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Capt. Dela Cuesta.ppt

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a. Piloting - is the art of conducting a vessel in channels, harbors, and along coasts, where landmarks and aids to navigation are available for fixing position. THE TWO BRANCHES OF NAVIGATION b. Dead Reckoning - is the method by which the position of a ship is determined by the amount of progress along a direction of travel from the latest known position. c. Electronic Navigation – involves the use of electronic devices like radar, lor
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  a. Piloting  - is the art of conducting a vessel in channels, harbors, and along coasts, where landmarks and aids to navigation are available for fixing position. THE TWO BRANCHES OF NAVIGATION b. Dead Reckoning  - is the method by which the position of a ship is determined by the amount of progress along a direction of travel from the latest known position. c. Electronic Navigation –  involves the use of electronic devices like radar, loran and radio direction finder to navigate the ship. 1. Terrestial Navigation  –  which is the method of Navigation in which the position is determined through terrestrial objects which comprises; 2. Celestial Navigation  –  is the method by which the position of a ship is determined by observations of celestial bodies, such as the sun, moon, planets and stars. 1  Navigation Is the process of directing the movement of a ship from one place to another by taking the shortest, safest and the most convenient route.   Navigation is an art and science in conducting a ship safely to its destination.   ART - is the interpretation of information at hand, while navigating the ship requires skills, experience and judgment to determine the accuracy of the ship course and position. SCIENCE - Includes the computation of navigational solutions and development of methods, devices, instruments, tables, almanac and other aids to navigation. 2  The Earth The shape of the earth is that of an oblate spheroid, nearly spherical body slightly flattened at the poles at a result of its gravitational force as it revolves around the sun.   THE EARTH AND THE TERRESTIAL COORDINATES The equatorial axis measures 7,926 statute miles or 6,880.21 nautical miles a little bit longer that the polar axis which measures 7,899 statute miles or 6,586.77 nautical miles.   For practical purposes of navigation the earth is assured to be a perfect sphere.   3  PROOFS THAT THE EARTH IS ROUND 1. It is circumnavigable. Many people have traveled continuously Eastward or Westward and arrived back at their starting point. 2. The shadow of the earth on the moon during lunar eclipse always appears round. 3. A ship putting out to sea disappears gradually. 4. The higher we rise above the surface of the earth, the further we can see distant object. 5. The visible horizon is curve as shown by photographs taken from great altitude. 6. As we traveled North or South, the stars ahead of us climb higher and the sky and those behind lower. The change in angular distance above the horizon is just equal to our change in latitude. 7. Photographs taken by satellites show the earth as spherical. 4
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