Earth Shaking Tsunami

Earth Shaking Tsunami
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  Earth Shaking Tsunamis Page 1 Earth Shaking Tsunamis Grade Level: 5 Key Concepts Energy * Force and Motion * Earth’s Structure   Interrelationship of Earth’s Structure and Natural Phenomena   Mathematics Strands Measurement * Graphing * Computation * Patterns Skills  Observing * Graphing * Analyzing Data * Drawing Conclusions Communicating * Making Predictions Nature of Science  Scientific Inquiry * Real-Life Applications *Error Analysis * Collaboration S cience Scientific investigation and exploration of the relationship between ocean depth and tsunami wave speed T echnology Gather online data and participate in online simulations Use calculators and stopwatches E ngineering Set up and use a wave tank * Optional engineering extension: design tsunami warning system M athematics Measure length and time * Calculate averages Graph data Time: Three 45 minute sessions   By Kathy Barton (Bedford County Public Schools) Angie Luther (Amherst County Public Schools) Amy Myers (Lynchburg City Public Schools)  Earth Shaking Tsunamis Page 2 Overview   The word “tsunami” is Japanese for “harbor wave.” A tsunami is a series of huge waves caused by events that bring about a displacement of water. One such event is an earthquake. On March 11, 2011, an underwater earthquake (magnitude 9.0 on the Richter scale) occurred off the coast of Japan. The maximum water height when the wave hit land was 40 meters, and over 15,000 lives were lost. As the waves approached the shallower water near land, they slowed down and increased in height. The energy of the waves’ speed was transferred to height and force as it neared the shore. Students will view before and after satellite images of the Japan event to generate interest and engagement in the phenomenon. Next the teacher will demonstrate a model of an ocean floor earthquake. Students will simulate the formation of an ocean wave and investigate the relationship of water depth to wave speed. They will collect data from their investigation and graph it in order to compare wave speed to water depth. Although the speeds of waves associated with tsunamis cannot be achieved in a wave tank, the mathematical relationship between wave speed and water depth can be demonstrated, resulting in curves on a graph similar to those found using tsunami data. The lesson will conclude with students participating in an online investigation that uses real tsunami data, which they can compare to their experimental data. The lesson includes an extension in which students may design a warning system based upon the information they have learned regarding ocean depth and how it relates to wave speed.  Earth Shaking Tsunamis Page 3 Objectives   Know o   A wave is one type of ocean movement and can be generated by wind patterns or a sudden release of energy on the ocean floor. o   Crest, trough, wavelength, and amplitude are terms used to describe the characteristics of a wave. o   In ocean waves, water is not displaced, rather energy is transferred through the water. o   Earthquakes can occur in the ocean floor and can sometimes trigger a tsunami. o   Tsunamis negatively impact human life. o   An independent variable is manipulated by the experimenter, and a dependent variable changes as a result of manipulation of the independent variable. Understand o   Scientific investigation involves participating in processes such as questioning, experimenting, collecting data, analyzing data, drawing conclusions and sharing results. o   Wave types and sizes vary based on how the waves are generated. o   The depth of ocean water at the point of earthquake srcin is directly related to the speed of a tsunami. o   Development of tsunami warning systems is necessary to decrease the negative impact on humans. Do o   Conduct an investigation to simulate the release of energy from an earthquake on the ocean floor. o   Measure and record water depth and time for a wave to travel a fixed distance. o   Calculate speed and averages from multiple trials to answer questions and draw conclusions. o   Analyze data and construct graphs to identify the relationship between ocean depth and wave speed. o   Compare experimental data with data from internet resources. o   Use on-line simulations and resources to learn about waves, the ocean, and tsunamis. o   Explain the formation of tsunami ocean waves.  Earth Shaking Tsunamis Page 4 Standards   Virginia Standards Science 5.1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which   b)   estimates are made and accurate measurements of length… are made in metric units using proper tools; d)   hypotheses are formed from testable questions; g)   data are collected, recorded, analyzed, and communicated using proper graphical representations and metric measurements; h)   predictions are made using patterns from data collected, and simple graphical data are generated; i) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn;  j)   models are constructed to clarify explanations, demonstrate relationships, and solve needs; k)   current applications are used to reinforce science concepts. Science 5.6 The student will investigate and understand characteristics of the ocean environment. Key concepts include: a)   geological characteristics; b)   physical characteristics. Science 5.7 The student will investigate and understand how Earth’s surface is constantly changing. Key concepts include: d)   the basic structure of Earth’s interior;  e)   changes in Earth’s crust due to plate tectonics.  Mathematics 5.8d The student will estimate and then measure to solve problems, using U.S. Customary and metric units. Mathematics 5.15 The student, given a problem situation, will collect, organize, and interpret data using line graphs. Mathematics 5.16c The student will find the mean, median, mode, and range of a set of data. National Standards MOTIONS AND FORCES, Content Standard D (grades 5-8) EARTH AND SPACE, Content Standard D (grades K-4)    The motion of an ocean wave can be described by its position, direction of motion, and speed. That motion can be measured and represented on a graph.    The earth’s structure (such as ocean depth) has an effect on natural phenomena (such as tsunami) that impact humans.    Earth Shaking Tsunamis Page 5 Preparation   What You Need For the optional session (teacher demonstration of Earthquake Model):    One sandwich size or small plastic container    One box of red Jell-O ®  (Prepare at least 1 day ahead in your container; you only need enough to fill the container about halfway.)    2 graham crackers (or 1 large one broken apart)    A few mini marshmallows    1 quart or gallon sized plastic bag with about an inch (in the quart bag) or 2 inches (in the gallon bag) of water added    A few books or objects for elevating the model For each student:    1 Pre-lesson Survey of Tsunamis handout    1 Tsunami Internet Investigation Sheet    1 Post-assessment handout    1 Evaluation Rubric    Pencil For the class:    Access to internet via PC or laptop, with page open to:; guest access: msptsunami For each group:    1 Handi-foil ® Oversized Pasta Pan (49.7 cm in length)    1 plastic or wooden block (6” x 4” x ¾”)      1 cm ruler (should be accurate and not have “lead space” before the first cm)    1 permanent marker for marking depths    1 gallon milk jug filled with water    1 stopwatch measuring 0.01 seconds    1 copy of the Tsunami Simulation Experiment Guide    1 copy of the Tsunami Simulation Investigation Data Sheet    1 calculator    1 flashlight    1 cup or similar device for removing water from the wave tanks
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