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Crime in Gozo: A Spatio-temporal Analysis

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Crime in Gozo: A Spatio-temporal Analysis
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  THE GOZO OBSERVER (No.15) - December 2006  Editorial: Gozo at the Cross-roads p 2Piety and Patronage in Late Medieval Gozo p 3 Charles Dalli Two Late 16th Century Reports on Gozo’s Forticationsby Giovanni Rinaldini Anconitano p 5 Godwin Vella Climate Change and Small Islands p 11 Maryrose Vella Recreational Resources: Beaches, Yacht Marinas, and Eco-tourism p 17 Anton Micallef  Crime in Gozo: A Spatio-temporal Analysis p 19 Saviour Formosa   The Gozo Public Library and its Subsidiaries p 22 George Borg  The University of Malta Gozo Centre Library p 24 Miriam Muscat and Caroline Camilleri Rolls The Board of the University Gozo Centre p 26 Lino Briguglio Some Extra-curricular Activities at the University Gozo Centre p 27 Joseph Calleja   The Gozo Observer The Journal of the University of Malta, Gozo Centre is published two times a year. Editorial Board: Mr Joseph Calleja, Prof. Maurice N. Cauchi, Prof. LinoBriguglio. Editorial Ofce: University of Malta - Gozo Centre, Mġarr Road., Xewkija, VCT111, GozoTel: (356) 21564559; Fax: (356) 21564550;e-mail: ugc@um.edu.mt Contents Printing: Portelli Print - Nadur, Gozo Tel: (356) 21558232 © University of Malta Gozo Centre and individual contributors. 2006Te views expressed erein are not necessaril tose of  the Boardof the University of Malta Gozo Centre or of the University of Malta Te Gozo Observer  is distributed without charge, upon request,to interested readers. Front Cover Photo: Courtesy of ICS, Malta.  THE GOZO OBSERVER (No.15) - December 2006  Editorial: Gozo at the cross-roads Googling the word ‘Gozo’ reveals several million references. Looking a bit more in dept at te rst 80 entries one can see that the vast majority of these refer to holidays on the island, including renting farm houses and oter olida accommodation. Tus, troug te eyes of the internet at least, Gozo is predominantly seenas a place where one can go for a holiday, and hopefully enjo oneself luxuriating in sun and sea.   Wat does tis make of te native population? Are temerel providers for olida-makers? Is tere an life  beyond being the providers of hedonistic pursuits of the olida-makers? A persistent problem with a life that depends on a seasonaltourist industry, geared primarily for the summer months,is that a void inevitably develops for the rest of the year. It is abundantl clear tat activities of most kinds seem to peter out for most of the year, only to mushroom againwith the approach of the warm season. It is perhaps a foreign concept to most Gozitans that thereis life beyond the tourist industry. It is pleasing to seeseveral activities that have been organised by enterprising individuals and organisations to sex-up life in Gozo. Among these one could mention musical activities suchas the opera season, which, albeit based on pique between rival band societies as neverteless beneted te musicalscene in Gozo. Tere is also te outstanding series of  concerts organised by St George Basilica, a unique annual experience. Te greater te pit tat tese activities ave  become the reserve of the gliterati and the largely non- Gozo based population. Te majorit of Gozitans seem to ignore the temptation to enlarge their cultural vista andembrace these musical innovations. Another gaping void in the cultural life of Gozo is thenear-total absence of other intellectual activity that attractseven a minimal support from the Gozitan population. Onecould mention the occasional lecture, or the odd seminar as evidence that there is some element of intellectual activit. Oter experimental approaces ave included the reasonably popular ‘poetry on Gozo’ which seemsto attract a group of interested individuals. But wat about oter activities? Were are te book- shops where one can browse and hopefully purchase the latest offerings? Were are te meeting places were onecan talk about topics oter tan te cannel crossings,golf courses or elicopter services (or lack of tem)? Is anyone responsible for stimulating the grey matter of  te average Gozitan?   Te Universit of Malta Gozo Centre sould ideall  be hub of intellectual life in the island. It is true that in te relativel sort time tat it as existed, it as  provided opportunities for further studies for a number of students who would otherwise have missed outcompletely on a tertiary education. It has also organised seminars and lectures on various topics. Tere is alsote beginning of a researc activit. Tis activit asalread resulted in te rst post-graduate student achieving a Ph.D from the university. However, itis certainly possible to go beyond this and encourage furter development. Tere is no reason w Gozo could not become a centre for international meetings.More lecturers could be invited to give lectures tothe general public. While this requires an injection of funds which are hard to come by, it is none the lesscrucial in the development of one aspect of life whichis sadly not quite up to scratch. More important is the effort to convince the actual population that there is more to life than material gains,  bigger ouses, ats to rent and plasma televisions.Gozitans ave to be sown tat wile ard work is to  be recommended, it is not to be all and end all of human existence. Working for a better life is desirable, livingmerel for work is not te ideal. Man Gozitans seemto ave never learned about te ner aspects of life.Teir routine consists of work and television. Wile itis true tat more are now enjoing a weekend outing, a meal by the sea-side, very few can be induced to read a  book or attend te odd lecture. Suc abits do not justspring unbid witin a nation: te ave to be fostered and helped to develop. In this respect, the university of the third age has made considerable progress, althoughmore can be done to encourage the trend.  In te nal analsis, te question remains: wat sortof a nation do we ope to develop into? Ric, app and wise is the ideal. While Gozitans as a rule do not need an elp to appreciate te need for te rst of tese desiderata, and wile no recipe seems to work  to achieve the second, a little help with the last of these attributes might go a long way to ensuring that Gozo will not become a backwater, a sleep island for la-back olida makers, but will ensure tat it willkeep at te forefront and participate in te European way of life.  THE GOZO OBSERVER (No.15) - December 2006  Te substantial literature on popular piet in late medieval Christendom underscores the importance of social and economic factors among the considerable range of forces leading people to express teir  religious culture in particular forms of behavior. One well-known pattern wic emerges repeatedl in the late medieval documents relates to the practiceof ecclesiastical patronage by laymen in different communities. Tis practice is abundantl attestedamongst members of Gozitan societ in te fteentand earl sixteent centur, and fortunatel ma be studied through a unique collection of documents. The Registrum Fundationum In 1575, Mgr Pietro Dusina recorded in all fift churches and chapels on Gozo in his apostolic visit,of which thirty-four were located across the island’s countrside (Aquilina and Fiorini, 2001). As in Malta, several churches srcinated from private pious foundations, some of wic dated back to more tan a hundred years before Dusina’s visit. In 1545 Bisop Domenico Cubelles ordered te treasurer of the episcopal curia in Malta, Antonio Curmi, to form an ofcial register collecting copiesof all te deeds wic ad establised beneces,  giuspadronati , legacies, and all other foundations inGozo. What the bishop had in mind was evidently toensure the best administration of the church on thatisland. His order was duly carried out.Vicar General Joseph Manduca instructed all notaries to submit copies of te deeds. On 14 October 1545, te Gozitan notaries Lorenzo Apap, Andreotta Mannara,Florio Sanson, and Giovanni Antonio Sanson, presented the vicar general with their own deeds, aswell as the acts of the late notaries Pino Saliba, PietroMannara, Andrea Beniamin, Giacomo Zabbara, andGuglielmo Sanson. Te transcription and collation of te relevant extracts from those deeds into the  Registrum Fundationum was carefull accomplised, and te collection of excerptsfrom wills and codicilis dated from 1432 to 1545 was  preserved at the bishop’s curia until the present day (Busuttil and Fiorini, 2006).It was copied b Notar Domenico Portelli in 1633,and used b De Soldanis in 1746 in compiling is Piety and Patronage in Late Medieval Gozo ChARLES DALLI Map of Malta and Gozo published in Jean Quintin d’Autun,  Insulae Melitae Descriptio , Lon 1536  THE GOZO OBSERVER (No.15) - December 2006  Charles Dalli teaches Medieval History in the History Department,University of Malta, and is the author of   Malta. The Medieval  Millennium (2006) istor of Gozo. Te excerpts trow precious ligt on the religious culture and social history of a substantial number of families from later medieval Gozo. Te documents include members of the island’s upper socialclass, amongst whom the leading households styled asthe island’s nobility, but also minor landholders andcraftsmen. Interestingly, around a quarter of testators were Gozitan women from different walks of life. Income of Ecclesiastics Tere were several beneces wic were not includedin tis sixteent-centur collection, includingwell-known foundations like Sibilla de Aragona’s benece at Wied il-Lunzjata, and te benece at Ta’Għodlien, near Għammar. Additional documents ave been adduced wic sow ow te problem of tax distribution between Maltese and Gozitan ecclesiasticswas dealt with by Bishop Senatore de Mello, who is  best-known for te  Rollo of 1436 (Busuttil and Fiorini,2006, Introduction). It as been suggested tat, similar to te well-known  Rollo of Maltese clergymen andtheir incomes compiled by order of Bishop de Mello, anoter one sould ave existed listing Gozitan clerg and their properties. Bisop de Mello establised te Gozitan tax quota at two-elevenths of the total contribution, a formula which was conrmed, not witout considerable difculties, inte sixteent centur. Te perplexing issue of te titesand rst fruits of te Gozitan curc, wic is also brie discussed, remains unresolved. Information from the transcripts may be partly corroborated withthe details listed in early modern collections, such as te ‘Giuliana dei Beneci del Gozo’ compiled around1680, and kept at te Franciscan Provincial Arcives(OFM). Earl modern notarial acts migt also partlcompensate for te lack of Gozitan documentation. Medieval Family Names Te names in te documents read like a roll call of important individuals in late medieval Gozo. Te following Gozitan family names recur amongst the founders: Alagona, Albanisi, Amaira, Amoroso,Anastasi, Anfasino, Apap, Augusta, Axac, Bajjada, Ballistrera, Barba, Barberi, Beniamin, Bernardo,Bisconis, Bonnici, Briffa, Brunetta, Bugeja, Cabrera,Cadumi, Calimera, Canchur, Carbuni, Castelletti, Caxaro, Camire, Ciappara, Ciappisa, Cini, Dalli,Dato, Debbus, Episcopo, Falzon, Fantino, Farrugia, Federico, Finara, Gaduara, Gambin, Gamichi,Garraffa, Girardo, Gualtarono, Guarrerio, Gurab,Haber, Jurubutino, Kettut, Kinsi, Laurerio, Lucia,Mahnuc, Mannara, Manuele, Marino, Mejlaq,Merchic, Mintuf, Monpalao, Muhtara, Naso, Navarra, Nicolachio, Platamone, Pontremoli, Rapa, Raspullo,Regalu, Regio, Riera, Saliba, Sansone, Santoro, Seguna, Tabone, Tellerixi, Teobaldo, Teuma,Urdub, Vagnolo, Vetero, Xeiba, Xelluki, Zabbara.   Our knowledge of te island’s late medieval clergmen and churches depends heavily on these transcripts made in 1545. Te information wic ma be gleaned fromtem includes te names of more tan sixt canons of te Gozitan Curc from te period 1435 to 1551. A distinction was apparently drawn between the priestsof the church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin,called the  Ecclesia Maior Terre et Insule Gaudisii , whoenjoyed the status of canons and were styled as donnus ,and other Gozitan clergymen, who were referred to as presbter. Tere are also references in tese acts to the parish churches of St George, St James, and StMary Savina. A Most Important Legacy In 1551, te island was devastated and tousandsof Gozitans were carried awa into captivit. Te  Registrum Fundationum , containing extracts from te deeds of seven Gozitan notaries, constitutes the singlemost important local collection of primary sources onlate medieval Gozo to have survived that catastrophe.  References Aquilina, G. and Fiorini, S. (eds.) (2001)  Documentary Sources of Maltese History. Part IV Documents at the Vatican. No.1 Archivio SegretoVaticano Congregazione Vescovi e Regolari Malta: Visita Apostolicano.51 Mgr Petrus Dusina, 1575 , Malta, Malta University Press. Busuttil, Rev. J. and Fiorini, S. (eds.) (2006)  Documentary Sources of  Maltese History. Part V Documents in the Curia of the Archbishop of Malta. No.1 The Registrum Fundationum Beneciorum Insulae Gaudisii 1435-1545, Malta, Malta University Press. Other Related Literature Dalli, C. (2002)  Iz-Zmien Nofsani Malti, Malta, PIN. Dalli, C. (2006)  Malta. The Medieval Millennium, Malta, Midsea Books.Wettinger, G. (1975)  Il-Grajja Bikrija tal-Knisja Matrici t’Għawdex 1435-1551, Malta, Malta University Press. Wettinger, G. (1990) “Medieval Gozo”, in Cini, C. (ed.), Gozo: The Roots of an Island, Malta, Said International, 48-68. ....  THE GOZO OBSERVER (No.15) - December 2006  of te proposed fortications, and te projectedexpenses.  Fortifying Gozo Curiousl enoug, Rinaldini does not make an direct statements on the compelling need to fortif Gozo, but makes a number of references and comments that betray his strong positive conviction. Tese include te vital role of Gozoduring te Great Siege of 1565 (f. 255), effective control of the Gozo and the Malta channels respectivel (f. 257), te island’s importancefor livestock rearing (ff. 260v; 262v), and te monitoring of vessel movement between the Maltese Islands and Sicil (f. 264v). The Sites to be Fortied  Te four most appropriate sites for te constructionof a new fortied town are Ras it-Tafal (overlookingMġarr arbour), te Gran Castello, te Għajn Damma plateau (overlooking Marsalforn Ba), and Il-Pergla plateau, overlooking Ramla Ba (Figure 1).   Figure 1: Potential Sites - 1. Ras it-Tafal; 2. Gran Castello; 3. GħajnDamma; 4. Il-Pergla.  Ras it-Tafal  Ras it-Tafal, referred to as il sito del Mugiarro , is well located to prevent te enem from making Introduction Giovanni Rinaldini of Ancona was te rst militarengineer of note to ave seriousl examined te defence problems facing Gozo and to produce  plans for te island’s initial fortication (Samut-Tagliaferro, 1993: 47). he studied te art of fortication under Germanico Sovargnano (Spiteri,2003) and was working in Rome before comingover to Malta in Marc 1599. During is sta,Rinaldini carried out two eld surves of Gozo andautored two reports of signicant professional value with accompanying plans and designs.Unfortunately, these plans and designs have beenlost.Rinaldini’s reports are entitled ‘Discorso del Gozzo et sua forticazione’ and ‘Della forticazione del Gozzo – Secondo Discorso’ respectivel. Te are written in a fairly legible script and have a combined length of 30 folios and over 9,000 words. Tese reports are  preserved in the Archives of the Order of Malta at the  National Librar, Manuscript 6554 (te last section of te said manuscript [ff. 251 – 327] is entitled ‘Discorsisopra le Forticatione del Gozzo’).Evidentl, man scolars in te eld of militar history have consulted Rinaldini’s reports and published substantial sections in a number of authoritative publications, particularly Samut- Tagliaferro’s The Coastal Fortications of Gozo and Comino . Still, none of these publications offersa comprehensive resume of the Rinaldini’s reports,and this short write-up will, therefore, attempt togive a summary of all pertinent details.  Primo Discorso Rinaldini opens is rst report b listing te topics to be covered, namely whether Gozo is to be fortied or not, te sites to be fortied, te laout Two Late 16th Century Reports on Gozo’s Fortications by Giovanni RinaldiniAnconitano GODWIN VELLA 1234
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