Chapter 4 & 5

This slide corresponds with Wrench, McCroskey, and Richmond's (2008) Human Communication in Everyday Life: Explanations and Applications published by Allyn and Bacon.
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  • 1. Chapter Four: Messages and Meanings <ul><li>This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><li>Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; </li></ul><ul><li>Any rental, lease, or lending of this program. </li></ul>
  • 2. Distinctions Between Verbal and Nonverbal Messages <ul><li>Verbal Messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic Codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to Clarify </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal Messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implicit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imprecise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonlinguistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective Component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify or replace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accidental and Expressive Communication </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Albert Mehrabian Elements In Conveying a Message
  • 4. Functions of Nonverbal Messages
  • 5. Accenting Nonverbal messages that highlight, stress, or enhance the verbal message. Example: Raising your voice to make a dramatic point.
  • 6. Complementing Nonverbal function of adding to, clarifying, enriching, emphasizing, or supplementing a verbal message. Example: Telling someone you love them while holding them.
  • 7. Contradicting Use of nonverbal messages that are opposite to verbal messages. Example: Saying you like someone while rolling your eyes.
  • 8. Repeating Nonverbal messages that restate, reinforce, duplicate, or reiterate the verbal message. Example: Saying “stop” while holding your hand out in a stop indicator.
  • 9. Regulating Nonverbal messages that allow us to control, monitor, coordinate, and manage verbal communication. Example: Looking at your watch repeatedly as an indication that a conversation needs to end.
  • 10. Substituting Nonverbal message that can be used instead of a verbal message. Example: Instead of saying hello, you just wave at someone.
  • 11. Kinesics The study of the communicative aspects of gestures and bodily movements.
  • 12. Emblems Gestures and movements that have a direct verbal translation. Emblems are known by most or all of a group, class, culture, or subculture. They can be used to stimulate specific meanings in the minds of others in place of verbal communication.
  • 13. Illustrators Gestures and movements that are closely linked with spoken language and help to illustrate what is being said.
  • 14. Regulators Gestures and movements that, along with eye and vocal cues, maintain and regulate the back‑and‑forth interaction between speakers and listeners during spoken dialogue.
  • 15. Affect Displays Cues that involve primarily facial expressions but also include a persons posture, gait, limb movements, and other behaviors that provide information about her or his emotional state or mood.
  • 16. Adaptors Unintentional behaviors that are usually responses to boredom or stress or responses closely linked with negative feelings toward ourselves or others.
  • 17. Courtship Readiness Cues Nonverbal behaviors that are exhibited in the courtship situation (3 types).
  • 18. Positional Cues How we arrange our bodies either to adapt to or to reject others. Open vs. Closed body orientation
  • 19. Preening Behavior Such actions as stroking the hair, fixing the collar on a dress or shirt, touching up one's makeup, and adjusting clothing such as socks and ties.
  • 20. Actions of appeal or invitation Flirtatious glances, batting one's eyelashes, seductive body movements, flexing the muscles, and thrusting out the chest.
  • 21. Types of Nonverbal Messages: Physical Appearance and Attractiveness <ul><li>Physical attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Body Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endomorphic body type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesomorphic body type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ectomorphic body type </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Types of Nonverbal Messages: Dress and Artifacts <ul><li>Three functions of clothing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfort and protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modesty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural display </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artifacts </li></ul>
  • 24. Types of Nonverbal Messages: Facial Expressions and Eye Behavior <ul><li>Facial Expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deintensify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutralize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mask </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oculesics (eye) </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control flow of interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Express feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate attention and interest </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. Universal Facial Expressions <ul><li>S adness </li></ul><ul><li>A nger </li></ul><ul><li>D isgust </li></ul><ul><li>F ear </li></ul><ul><li>I nterest </li></ul><ul><li>S urprise </li></ul><ul><li>H appiness </li></ul>
  • 26. Types of Nonverbal Messages: Use of the Voice (Paralanguage) <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates an image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates emotional status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows socioeconomic level and status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates background and culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate conversation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show interest </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. Types of Nonverbal Messages: Use of the Voice (Paralanguage) <ul><li>Vocal Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Range </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Articulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rhythm control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lip control </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 28. <ul><ul><li>Vocalizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocal characterizers (laughing/crying) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocal qualifiers (pitch height/loudness or softness) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocal segregates (uhs, umms, er) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 29. Types of Nonverbal Messages: Territory and Personal Space <ul><li>Proxemics: How we use space. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Space: Personal bubble. </li></ul><ul><li>Territoriality: Claimed space. </li></ul>
  • 30. Expanding on Personal Space <ul><li>Hall’s Categories of Personal Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimate (0-18 inches) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal (18” to 4 feet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social (4 to 8 feet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public (8+ feet) </li></ul></ul>
  • 31. Handling Space Violations <ul><li>First, you can withdraw from the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Second, you can learn to avoid situations in which you know you are likely to have your space invaded. </li></ul><ul><li>Third, you can build bound­aries or insulate yourself from others invading your personal space. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, you can fight or defend your space. </li></ul>
  • 32. Five Functions of Haptics (touch)
  • 33. Functional-Professional Touch Impersonal, businesslike touch used to accomplish or perform some task or service.
  • 34. Social-Polite Touch Affirms or acknowledges the other person’s identity. This type of touch follows strict cultural codes.
  • 35. Friendship-Warmth Touch Lets another person know that we care for, value, and have an interest in her or him.
  • 36. Love-Intimacy Touch Touch that expresses emotional and affective attachment and caring. It is usually a hug, caress, or stroke.
  • 37. Sexual Arousal Touch Touch that can be a part of love‑intimacy, but it can also be distinct. Sexual‑arousal touch can include the use of a person as an object of attraction or lust, or even monetary gain.
  • 38. 12 Steps to Sexual Intimacy <ul><li>Eye to Body </li></ul><ul><li>Eye to Eye </li></ul><ul><li>Voice to Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Hand to Hand </li></ul><ul><li>Arm to Shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>Arm to Waist </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth to Mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Hand to Head </li></ul><ul><li>Hand to Body </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth to Breast </li></ul><ul><li>Hand to Genitals </li></ul><ul><li>Genitals to Genitals </li></ul>
  • 39. Types of Nonverbal Messages: Environmental Factors <ul><li>Formality </li></ul><ul><li>Warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity </li></ul><ul><li>Constraint </li></ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul>
  • 40. Types of Nonverbal Messages: Smell (Olfactics) <ul><li>Our sense of smell affects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our moods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes about others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication orientation toward others </li></ul></ul>
  • 41. Chronemics The Study of Time
  • 42. Cultural Time Orientations <ul><li>Monochronic: M‑time emphasizes the scheduling of activities one at a time, the segmentation of work, and the promptness of work. </li></ul><ul><li>Polychronic: P‑time emphasizes the involvement of many people and is less rigid about the ordering of events and scheduling. People functioning on P‑time believe in handling several transactions at once. </li></ul>
  • 43. Types of Time
  • 44. Technical Time Refers to precise, scientific measurements of time. It has the least correlation with interpersonal communication. The Directorate of Time
  • 45. Formal Time The way in which a culture keeps track of time. Myan Calendar Sun Dial Clock
  • 46. Informal Time The most difficult cultural time orientation to understand and learn; it varies greatly from culture to culture. It is the casual time employed by a culture. It is often unconscious and determined by the situation or context in which it is used.
  • 47. Psychological Time <ul><li>Past </li></ul><ul><li>Present </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul>
  • 48. Biological Time <ul><li>How people feel and react physically to time, and the effects of time on physical well‑being. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sparrows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sprowls </li></ul></ul>
  • 49. Chapter Five: Messages and Relationships <ul><li>This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><li>Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; </li></ul><ul><li>Any rental, lease, or lending of this program. </li></ul>
  • 50. Immediacy The degree of perceived physical or psychologi­cal distance between people in a relationship.
  • 51. Verbal Immediacy <ul><li>Messages that suggest openness to the other, friendship for the other, or empathy with the other. </li></ul><ul><li>“ We & Us” Instead of “I & You” </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I see what you mean,&quot; &quot;Tell me more,&quot; &quot;that is a good point,&quot; and &quot;I think so too&quot; will create increased immediacy. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Oh, shut up,&quot; &quot;That is stupid,&quot; &quot;I thought of that years ago,&quot; &quot;Frankly, I don't care what you think.&quot; will decrease immediacy </li></ul>
  • 52. Nonverbal Immediacy <ul><li>Gestures and Body Movements </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Appearance and Attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Dress and Artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>Facial Expressions and Eye Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Small </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul>
  • 53. Outcomes of Immediacy <ul><li>Immediacy will likely: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase communication between participants and interactants. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase attentiveness by the interactants. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the likelihood that listening will improve between the interactants. </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to liking between the interactants. </li></ul>
  • 54. Disadvantages to Immediacy <ul><li>In some cases, immediacy may: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce privacy between individuals because of increased pressure to communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the anxiety of the touch-avoidant or communication-apprehensive individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Make people feel like they have lost control of the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Be Misinterpreted as invitations to intimacy. </li></ul>
  • 55. Intimacy The perceived depth of a relationship between people.
  • 56. Self-Disclosure Messages that reveal information that is private and personal to another.
  • 57. Social Penetration Theory Breadth Depth As relationships become more intimate, self disclosure goes from breadth to depth.
  • 58. Sexual Relations <ul><li>Casual Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Instant Intimacy </li></ul>
  • 59. Status <ul><li>A person's position in some hierarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>Status Differential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye Contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinesics Behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocal Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Space and Touch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dress </li></ul></ul>
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