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Elements Of Electromagnetics - Sadiku

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Elements Of Electromagnetics - Sadiku
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  DUPL Quantity  Units) PHYSIC L CONST NTS Best ExperimentalSymbol ValueApproximateValue  for  ProblemWork Permittivity of free space (F/m)  e u Permeability of free space (H/m)  /j, o Intrinsic impedance of free rj o space (fl)Speed of light in vacuum (m/s)  c Electron charge (C)  e Electron mass (Kg)  m Q Proton mass  (kg)  m p Neutron mass (Kg)  m a Boltzmann constant (J/K)  K Avogadro's number (/Kg-mole) NPlanck's constant (J • s)  h Acceleration due to gravity  g (m/s 2 )Universal contant of gravitation  G (m 2 /Kg • s 2 )Electron-volt (J) eV 8 854  x 10  12 4i7 x 10" 7 376.62.998 x 10 8 -1.6030 x 10" l9 9 1066  x 10" 31 1 67248  x 10" 27 1 6749  x 10" 27 1 38047  x 10" 23 6 0228  x 10 26 6 624  x 10" 34 9.81 6 658  x 10-" 1 6030  x 10" 19 12.6 x 10" 7 120ir3 X 10 8 -1.6 x 10" 19 9.1 x 10" 31 1.67 x 10" 27 1.67 x 10  27 1.38 x 10" 23 6 x 10 26 6.62 x 10" 34 9.86.66 x 10" 11 1.6 x 10" 19  CONTENTS Preface xiiiA Note to the Student xviPART   : VECTOR ANALYSIS 1 Vector Algebra 3 1.1 Introduction  3 11.2 A Preview of the Book  4 1.3 Scalars and Vectors  4 1.4 Unit Vector 5115 Vector Addition and Subtraction 61.6 Position and Distance Vectors 71.7 Vector Multiplication  11 1.8 Components of a Vector  16 Summary  22 Review Questions  23 Problems  25   Coordinate Systems and Transformation 28 2.1 Introduction  28 2.2 Cartesian Coordinates  x,  y, z) 29 2.3 Circular Cylindrical Coordinates  p,  <f>,  z) 2.4 Spherical Coordinates  r,  d, z) 32 f2.5 Constant-Coordinate Surfaces  41 Summary  46 Review Questions  47 Problems  4929 VII  Contents 3 Vector Calculus 53 3.1 Introduction  53 3.2 Differential Length, Area, and Volume  53 3.3 Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals  6 3.4 Del Operator  63 3.5 Gradient of a Scalar  65 3.6 Divergence of a Vector and Divergence Theorem  69 3.7 Curl of a Vector and Stokes's Theorem  75 3.8 Laplacian of a Scalar  83 t3.9 Classification of Vector Fields  86 Summary  89 Review Questions  9 Problems  93 PART 2: ELECTROSTATICS 4 Electrostatic Fields 103 4.1 Introduction  1 3 4.2 Coulomb's Law and Field Intensity  1 4 4.3 Electric Fields due to Continuous Charge Distributions  111 4.4 Electric Flux Density  122 4.5 Gauss's Law—Maxwell's Equation  124 4.6 Applications of Gauss's Law  126 4.7 Electric Potential  133 4.8 Relationship between E and  V —Maxwell s  Equation  139 4.9 An Electric Dipole and Flux Lines  142 4.10 Energy Density in Electrostatic Fields  146 Summary  15 Review Questions  153 Problems  155 5 Electric Fields in Material Space 161 5.1 Introduction  161 5.2 Properties of Materials  161 5.3 Convection and Conduction Currents  162 5.4 Conductors  165 5.5 Polarization in Dielectrics  171 5.6 Dielectric Constant and Strength  774 f 5.7 Linear, Isotropic, and Homogeneous Dielectrics  175 5.8 Continuity Equation and Relaxation Time  18  CONTENTS IX 5.9 Boundary Conditions  182 Summary  191 Review Questions  192 Problems  194 6 Electrostatic Boundary-Value Problems 199 6.1 Introduction  199 6.2 Poisson's and Laplace's Equations  199 f 6.3 Uniqueness Theorem  201 6.4 General Procedure for Solving Poisson's or Laplace'sEquation  202 6.5 Resistance and Capacitance  223 6.6 Method of Images  240 Summary 246Review Questions  247 Problems  249 PART 3: MAGNETOSTATICS7 Magnetostatic Fields 261 7.1 Introduction  261 7.2 Biot-Savart's Law  263 7.3 Ampere's Circuit Law—Maxwell's Equation  273 7.4 Applications of Ampere's Law  274 7.5 Magnetic Flux Density—Maxwell's Equation  281 7.6 Maxwell's Equations for Static EM Fields  283 7.7 Magnetic Scalar and Vector Potentials  284 f 7.8 Derivation of Biot-Savart's Law and Ampere's Law  290 Summary  292 Review Questions  293 Problems 296 8 Magnetic Forces, Materials, and Devices 304 8.1 Introduction  304 8.2 Forces due to Magnetic Fields  304 8.3 Magnetic Torque and Moment  316 8.4 A Magnetic Dipole  318 8.5 Magnetization in Materials  323 f 8.6 Classification of Magnetic Materials  327 8.7 Magnetic Boundary Conditions  330 8.8 Inductors and Inductances  336  Contents 8.9 Magnetic Energy  339 f8.10 Magnetic Circuits  347 18.11 Force on Magnetic MaterialsSummary  354 Review Questions  356 Problems  358349 PART 4: WAVES AND APPLICATIONS 9 Maxwell s Equations 369 9.1 Introduction  369 9.2 Faraday's Law  37 9.3 Transformer and Motional EMFs  372 9.4 Displacement Current  381 9.5 Maxwell's Equations in Final Forms  384 t9.6 Time-Varying Potentials  387 9.7 Time-Harmonic Fields  389 Summary  4 Review Questions  4 7 Problems  4 4 10 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation 410 10.1 Introduction  41 tl0.2 Waves in General  411 10.3 Wave Propagation in Lossy Dielectrics  417 10.4 Plane Waves in Lossless Dielectrics  423 10.5 Plane Waves in Free Space  423 10.6 Plane Waves in Good Conductors  425 10.7 Power and the Poynting Vector  435 10.8 Reflection of a Plane Wave at Normal Incidence  44 f  10 9  Reflection of a Plane Wave at Oblique Incidence  451 Summary  462 Review Questions  464 Problems  466 11 Transmission Lines 473 11.1 Introduction  473 11.2 Transmission Line Parameters  474 11.3 Transmission Line Equations  477 11.4 Input Impedance, SWR, and Power  484 11.5 The Smith Chart  492
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