 3 cm from top to bottom, and about 2 cm from front to back. The prostate slowly increases in size from birth to puberty. It then expands rapidly until 30 years, and it size tipically remain stable in 45 years. Physiology of Prostate Prostate secrete milky, slightly acidic fluid (pH about 6,5) which contain several substance. (1) citric acid   in prostatic fluid is udef by sperm for ATP production via the Krebs cycle. (2)  proteolytic enzymes , such as  prostate specific antigen (PSA),  pepsinogen, lysozyme, amylase, and hyaluronidase, eventually break down the clotting proteins from the seminal vesicle. (3) The function of the acid phosphatase  secreted by prostate is unknown. (4) seminalplasmin in  prostatic fluid is an antibiotic who can destroy bacteria. Seminalplasmin may help decrease the  bacteria in semen and in the lower female reproductive tract. Prostatic secretion make up about 25% of the volume of semen and contribute to sperm motility and viability.   Histology of Prostate Picture. Prostat Zone The prostate has three distinct zones: (1) central zone occupies 25% of the gland’s volume. (2)  peripheral zone occupies 70%. (3) transition zone is medical importance because is the site at which most benign prostatic hyperplasia srcinate. Picture. Prostate cell The tubuloalveolar gland of the prostate are formed by cuboidal or a columnar pseudostratified epithelium. An exceptionally rich fibromuscular stroma surrounds the glands. The prostate is  surrounded by a fibroelastic capsule rich in smooth muscle. Septa from the capsule penetrate the gland and divide it into lobe. The tubuloalveolar glands produce prostatic fluid and store it for expulsion during ejaculation. As with the seminal vesicle, the structure and function of the prostate depend on the level of testosterone. Picture Bladder cell The calyces, renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder have the same basic histological structure, with the walls of the ureters becoming gradually thicker as proximity to the bladder increases. The mucosa of these organ consist of transitional epithelium and lamina propria of loose to dense connective tissue. Surrounding the lamina propria of these organs is sheath of smooth muscle. The transitional epithelium of the bladder in the undistended state is five or six in thickness.  However, when the bladder is full of urine, the epithelium is only three or four cell in thickness, and superficial cell become squamous. As result, the interior surface of the bladder increases. Picture Innervation of bladder Innervation of the Bladder Parasympathetic innervation, The motor neuron of the urinary bladder is mostly  parasympathetic. The pelvic splanchnic nerves, derived from the segments S2, S3, and S4, travel to parasympathetic ganglia in the bladder wall and to the smooth muscle of the internal urethral sphincter. Parasympathetic stimularion induces contraction of the smooth detrusor of the bladder wall and simultaneous relaxation of the internal urethral sphincter. Micturition result. Sympathetic innervation. The sympathetic fibers innervating the bladder are derived from segment T12, L1 and L2. These fiber travel through caudal portion of the sympathetic chain and the inferior splanchnic nerves of the inferior hypogastric plexus, to the bladder wall (tunica muscularis) and to the smooth muscle of internal urethral sphincter. Sensory innervation. Afferent fiber srcinate in nociceptor and proprioceptors of the bladder wall, which respond to stretch. As the bladder fills, there is a reflexive increase muscle tone in
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