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BRAIN BASED STRATEGIES FOR LEARNING

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Neuroscience research is scientifically confirming many learning theories. The Brain-based” learning activities engage both hemispheres of the brain simultaneously. The human beings learn through their brain research. Today’s educational system often
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  BRAIN BASED STRATEGIES FOR LEARNING R.UDHAYA MOHAN BABU Dr G.KALAIYARASAN Ph.D. Research Scholar (Full-Time) Professor & Head (i/c) Department of Education & Department of Education Alagappa University Alagappa University Karaikudi Karaikudi  Abstract     Neuroscience research is scientifically confirming many learning theories. The Brain- based” learning activities engage both hemispheres of the brain simultaneously.  The human beings learn through their brain research. Today’s educational system often expects students to retrieve content that has been removed from context. Knowledge of how the brain learns  provides a basis for achieving a better understanding of how adults learn. Neuroscientific research has found evidence of the brain’s plasticity and ability to respond throughout life, and it has shown that adults continue to learn throughout the lifespan. **************************** Introduction  Neuroscience research is scientifically confirming many learning theories. That research only first introduced the educational reform efforts. The brain’s activity is controlled by genetics, development, experience, culture, environment, and emotions, and it is constantly under stimulation to change (Gardner, 1999). Brain Based strategies for Learning is based on the structure and function of the brain. The brain is not forbidden from fulfilling its normal  processes, therefore the learning will occur. People often say that everyone can learn. The reality is that everyone does learn. Brain-Based learning is the purposeful engagement of strategy that apply to how our brain works in the context of education. Brain-based learning has been called a combination of brain science and common sense. “Brain -  based” learning activities engage both hemispheres of the brain simultaneously, resulting in stronger, more meaningful learning experiences and permanent brain connections.  Principles of Brain Based strategies for Learning Many of the instruction methods and tips that are “brain -  based”, means  that they are  based on the brain’s needs as discovered through brain research.  The human beings learn through their brain research. They call following the Twelve Principles are Brain-Based Learning. 1. Uniqueness  –   Every single brain is totally unique and becomes more unique as we age. 2. A threatening environment or stress can alter and impair learning and even kill brain cells. 3. Emotions are critical to learning  –   They drive our attention, health, learning, meaning, and memory. 4. Information is stored and retrieved through multiple memory and neural pathways that are continually being formed. 5. All learning is mind,body  –   Movement, foods, attention cycles, drugs, and chemicals all have powerful modulating effects on learning. 6. The brain is a complex and adaptive system  –   Effective change involves the entire complex system. 7. Patterns and programs drive our understanding  –   Intelligence is the ability to elicit and to construct useful patterns. 8. The brain is meaning-driven  –   Meaning is more important to the brain than information. 9. Learning is often rich and non-conscious  –   We process both parts and wholes simultaneously and are affected a great deal by peripheral influences. 10. The brain develops better in concert with other brains  –   Intelligence is valued in the context of the society in which we live. 11. The brain develops with various stages of readiness.  12. Enrichment  –   The brain can grow new connections at any age. Complex, challenging experiences with feedback are best. Cognitive skills develop better with music and motor skills. Memory, Understanding, Thinking, and Metacognition Memory is due to complex, multipath neuronal growth. The brain is a multimodal  processor that assembles patterns, makes meaning, sort’s  daily life and experiences, and then  processes this information. In order for information to get to the hippocampus of the midbrain, which is where long-term memory is believed to be stored, the learner needs to use the information actively to strengthen the new neural circuit. Memories are distributed throughout the cortex and are usually embedded in context. Today’s educational syste m often expects students to retrieve content that has been removed from context. Strategies for Learning   1.   Make Content Relevant To Students  When stress in the classroom is getting high, it is often because a lesson is overly abstract or seems irrelevant to students. Teachers can reduce this type of stress by making the lesson more personally interesting and motivating. 2. Give Their Brain A Break   Just like adults, students can reduce stress by enjoying hobbies, time with friends, exercise, or music. Even though schools are shortening recess, physical education, art, drama, and even lunchtime to add more time for core subjects, teachers can give students a three-minute vacation to reduce stress. Any pleasurable activity used as a brief break can give the amygdala a chance to cool down and the neurotransmitters time to rebuild. 3. Create Positive Associations  Eliminating all stress from students’  lives is impossible. However, even if previous classroom experiences have led to associations that link certain activities, such as memorizing multiplication tables, to a stress response from the amygdala, students can benefit from revisiting the activity without something negative happening. By avoiding stressful practices like calling on students who have not raised their hands, teachers can dampen the stress association. Students  can develop positive associations with multiplication by practicing it with a positively reinforcing strategy. 4. Help Students to Learn To Prioritize Information  It is helpful for teachers to guide students in learning how to prioritize information  —  how to decide what facts are worthy of writing down and reviewing when studying. When teachers demonstrate and explain how they determine which facts are important, students see how to make those judgments for themselves as they read texts and study. Helping students learn how to  prioritize and therefore reduce the amount of information they need to deal with is a valuable stress-buster. 5. Allow Independent Discovery Learning  The students are more likely to remember and understand what they learn if they find it compelling or have a part in figuring it out for themselves. In addition, when students have some choices in the way they will study or report on something, their motivation will increase and stress will diminish. They will be more accepting of their errors, motivated to try again, and less self-conscious about asking questions. 6. Create a Safe Haven  Classrooms can be the safe heaven where academic practices and classroom strategies  provide students with emotional comfort and pleasure as well as knowledge. When teachers use strategies to reduce stress and build a positive emotional environment, students gain emotional resilience and learn more efficiently and at higher levels of cognition. Unsurprisingly, brain-imaging studies support this relationship. Conclusion Knowledge of how the brain learns provides a basis for achieving a better understanding.  Neuroscientific research has found evidence of the brain’s plasticity and ability to respond throughout life, and it has shown that adults continue to learn throughout the lifespan. Emotion and sensory experiences are integral to learning. Meaning making, morals, consciousness, and associations with others are critical to adult learning.  References: 1. Caine, G.; Nummela-Caine, R. (1994). Making Connections: Teaching and the Human Brain. Menlo Park, CA.: Addison-Wesley Longman, Incorporated. ISBN: 978-0201490886 2. Fitzgerald, R. J. (2005). Smart Teaching: Using Brain Research and Data to Continuously Improve Learning. Milwaukee, WI: ASQ Quality Press. ISBN: 978-0-87389-661-0 3. Jensen, E.P. (2008) Brain-Based Learning: The New Paradigm of Teaching, 2nd Edition. San Diego, CA: Corwin Press. ISBN: 9781412962568 4. Jensen, E. (2000) Brain-Based Learning. San Diego: Brain Store Incorporated. ISBN: 1890460052. 5. Sousa, D. (1998-2011) How the Brain Learns (with learning manual). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press Incorporated. 6. www.elementarymatters.com/.../ten-brain-based-learning-strategies.html 7. www.funderstanding.com 8. www.ascd.org/professional.../judy-willis-brain-and-learning-webinars 9. https://pinterest.com/plunkelm/brain-based-learning-strategies/
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