History

BPH L2 (Courtesy By Kaisar Syed)-Suraiya Islam

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Course Name: Bangladesh Political History (BPH-101). Course instructor- Suraiya Islam. Independent University Bangladesh. Chittagong Campus. Courtesy By: Kaisar Syed. Student of Electrical & Telecommunication Engineering (ETE). Independent University Bangladesh. Email: kaisarbd@hotmail.com. Cell: +8801717-090267. Copyright ©2008-2009. All Rights Reserved.
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  L-2Bangladesh Political History Ethnographical and Anthropological Characteristics and the impact of Aryan culture and political elements: The discovery of Indian past and its revelation to Europeans in the eighteenthcentury, was mainly the work of these ‘Missionary Jesuits’ in India, and Europeansemployed by the east India Trading company, such as sir William Jones and CharlesWilkins. The ‘Indian’ interest grew further more in the early nineteenth century whichmade considerable achievements in linguistics, ethnography and other fields of Ideology. Scholars in Europe expressed keen interest to study Indology as for examplea renowned scholar likes F. Max Muller.Political history and dynastic studies remained an important aspect of historical interprelation. It is essential to know why the people of India owner thecenturies have either accepted or rejected or modified these ideas? However, dynasticchronology has been treated largely as a framework. In the course of tracing theevolution of certain aspect of Indian life the economic structure, changing socialrelationships, the historical context of religious movements, the emergence and growthof languages etc. In recent years, the early history of India has been enriched by thetwo new techniques, “the systematic study of society in its various facets and theextensive use of contemporary evidence from Archaeology”. The study of society hasstimulated an interest in the terms of comparative analysis of many cultures. It shouldbe pointed out that the ethnic composition of the people involved in these variouscultures was not identical at all. Ethnological studies have revealed six main races in theIndian sub-continent. The earliest was apparently the Negrits and this was followed bythe proto-Australoid, Mongoloid, the Mediterranean and later these associated withAryan cultures. There is evidence of the proto-Australoid, the Mediterranean, Alpinesand Mongoloid in the skeletal remains at Harappan sites. Presumably the proto-Australoid was the basic element in the Indian population, and their speech was of Austric linguistic group, a specimen of which survives in the Munda speech of certainprimitive tripe’s. The Mediterranean race is generally associated with Dravidian culture.The concentration of the mongoloid people was in the north-eastern andsouthern fringes of the sub-continent, and their speech conforms to the Sino-Tibetangroup. The last to come were the people commonly known as the Aryans. Aryans is infact a linguistic term indicating a speech-group of Indo-European srcin, and is not anethnic term. It is wrong to refer to them as the Aryan-speaking peoples. Their ethnicidentity is not known on the context of the Indian evidence.Who were the Aryans? During the late eighteenth and early nineteenthcenturies another evidence provided historical evidence which were contrary to thetraditional stay, European scholar of Sanskrit soon realized that ‘Sanskrit’ was related in Courtesy By: Kaisar Syed 1  L-2Bangladesh Political History structure and possibly in sound. “To Greek and Latin” and that is relationship is quiteclose. The relation of this theory led to the theory of a common language that wassrcinally spoken by the “Indo-European people”, who were the “ancestors “of the“Aryan speaking tripe’s”.These Indo-Europeans tribes spread far and wide far livelihood to Greece,Asia miner, to Iran, and to India, by which time they were known as ‘Aryans’. Thusaccording to Vedic literature the Aryans came to India in the “second Millennium B.C.”But by 1921-22 it was revealed by archaeological evidences that the Aryan civilizationwere those “Indus valley civilization with its urban centre’s at Mohenjo-Daro andHarappa from circa. 3000 B.C. to 1500 B.C. This civilization, however, declined andcompletely disintegrated by the end of the 1500 B.C. They migrated into northern Indiathrough the passes in the Hindokush Mountains. These Aryans were mostly cattle-breeding so they were looking for pasture lands in this area. Actually they semi-nomadicpastoralists living mostly mainly on the produce of cattle rearing had been their mainoccupation.The emerging political organization of the Aryans can be traced in the Tribal‘Sabha’ and Samiti. The Sabha contained the council of the Tribale elders and so it wasmore exclusive while the samity was a general assembly of the entire tribe. King wasprimarily a military leader who could protect his bribe with his tribe with the power of aking and a very rudimentary administrative system was introduced. These were the kinga pivot. The Tribal kingdom “Rashtra” contained tribes, tribal units ‘vish’ with the eldestmale member as its head, “kulapa” and so on. When the Aryans first came to India theywere divided into “Three social class” the ‘warriors’ or ‘aristocracy’ the ‘priests’ and ‘thecommon people’. There were no such castes or classes at that time, also ‘professions’were not ‘hereditary’. These three divisions in the society merely helped to functions thesocial and economic organization smoothly. In order to keeps the Aryan identity thedistinction being largely made on colour of the skin, since the Dasus were being thedarker and of an alien culture. The colour element of caste was emphasized throughoutthis period. Eventually there came the division between Aryans and non-Aryans. Thephysical birth and the second was the “initiation” into the caste system, consisting of “kshtriya” in the warriors and aristocracy. The Aryans were the “Twice barn caste”. Thusthe Brahmans as priests, and the “vaisyas” as cultivators; the south caste, the sudraswere the Dasas and those of mixed Aryans-Dasas srcin see overleaf for conclusionwhatever the historical reconstruction   these past centuries may have been full of uncertainties that could have been cleared by the further evidences of archaeology. Butit is in the ‘social institutions’ and religions that “Vadie culture” made its most significantcontributions in the institutions Indian life, particularly to the Hindus the Aryanscontributed a great deal in the ‘Sanskrit’ languages, the idea of caste society and of religions sacrifices, the philosophy of Upanishad but played a physical part in the Courtesy By: Kaisar Syed 2  L-2Bangladesh Political History clearing of land for large-scale agriculture what was indeed more significant was the factthat these contributions helped developed further ideas and institutions, either throughtheir implanting or by arousing opposition to them. In fact, Sanskrit became thelanguage of the educated upper castes which produced a unifying factor throughout thesub-continent for many centuries.The caste system has survived in India for two thousand years despite manyefforts to break it up or to demolish it, but it had played its role in the determining aspolitical institution was considerable. The development of India and Bengalhad emerged over the centuries caught in the cent hits between the pre-Aryans and“Aryan culture” which they brought with them did modify and change the pattern to acertain extent on the existing Bengal society of the divergent farces which affected thecourse of Indian history at large. Courtesy By: Kaisar Syed 3
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