Charterhouse School Feynman Lecture - Our Clean Energy Future: Science on the Frontier of the Cleantech Revolution

1. Our Clean Energy Future: Science on the Frontier of the Cleantech Revolution Gavin D. J. Harper Feynman Talk for Charterhouse School 17/03/2016 2. Atmospheric Carbon…
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  • 1. Our Clean Energy Future: Science on the Frontier of the Cleantech Revolution Gavin D. J. Harper Feynman Talk for Charterhouse School 17/03/2016
  • 2. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Data Direct Measurements Monthly measurements (Average seasonal cycle removed) Redrawn from: Data Source: NOAA CarbonDioxide(partspermillion) 405 400 395 390 385 380 375 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015
  • 3. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Data Indirect Measurements Indirect Measurements of Carbon Dioxide Redrawn from: Data Source: NOAA CarbonDioxide(partspermillion) Thousands of years before today (0= 1950) Highest Historical CO2 Level Current 1950 380 340 300 260 220 180 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0
  • 4. Addressing CO2 Emissions • Global ambition to limit temperature rise to 2°C above pre-industrial levels. BUT • So far, we have seen a 1°C temperature rise. • We need to keep CO2 levels below 450ppm. • So far, CO2 levels are between 350ppm – 400ppm and rising at a rate of 2ppm annnually.
  • 5. Decarbonisation Scenarios Post COP21 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Carbonintensity(tCO2/$mGDP2014) Redrawn from PriceWaterhouseCoopers Low Carbon Economy Index 2015 To stay within the 2°C global carbon budget the decarbonisation rate needs to be 6.3% every year to 2100. Average G20 INDCs imply a decarbonisation rate of 3% per year. Global carbon intensity fell by an average of 1.3% per year from 2000 to 2014. At this rate the 2°C carbon budget will be spent by 2036. 1.3% - Business as Usual 3% - Paris Targets 6.3% - 2°C a year temperature rise
  • 6. Change In Energy Demand in Selected Regions 2014-2040 By 2040, demand in India closes in on the U.S. – even though per capita demand is still 40% be
  • 7. Oil Discoveries vs. Oil Production
  • 8. Peak Oil
  • 9. The Energy Trilemma Security of Supply SustainabilityAffordability
  • 10. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 US$equivalent($m) TOTAL NUCLEAR FISSION/FUSION TOTAL OTHER TECH./RESEARCH TOTAL POWER & STORAGE TECH. TOTAL RENEWABLE ENERGY TOTAL FOSSIL FUELS TOTAL CONSERVATION Source: Data reported to the IEA by IEA Member countries R&D Energy Trends A most depressing graph, signifying colossal political failure. But ‘Peak Oil’ might provoke action where climate change does not
  • 11. A selection of future energy technologies.
  • 12. FUEL CELLS
  • 13. Hydrogen & Fuel Cells : Brief Introduction First demonstrated by Welsh scientist Sir William Robert Grove in February 1839.
  • 14. Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre
  • 15. Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre
  • 16. Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre
  • 17. The University of Birmingham was the First UK campus to have it’s own Hydrogen filling station.
  • 18. Storing Hydrogen in Hydrides Hydrogen Fuel Cell Powered Canal Boat Hydrogen is Stored In Hydrides These cylinders are heavy, but replace the boat’s ballast.
  • 19. Tubular Fuel Cells at the University of Birmingham University of Birmingham is Building a 350W micro Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stack Which will silently power an Unmanned Autonomous Vehicle. Providing a high power density in a small compact package.
  • 21. Phosphorus Atom Undoped Silicon N-Type Silicon P-Type Silicon
  • 22. Dye Sensitised Solar Cells The modern version of a dye solar cell, also known as the Grätzel cell, was originally co- invented in 1988 by Brian O'Regan and Michael Grätzel at UC Berkeley
  • 23. Dye Sensitised Solar Cells • Simple to make using conventional roll-printing techniques • This could allow for “continuous” rather than “batch” production. • Semi-flexible and semi-transparent which offers a variety of uses not applicable to glass-based systems • Utilises many low cost materials. • HOWEVER, uses small amounts of platinum and ruthenium which are expensive and have proven very hard to eliminate from the process. • Challenges with dye stability / degradation mechanisms. • European Photovoltaic Roadmap suggests that these degradation mechanisms can be overcome and DSC’s will make a significant contribution to the solar generation mix by 2020
  • 24. Pythagoras Solar Windows Image from: Pythagoras Solar,
  • 25. Pythagoras Solar Windows Image from: Pythagoras Solar,
  • 26. Honeycomb Patterned Thin Film Devices • Honeycomb patterned thin film devices capture some sunlight from PV material deposited in a “honeycomb” pattern, but allow light to pass through the middle of the hexagons. • The material blends “Fullerenes” (carbon) and semiconductor materials. Images Brookhaven / Los Alamos National Laboratory
  • 27. Honeycomb Patterned Thin Film Devices • “The material stays transparent because the polymer chains pack densely only at the edges of the hexagons, while remaining loosely packed and spread very thin across the centers…The densely packed edges strongly absorb light and may also facilitate conducting electricity…while the centers do not absorb much light and are relatively transparent.” • “Combining these traits and achieving large-scale patterning could enable a wide range of practical applications” Lead scientist Mircea Cotlet, Brookhaven’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials
  • 29. Thermal Energy Storage • Thermal Energy Storage (TES) refers to the family of technologies that store excess energy in the form of heat and uses the stored heat either directly or indirectly through energy conversion processes when needed. • TES is based on heating a storage medium so the thermal energy in the system can be used at a later time. • Our research helps to provide a balance between the energy demand and supply, and utilise waste heat generated in various applications including energy production, conversion processes and in the process industry produced from energy generation or industrial processes.
  • 30. Highview Power Storage Pilot Plant At the University of Birmingham
  • 31. Thank you for your time!
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