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Draft Pps, Introduction

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Draft Pps, Introduction
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  INVESTIGATING EDUCATIONAL CHALLENGES OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN KABUL CITY INTRODUCTION: BACKGROUN OF THE STUDY Afghanistan is a surrounded land war-torn nation where war has been continuous for over four decades. As an outcome, the afghans are living in destitution, accepting lacking wellbeing administrations, instruction administrations, and it has been influencing their mental and mental prosperity (Cardoz et al. 2004). According to overview reports, the poverty rate in Afghanistan has composed for the last five years as the economy has come down with more than half of the population that surviving with less than one dollar per day (Reuters, 2018). More than four decades of conflict have led to widespread human suffering from psychiatric symptoms in terms of depression, anxiety, and stress disorder due to traumatic events in Afghanistan (Murthy, & Lakshminarayana, 2006). Beside this, Children who are very helpless to exclusion from, and sending in education, face lots of barriers to joining and completing primary education, especially in Low-Income Countries like (Afghanistan) (Trani,2019). Also, a report out in May 2013 from the General Assembly Security Council on children and armed conflict. It highlighted 167 attacks on education archived in 2012 in Afghanistan, according to the United Nations country task force reports that the prepared bunches organized attacks to crush and slaughter through to the terrorization and threats as a strategy against teachers and students to force schools to close (Skovdal,2014). Based on Report from Education for All Global Monitoring for Save the Children, about 50 million children from primary and lower secondary ages are out of school in countries that affected battle (Skovdal,2014). Similarly, Gates Hegre, Nygård, and Strand (2016) added a capital flight on the consequences of war. The results of war include long term physical and psychological  mischief to youngsters and adults, as legitimately as a decrease in material and human wealth (Murthy, & Lakshminarayana, 2006). In addition, health and economics, the war has affected education in Afghanistan. Consequently, the literacy rate is 38.2% (QFPA, 2019; Knoema, 2015). The Afghan Ministry of Education and (UNICEF) has found out that there are 3.7 million children who have no access to schools all over the country (UNICEF, 2018). On the other side, another report shows that nearly 3.7 million children left-back out of school, such as girls, children with disabilities that are especially helpless (UNICEF,2019). Include this, the main reasons for not attending school for some children in Afghanistan are due to the security concern, economic problems, and the traditions of Afghan (Burbridge, Frough, Haidary, 2016). War also identified as one of the factors that cause a large number of disabilities in Afghanistan. Besides that, based on a report by the Ministry of Education, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, and UNICEF, approximately half of Afghan children are out of school due to factors such as regional conflict, poverty, and forced child marriage (rush hour daily,2018). As well as violence and mistreatment in contexts of conflict cause deaths, disability, delay in development, anxiety, and distress (Trani et al., 2019). According to Everyday Students Succeeds Act (ESSA) and No Child Left Behind (NCLB) reports, the critical point towards children to go forward and needed extra changes regardless of race, disability, home language or background. (US Department of Education, 2015) also mentioned that all students with a disability have access to a high-quality education, sustained educational opportunities, high academic expectations, and exposure to the academics of their peers without disabilities ( Miller et al. 2014). Based on the estimation of (NRVA), physical disability in Afghanistan is 2%, and mental disability is 1%, and 17% share their home with people who have physical disabilities or mental disabilities (Trani,2008). The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) states that " intellectual disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability srcinates before age 18" (Suprih et al. 2019).   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM According to the researches, types of difficulties contain physical disability, developmental disability, mental health and emotional disabilities, intellectual disability, hearing, and visual impairment, and sensory disability (Francis, 2018). In Afghanistan, according to outcomes of few decades of conflict, shows a significant increase in the number of current people with disability that was in high degree due to diseases, accidents, social and family conflicts in Kabul and the district provinces (bakhshi, et al. 2004). Also categorization of disabilities in Afghanistan is as following, as sensorial, intellectual, physical, psychological, and relational (Trani, Bakhshi, & Nandipati, 2012). Gargiulo, 2009 states that learners with mental retardation have low deficit IQ below 70. They also have little thinking capacity, delay in verbal language, deficiencies of memory aptitude, and delays within the improvement of adaptive behavior, among others (Solomon, 2017). Include this, Learners with severe intellectual disabilities are often have been in issue with a massive bargain of deficiency, since they have ignored on the part of instructors, parents, and communities and their unlikely request (Scholarlink, 2014). Individuals with IDs are living longer since the physical and mental abnormalities regularly related with ID are superior overseen. It perceived that individuals with ID require great preventative therapeutic care, counting treatment of diabetes and blood weight, control of blood lipids (cholesterol) and asking of smoking. These medications too decrease the risk of dementia. Perceiving and treating mental illness such as sadness or psychosis and making a difference individual with ID to manage with push will progress quality of life and may offer assistance to avoid dementia (Dementia New Zealand support, 2017). SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY  Because of limited sources in the area of educational challenges of individuals with IDs, and limited researches about this issue decided to investigate the level of challenges that create obstacles in the educational field of children with IDs in Kabul city of Afghanistan.   RESEARCH QUESTIONS -   What are the educational challenges of children with intellectual disabilities in Kabul city? -   What are the challenges experienced by children with IDs that follows their unfulfilled educational needs? -   Why do children with IDs have problem in educational field and have unfulfilled educational desires or needs? RESEARCH ROBJECTIVES  The research aims to identify the significant challenges that students with IDs suffer during their educational terms  in Kabul city of Afghanistan. These challenges related to the stigma of parents of IDs that avoid enrolling their IDs child in special needs classes, limitation of professional teachers, the problem of peaceful locations with acceptable conditions of IDs, lack of special needs schools and classes. Include this, because of limited schools of IDs in Kabul city; some parents enrolled their IDs child in hearing impairment classes to continue their education at least. -   To identify educational challenges of children with intellectual disability in Kabul city. -   To investigate the reasons for the unfulfilled educational needs among children with intellectual disability in Kabul city. -   To describe the challenges experienced by children with IDs that follow their unfulfilled educational desires or needs LITRATURE REVIEW All children are best and unique individuals with different strategies of development and needs in different ways for treatment (IJLTER, 2019). According to (Ndurumo,1963) that categorized individuals with intellectual disabilities into three stages, mild or educable intellectually disabled  those who’s IQ is 75 to 70 %, moderate or trainable intellectually disabled those who their IQ is 50 to 25 % and severe or profound intellectually disabled those who their IQ is below 25% (Solomon, 2017). Accordingly, the American Association Intellectual Developmental Disability report, intellectual disability is defined and characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning such as reasoning, learning, problem-solving and in adaptive behavior, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills and srcinates before the age of 18 (AAIDD, 2010). Most countries decided to change their educational strategies that enroll and place students with special educational needs the individuals with IDs   in the same classrooms with students without SEN (Maria & Nikolaos, 2017). According to the MOE (2013), Special Education Integration Program in the mainstream schools has to implement an inclusive program for students who can learn in the mainstream classes (K.Anuar, & A. Rahim,2016). The implementation of inclusive education seems to be incomplete in the absence of challenges, and it should be emphasized (K.Anuar, A. Rahim,2016). Continue to this, Pupils with Intellectual Disabilities face many educational challenges such as achievements and abilities of their adjusting capability. These challenges contain difficulties in focusing or maintaining attention to tasks, memory disorders, and other fields of academic parts, for example, the overview of taught knowledge to new parts and language enhancement. Moreover, IDs related to challenges in social skills as well as the protection of suitable behavior (Bouck & Park, (2016). Include; this research aimed to analyze the nature of some of the significant difficulties faced via learners with severe intellectual disabilities in growing adaptive behavior. Grounded in research questions, the researcher focused on the most prevalent characteristics of learners with severe intellectual disabilities, Skills that are necessary for the acquisition of adaptive behavior by learners with severe intellectual disabilities and, Problems that learners with severe intellectual disabilities face in acquiring adaptive behavior and; how could learners with severe intellectual disabilities be assisted in acquiring adaptive behavior?   In this study, a qualitative research approach used for data collection, Random sampling, and the technique was a Critical incident.
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