BPH-L5 (Courtesy By Kaisar Syed)-Suraiya Islam

Course Name: Bangladesh Political History (BPH-101). Course instructor- Suraiya Islam.(Lecturer) Independent University Bangladesh. Chittagong Campus. Courtesy By: Kaisar Syed. Student of Electrical & Telecommunication Engineering (ETE). Independent University Bangladesh. Email: kaisarbd@hotmail.com. Cell: +8801717-090267. Copyright ©2008-2009. All Rights Reserved.
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  L-5 Bangladesh Political History Courtesy by: Kaisar Syed 1 The economic, social and political aspects in Ancient Bengal. The physical feature of Bengal is known as a plain formed by the alluvial deposits of theganges, Brahmaputra, Meghna and their tributaries. Its area is about 80,000 squaremiles. On the north of Bengal lies the plateau of shilling and tarai region of napal. TheBay of Bengal is one its southern side. On its eastern side area, there lay the Tripura,Garo and Lushai hills while on its west live the highland of Rajmahal and the ChotaNagpur hills.However, the region of Bay of Bengal is known as Vanga during the Medireval period.In ancient times Bengal was divided into some ‘Janapada’s’ such as pundravardhana,vanga, Vangala, Samatata Radha and Ganda. These ‘ganapada’s’ were named after Tribes who were the srcinal settlers of these regions. The entire North Bengal wasknown as Pundravardhana. The centre of this ganapadas was comprised of some partsof east and south Bengal. The Vangala ganapada was south Bengal and samatata wasknown as East Bengal in geographical term. Where as the geographical area of Suhma,Radha in west Bengal. However the social and cultural aspects of ancient Bengal werevery much influenced by the Brahmanical religion of the Aryans, who had alreadysettled in northern India by C1500 B.C. As their expansion in expansion towards theeast was rather slow and the non-Aryans Austric and Dravedians group of peoples whowere already living in Bengal were looked down upon by the Aryans as asuras,mlecchas, dasyas and sinners. Well before the establishment of the Aryans rule ineastern India the Tribes who lived in Bengal at that time referred to in the contemporaryAryan literature as pendra, Suhma, Vanga, Radha, Sahara, Pulinda etc. These tribesfollowed restriction on interdining and intermarriages between different Tribes. Their language was also very different from that of the Aryans. However, gradually the Aryansexpanded their presence towards the each recording to the great epics and Buddhitsand Jain literatures. But eventually the more advanced system of production, weapons,war strategy, language and culture of the Aryans won ever the non- Aryans tribes of Bengal. Even then many non- Aryans ancient culture and social norms remained and asynthesis of non- Aryans and Aryan cultural elements and social customs took place.Why the society and tribes of rule become a monarchy. The injunction and restrictionsof intermarriages and interdinning between tribes persisted. Though agriculture wastheir main livelihood, town life was not unknown to them, as evidenced by the ruins of Pandu Rajar Dhibi situated in the Burdwan district of west Bengal. The settlement herein Pandu Rajar Dhibi showed the down or the beginning of the historical period inBengal. By 700-600 B.C. they were using at first copper and brome also stone to makeweapons etc, which the period belonged to the third stratum of the “Pandu Rajar Dhibiculture”.  L-5 Bangladesh Political History Courtesy by: Kaisar Syed 2 However, from 800 B.C. the Aryans started to arrive into Bengal as adventures,preachers and conquerors. Buddhism and gainism were preached in Bengal sometimeduring 600 B.C. According to Buddhist legend, the Buddha spent six months inPundranagar looked similar with the ruins of Mahasthangard in the Bogura district of Bangladesh. However, the Bengali society was divided into various castes in ancientperiod. It was also divided into various economic classes; the developments and statuswere determined by the production and distribution of wealth from a very ancient time.Indian religious thinking recognized the right of everyone to subsistence. In the sixthand seventh centuries, with the established of the agricultural-based feudal system andthe extension of the Brahmanical religion and its observances and culture, there wereonly two classes which had very close relationship with the governments “Themultipartite class of landholders and the main religious and scholarly class, theBrahmans so the strength and support of the government was the feudal system whichin tern, sustained by the landholding class.Hence, from the eight century, along with the decline in crofts, trade and commerce, theinterest of the government and those of the landholding class become even moreclosely allied. Despite the Pola-chandra dynasties being Buddhits, the prestigious Senaand Varma regimes were enhanced and the mutual self-interest between the landedgentry and the Brahmans were very close. There was not much difference with theBuddhist Chandra dynesty. Except the social attitudes of the Buddhist regimes wereliberal and far-reaching. Since the Senas, the Varman regimes bestowed their fullsupport on Brahmanism too and they looked the liberal and all embracing .
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