[Doi 10.1109%2Fcsnt.2014.226] Sharma, Swati; Payal, Nitisha; Kaushik, Ankur; Goel, Nitin -- [IEEE 2014 International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies (CSNT) - Bhopal, India (2014.04.7-2014.04(1)

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  Blue Brain Technology: A Sub Way to Artificial Intelligence Swati Sharma Nitisha Payal Ankur Kaushik Nitin Goel Department of IT Department of CSE Department of IT Department of IT MIET, Meerut MIET, Meerut MIET, Meerut MIET, Meerut U.P.,India U.P.,India U.P.,India U.P.,India Abstract --  B lue Brain is the name of the world’s first virtual brain. A Virtual machine is one that can function as , a very appropriate application of an Artificial Intelligence human brain . Reverse engineering is a foremost concept of implementing the human brain and recreate it at the cellular level inside a complete simulation. The four major motivations behind the Blue Brain Technology are treatment of brain disfunctioning, scientific curiosity about consciousness and human mind, a bottom up approach towards building thinking machine and databases of all neuroscientific research results and related past stories. There are three main steps 2to build the virtual brain are data acquisition, simulation and visualization of results .The mission is undertaking the Blue Brain technology is to gather all existing knowledge of the brain ,raise the global research efficiency of reverse engineering and to build a complete theoretical framework   . Keywords : Blue Gene, Morphology, Neuroscientific,  Electrophysiology, Nanobots, Neurosciences, 3D, GB. I INTRODUCTION The Blue Brain Project is assumed to be the first one to explore about a true “Artificial Intelligence” via the process of reverse engineering and also the effort to reverse engineering a human brain. The vision  behind Virtual Brain will help shed some light on some aspects of human recognition. The Blue Brain Project aims to build a full computer model of a functioning brain to simulate drug treatments or any other brain related problems. Blue gene supercomputer constructed by IBM was a machine first used by Blue Brain Project and then a term Blue Brain was introduced. It can be implemented by using supercomputer, the fastest type but quite expensive and are assist for special tasks which require abundant amount of mathematical computations, like weather forecasting employs a supercomputer. The back pane of Blue Brain is Artificial Intelligence, a technology which builds intelligent machines and imparts intelligent agents. Knowledge, learning, reasoning, planning, communication and perception are the main goals of its research. Computational intelligence, statistical methods and traditional symbolic AI are its main effective approaches Fig 1 : Supercomputer II SCOPE Intelligence is a boon that is created in born. One who have this quality they assume themselves to think to the level where others can’t reach. Intelligence is needed everywhere and in every field. Era, in which we are in, also needs intelligent brain for Human Society’s sake. Intelligence is limited to human’s body and life after death, that intelligent  brain stops working. Virtual brain is therefore a key solution to it. With the help of the virtual brain, brain and intelligence remains alive even after the death of a  person. Humans want to live in a computer as a program so that we can save ourselves from remembering a huge amount of data and facts. The introduction to microscope signifies a broader advancement in technology. Electron microscope provides a limited depth level for a brain cells studies and nano tech microscope outputs samples of brain tissue in mere few hours. In depth, simulation of a small area of a brain construct molecule by molecule has been created and has re-constructed various results from real brains. 2014 Fourth International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies 978-1-4799-3070-8/14 $31.00 © 2014 IEEEDOI 10.1109/CSNT.2014.2261106   2014 Fourth International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies 978-1-4799-3070-8/14 $31.00 © 2014 IEEEDOI 10.1109/CSNT.2014.2261106  III MOTIVATIONThe Blue Brain Project works on four major motivations:  Treatments of Brain disfunctioning.  Scientific curiosity about consciousness and the human mind.  A bottom up approach towards building thinking machine.  Database of all neuroscientific researchresults and related past stories.  Fig 2 : Motivations of Blue Brain  Nowadays, a number of people is suffering from  brain diseases, it is an alarming stage to fight against these diseases and finding suitable treatments. Practically, it is very difficult to study a living brain. So, a virtual brain makes it possible and so  performing justification, to our experiments.IV HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS  A supercomputer with high processing  power processor and a very large storing capacity  A very wide interconnection network.  A program to map electric impulses from human brain to input signal that can be received by the computer  . V MAIN STEPS TO BUILD VIRTUAL BRAIN  Fig 3: Steps to build Blue Brain A. DATA ACQUISITIONIn Data Acquisition, we need to study different types of neurons and catalogue them. In involves taking  brain slices and placing them under a microscope, measuring the shape and electricalactivity of individual neurons. Morphology ( A branch of  biology dealing with the study of form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features, Comparative morphology, Functional morphology and Experimental morphology are different branches of morphology), Electrophysiology behavior (A minimally invasive procedure which test the electrical conduction system of the heart to assess the electrical activity and conduction pathways of the heart, it enables twelve living neurons to be concurrently patched and their electrical activity recorded ) ,location within the cortex and their  population density are the different factors by which neurons are typed. Form, function and positioning of neurons are obtained by translating these observations into mathematical algorithms. By the help of these algorithms, biologically-realistic virtual neurons ready for simulation are generated. 1107   1107  B. SIMULATION  INPUT In the nervous system of our body, neurons are responsible for message passing. Sensory cells convey the input to our body. Electric impulses are  produced by sensory cells which are received by the neurons. Further, electric impulses (through the silicon chips of artificial neurons) are transferred to the brain by neurons.  INTERPRETATION Brain receives the electric impulses from the neurons which are interpreted by means of registers. Different states of brain can be accomplished by the different values in these registers.  OUTPUT On the basis of the states of the registers, the electric impulses are sending by the brain representing the responses which are then received by the sensory cells to respond .The sensory cells of which part of our body is going to receive that, it depends on the state of the neurons in the brain at that time.  MEMORY We can store certain information (states) permanently in our brain by certain neurons .On the basis of our requirement, the brain interprets those states and thus  past things can be gathered. To do so we demand the neurons, to permanently show the clear vision of the Brain’s States.  PROCESSING By the use of some stored states, computation will be  performed by the computer. Logical and arithmetic calculations are done in our neural circuitry. To  produce the output stored past experiences and current input received are used.C.VISUALIZATION OF RESULTS HugeamountofdataaregeneratedbyrunningtheBlueBrainsimulation.Thousandsoftimesanalysesofindividualneuronsmustberepeated.Datacanbeanalyzedbyusingmassivelyparallelcomputerswhereitiscreated(server-sideanalysisforexperimentaldata,onlineanalysisduringsimulation).Avisualexplorationof thecircuitisanimportantpartoftheanalysis(giventhegeometriccomplexityofthecolumn).Itisinvaluableforanimmediate verification ofsinglecellactivitybymappingthesimulationdataontothemorphology.TheBlueGenehasbeentranslatedintoa3Dvisualrepresentationofthecolumntodesignavisualizationinterface.Achallengingtaskisthevisualizationoftheneuronsgiventhefactthataseriesoftenthousandneuronsclusteredinhighqualitymeshaccountsforessentially1billiontrianglesforwhichabouthundredGBofmanagementdataisrequired.Tostudyindetailusingfurther simulations,visualinterfacemakesiteasytoquicklyidentifythoseareasandtoshowelectricalactivityinthebrain,avisualrepresentationcouldbealsoused.VI UPLOADING HUMAN BRAIN  Nanobots, a very small robot, are the most promising factor for uploading. Emerging technology fields creating machines or robots whose components are nearly close to the scale of a nanometer. These nanoids are so small that it can travel throughout our circulatory element. To accomplish these uploading, small robots known as nanobots are used. The activity and structure of our central nervous system will be monitored by them by travelling into the spine and the brain. An interface will be provided with computers that is very close as our mind can be while we still reside in our biological form. Carefully scanning the structure of the brain is the additional function of the nanobots which provides a complete readout of the connections. Further, this information helps the machine to function as the human functions. Finally, by using nanobots, the data stored in the entire brain will be uploaded into the computer. OUTPUTMEMORYINPUT SIMULATION PROCESSINGINTERPRETATION 1108   1108  VII POSITIVE ASPECTS 7.1Decision can be made without human intervention. 7.2Intelligent brain of a person can be used, even after death of a person. 7.3Thought of animals can also be mapped. 7.4Even deaf can hear via direct serve simulation. 7.5Madness of a person can also be removed by downloading the content of the brain. VIII NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES With so many advantages, some negative sides can also come in path,8.1A person can become computer addicted. 8.2Technical knowledge can be hacked by others and that can be used against us. 8.3People can explore new technology that can  prove to be critical threat. IX FUTURE PERSPECTIVES The first version of the Blue Brain, having around ten thousand neurons, has already been created and simulated by some of our great researchers; it is the selection of our deep properties and efficiency of the circuit that takes time. We can aim about deep learning of brain components with its functioning, disfunctioning and impact of a component on another  by analyzing different data sets gathered by the past experiences as well as new ones. The amount of time invested to build an appropriate detailed model depends on the depth of the study that is being done and amount of detail that is being captured. The digital era in neurosciences begin with the launch of the human brain project. Fundamentally, there is no  problem in modeling a brain and it is therefore likely to be done in the near future. To accomplish this, and hypothesis testing, on our databases can be  performed and it is a step into reality. REFERENCES [1] The Blue brain project, Hill, Sean: Markham Henry, International conference of IEEE 2008. [2] Henry Markram, The Blue Brain Project , Nature Reviews  Neuroscience, 7:153-160, 2006 February. [3] [4] [5] Reconstructing the Heart of Mammalian Intelligence, Henry Mark ram’s lecture, March 4 2008. [6] Henry Mark ram builds a brain in supercomputer, TED conference July 2009 [7] Indian startup to help copy your brain in computers, Silicon India 2009 [8][9] Levine DS (2009) Brain pathways for cognitive-emotional decision making in the human animal. [10] Huettel SA, Misiurek J, Murkowski AJ, McCarthy G (2004) Strategic aspects of executive processing. [11][12] 1109   1109
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