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Deficiencies of Water Soluble Vitamins

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Deficiencies of water soluble vitamins Dr. Mehzabin Ahmed Deficiencies of Water-soluble Vitamins  This group comprises of Vitamins B complex and C. Vitamins B complex is made up of a number of vitamins, but the principle ones are listed below.      Thiamine Niacin Riboflavin Folic acid Thiamine It is available widely in a number of foods, except refined foods. It is phosphorylated into its active form- thiamine pyrophosphate, which functions to: 1) 2) 3) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Synthesize AT
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    Deficiencies of water solublevitamins Dr. Mehzabin Ahmed    Deficiencies of Water-solubleVitamins  This group comprises of Vitamins B complex and C.  Vitamins B complex is made up of a number of vitamins, but the principle ones are listed below.  Thiamine   Niacin  Riboflavin  Folic acid    Thiamine It is available widely in a number of foods, except refined foods. Itis phosphorylated into its active form- thiamine pyrophosphate,which functions to: 1) Synthesize ATP2) Maintains the neural membranes and the nerve conduction in the peripheral nerves.3) Acts as a coenzyme in metabolic pathway. Deficiency state may result from: 1) Deficient intake- diet comprising mainly of polished rice.2) Chronic alcoholism3) Chronic diarrheal diseases4) Persistent vomiting5) Extended intravenous glucose therapy.    Targets of the deficiency  1) Peripheral nerves- dry beriberi -  usually a symmetrical nonspecific polyneuropathy,  with myelin degeneration, starting usually in the legs.  The patient presents with toedrop, footdrop, and later wristdrop and a progressive sensory lossaccompanied by motor weakness.  2) Cardiovascular system- wet beriberi -   peripheral vasodilation and cardiac failure resulting in edema.  the heart may also undergo enlargement and dilation with the myocardium appearing pale andflabby.  Mural thrombi may also be seen.  3) Central nervous system-Wernicke- Korsakoff syndrome -  Wernicke encephalopathy presents as ophthalmoplegia, nystagmus, ataxia, mentalderangement.  Korsakoff psychosis presents as retrograde amnesia, inability to acquire new information andconfabulation.
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