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  Dear Student,  As I write this, the official U.S. unemployment rate hovers at 10 percent, and the real rateis15 percent or more. By the time you read this, the employment situation may haveimproved, and, we can hope it will be improved by the time you seek employment. Rightnow, however, your best course is to assume that when you graduate job prospects will belimited.Some students will get jobs, and you need to ensure that group includes you. Youneedto prepare yourself with every possible competitive advantage. This MIS course canbea key element in that preparation. Why? For reasons stated on page 4 of the text, datacommunications and data storage are essentially free. Those free resources enable theInternet, YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, etc., etc. Businesses today are experimenting,innovating, succeeding, and failing with projects that use these free resources to gaincompetitive advantage and achieve their goals and objectives. Business leaders know thatsuch projects are mandatory, and personnel with knowledge of MIS who can participate inthat innovation are key hires, even in this tight labor market.Suppose you are an accounting or a marketing or management major. One way youcan distinguish yourself from all of your competitors (students worldwide, by the way) isto learn to be an effective consumer of information technology and services and know how to harness the power of those free resources for your business. Actually, that lastsentence is wrong. No one knows  how to harness that power; it’s all up in the air, inexperimental mode. Instead, you need to learn MIS essentials and gain the confidenceto participate in the innovative experiments that will determine how best to use MISresources.MIS is not software; it’s not Microsoft Office Excel; it’s not the “computer class.” MIS isthe use of information technology and systems to facilitate business. Go to Amazon.comand click around. How do they do that? What’s driving that Web site? Is it a good one? Doesit facilitate Amazon.com’s goals? Could it be better? Who decides? How? Who plans the Web site features? Who approves the budget for the projects to create that Web site? How does your order integrate with Amazon.com’s order fulfillment business processes? Couldit be done more efficiently? Someone needs to answer these questions and that someonecould be you, as an essential part of your organization.But, I’m getting ahead of the story. For now, just consider the idea that this coursecould be key to your future employment and to an exciting and interesting career. Not asacomputer programmer, not as a Microsoft Excel guru, but as a manager and businessprofessional who knows how to harness this amazing technology to achieve success for your organization, and you. You can’t hit the ball if you don’t swing the bat. Get involved. Read the chapters sothatyou can answer the questions in the headings. Read the guides that provide, well,guidance. Jump into the Using MIS InClass exercises with your teammates. Think aboutthe 2021 projections and how they will change job opportunities. And don’t forget tohavefun!I wish you, as an emerging business professional, the very best success!Sincerely, David Kroenke  Seattle, Washington  ii Why This Fourth Edition, Now? Rapid change in the ways that organizations use MIS and in ways of teaching MISnecessitate, in my opinion, the need for an annual revision of this text. The delaysassociated with a 2-year revision cycle are too long, given the rapid state of change inorganizational use of MIS. Text materials that I develop in May of one year arepublished in January of the next year and are first used by students in September—aminimum 16-month delay. In its second year, by the time the students read the text,the materials are from 28 to 36 months old. Such a delay is unacceptable in today'srapidly changing business environment.Table 1lists notable changes between the third and fourth editions. As shown, 6 of the 12 chapters of the book have been substantially altered: Chapters 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 10.Major changes to Chapter 2concern updating collaboration software, including new discussions of Windows Live SkyDrive and SharePoint 2010, as well as updated discus-sions of Google Docs.MIS is a fast-changing, incredibly dynamic discipline. That characteristic is one of its major charms to those who love to learn and apply new technology in innovative ways. That characteristic does mean, however, that it is important for you to learn thelatest technology, systems, and trends. Why This Fourth Edition? ChapterChangeDiscussion or Feature 2NewWindows Live SkyDrive2NewMicrosoft SharePoint 20102UpdateGroove replaced by MicrosoftSharePoint Workspaces2UpdateGoogle Docs new document types4NewiPhone, iPad, iSomething, and PCmules4NewDesktop virtualization4UpdateHardware discussion and figures4UpdateCloud computing and virtualization6UpdateSimplified and consolidateddiscussion of Internet6UpdateWAN wireless6UpdateWeb server technology6NewRemote access systems (telesurgery, telelaw enforce-ment, etc.)7NewDiscussion of information silos7NewRole of enterprise systems ineliminating silo problems7NewERP system components7NewERP vendors7NewERP and SOA in future7UpdateReduced discussion of functionalapps Table 1Changes from Using MIS  ,Third Edition,to Using MIS  ,Fourth Edition ChapterChangeDiscussion or Feature 8NewTheory of social capital as appliedto social networking systems8NewEnterprise 2.08NewSocial CRM8UpdateBusiness use of Facebook, Twitter,and User-Generated Content (UGC)8/9NewTHL New Zealand case10NewProcess-orientation for SDLC10NewRelationship of business processesand information systems10NewBusiness processes and informa-tion systems:which is first?10NewBPM and SDLC integration10NewProcess improvement in systemsdevelopment10NewApplication of BPMN standardsymbols10UpdateSimplified discussion of SDLC10NewRole of business analyst1–12NewUsing MIS InClass7–12NewFox Lake Country Club caseApplicationExercisesNewNew Microsoft Access exercisesthat integrate Access withbusiness processesInternationalDimensionUpdateConsolidation of supply chain intointernational dimension  iii Chapter 1 Ethics: Ethics of Misdirected Information Use14Understanding Perspectives and Points of View20Passwords and Password Etiquette22 Chapter 2 Ethics:  Virtual Ethics?50Securing Collaboration56Egocentric Versus Empathetic Thinking58 Chapter 3 Ethics:  Yikes! Bikes76Limiting Access to Those Who Have Access84 Your Personal Competitive Advantage86 Chapter 4 Ethics: Churn and Burn102Keeping Up to Speed120Questioning Your Questions122 Chapter 5 Ethics: Nobody Said I Shouldn’t140No, Thanks, I’ll Use a Spreadsheet158Immanuel Kant, Data Modeler160 Chapter 6 Ethics: Personal Work at Work?186Thinking Exponentially Is Not Possible, but ...194Human Networks Matter More196Each chapter includes three unique guides that focus oncurrent issues in information systems. In each chapter,one of the guides focuses on an ethical issue in business.The other two guides focus on the application of thechapter’s contents to other business aspects. The contentof each guide is designed to stimulate thought, discus-sion, and active participation to help YOU develop yourproblem-solving skills and become a better businessprofessional. The Guides Chapter 7 Ethics: Dialing for Dollars214The Flavor-of-the-Month Club236ERP and the Standard, Standard Blueprint238 Chapter 8 Ethics: Hiding the Truth?262Blending the Personal and the Professional276Interorganizational Information Exchange278 Chapter 9 Ethics: The Ethics of Classification302Semantic Security316Data Mining in the Real World318 Chapter 10 Ethics: Estimation Ethics346Dealing with Uncertainty364The Real Estimation Process366 Chapter 11 Ethics: Using the Corporate Computer380Is Outsourcing Fool’s Gold?398 What If You Just Don’t Know?400 Chapter 12 Ethics: Security Privacy416Security Assurance, Hah!438The Final, Final Word440  Learning Aids for Students We have structured this book so you can maximize the benefit from the timeyou spend reading it.As shown in the following table, each chapter includesvarious learning aids to help you succeed in this course. ResourceDescriptionBenefitExample Guides Each chapter includes three guides that focus on current issues in information systems.One of the three in each chapter addresses ethics.Stimulate thought and discussion.Address ethics once per chapter.Help developyour problem-solving skills.Dialing for Dollars, p.214 Chapter-introductionBusiness Example Each chapter begins with a descriptionof a business situation that motivates theneed for the chapter’s contents.Two businesses are used:FlexTime, a workout studio, and Fox Lake Country Club.Understand the relevance of the chapter’s content by applying it to a business situation.Chapter 1, “Fired,”p.2;Chapter 8, “She saidWHAT?”p.246 Query-basedChapter Format Each chapter starts with a list of questions;each major heading is a question;the Active Review contains tasks for you to perform to demonstrateyou are able to answer the questions.Use the questions to manageyour time, guide your study, and review for exams.Chapter 2, starting on p.30 with “Q1 What Is Collaboration?” Using MIS InClass Each chapter of this text includes an exercise called “Using MIS InClass.”This feature contains exercises, projects, and questions for you and agroup of your fellow students to perform in class.Some of those exercises can be done in a single class period;othersspan several class sections with out-of-class activities in-between.Understand how the material in the chapter applies to everyday situations.Using MIS InClass 1Information Systems andOnline Dating p.12. 2021? Each chapter concludes with a discussion of how the concepts, technology, and systems described in that chapter might change by 2021.Learn to anticipate changes intechnology and recognize howthose changes may impact thefuture business environment.Chapter 5, DataAggregators, p.156;Chapter 7, SOA, p.231  Active Review Provides a set of activities for you toperform to demonstrate you are able to answer the primary questionsaddressed by the chapter.After reading the chapter, use the Active Review to check your comprehension.Use forclass and exam preparation.Chapter 2, Active Review,p.60 Using Your Knowledge These exercises ask you to take your new knowledge one step further andapply it to a practice problem.Tests your critical-thinking skills.Chapter 3, Questions 1–6, pp.89–90
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