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ABSTRAK Penelitian ini berfokus dalam isu apa saja yang muncul ketika mahasiswa setelah menggunakan aplikasi Opentalk terhadap berbicara bahasa inggris mereka. Di dalam penelitian ini ketidakpercayaan diri dan ketakutan membuat kesalahan
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  1  Student of English Education Department 2  Lecturer of English Education Department 3  Lecturer of English Education Department ENCOURAGING STUDENTS’ SPEAKING THROUGH OPENTALK APP: PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH Gugun Anggun Nurhalim 1 Universitas Siliwangi Yuyus Saputra 2 Universitas Siliwangi Ratu Sarah Pujasari 3 Universitas Siliwangi ABSTRAK Penelitian ini berfokus da   lam isu apa saja yang muncul ketika mahasiswa setelah menggunakan aplikasi Opentalk terhadap berbicara bahasa inggris mereka. Di dalam penelitian ini ketidakpercayaan diri dan ketakutan membuat kesalahan ( Psychological factors ) para mahasiswa merupakan halangan mereka dalam berbicara bahasa Inggris. Namun, seiring berkermbangnya teknologi,  Mobile Assist  Language Learning  (  MALL ) sudah banyak diterapkan didunia pendidikan baik yang memiliki fungsi khusus atau tidak, seperti Opentalk     App . Sehingga, aplikasi ini bisa dijadikan alat untuk mengatasi Psychological factor mereka. Untuk mengisi celah ini, Participatory action research  ini mencoba untuk meneliti isu-isu yang muncul terhadap para mahasiwa dalam berbicara bahasa inggris setelah dimediasi dengan aplikasi Opentalk. Empat orang peserta yang terpilih memiliki status  dan  psychological factor yang sama. Data dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan  Reflection  berupa  DICR  (Smyth, 1989) dan Video recording  sebagai bukti kelangsungan mereka dalam penggunaan Opentalk App . Data  DICR  dianalisis mengunakan Thematic analysis  (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Hasilnya menunjukan bahwa para mahasiswa yang menggunakan aplikasi Opentalk dalam empat hari memunculkan isu berupa (1) Students’ Self  -Confidence Growth in Speaking, (2) Opentalk App as platform in Shaping Students’ Motiv ation, and (3) Speaking  Improvement Acquisition. Kata Kunci:   Psychological Factor, Opentalk App, Reflection (DICR), Participatory Action Research (PAR)   Journal of Universitas Siliwangi 2019 1.   Introduction   Speaking English is universally used as a means of communication, especially in the internet world (Boonkit, 2010). As EFL students, they mostly have problems in the way to speak English, particularly in their psychological factor (Juhana, 2012). It is caused by the EFL students in non-anglosphere countries primarily practice English-speaking skills in their classes (Sun & Yang, 2015). It is not enough for them to learn English sufficiently in classroom only. Moreover, the researcher found the students commonly lack in confidence during speaking activities in classes. It means, conducting speaking need an alternative way to encourage students’ speaking. The EFL students could use M-Learning (mobile learning) to encourage their speaking abilities through online application or social networking sites, such as Skype app  (Tian and Wang, 2010), Facebook app , Facetime app  (Wan Ng, 2015), and Papa app  (Sun, Z., Lin, C. H., You, J., Shen, H, J., Song Qi & Liming Luo 2017). Thus, the EFL students will get the advantages in fluency, enrich vocabularies, idiomatic use of language (Tundini, 2003) and reducing their anxiety (Sun, 2017). Hence, M-learning is effective to use as alternative tool in learning Speaking.   Opentalk app is the application which has the similar functions with Skype app, Facebook app, Facetime app,  and Papa app  which can improve speaking skills (Tian and Wang, 2010; Wan Ng, 2015; Sun, 2017) by talking with the people in globally. Selecting Opentalk app as the tool to encourage the students’ speaking is completely free, no advertisements, a bit consuming package data, and available in android and ios which are the most platform used by people in the world. For this reasons, the EFL students can use Opentalk app to encourage their speaking without worried lost package data in anytime and anywhere. In this research context, the use of M- learning to encourage students’ speaking skills have been produced by many researchers, but they examined it fo r young learners’ speaking skills, by using Social Network Site, and quantitative design (Sun, 2017). To fill this gaps, this study will report a  participatory action research of encouraging students’ speaking through Opentalk app-mediated in higher education level. Based on the background, the formulation of this research is formulated. There is “What issues occurred in the students’ speaking through Opentalk App?”   2.   Literature Review a)   Speaking English for EFL Students The term of ‘foreign language’ was most widely used in contrast to ‘native language’ (Stern, 1991). Nurhayati (2016) underlined that a foreign language can express a relationship between person and language, i.e. the language is ‘new or ‘foreign’ to an individual; it does not necessarily express the legal status of a language, regardless of persons.   Journal of Universitas Siliwangi 2019 In recently years, the research in Indonesian EFL students have produced by Juhana (2012) found that students have psychological factors in Speaking, such as fear of mistakes, shyness, anxiety, limited vocabularies, and lack of confidence and motivation. Those are mostly caused by their fear of being laughed at by their friends which made difficult to keep on conveying their ideas in English (Juhana, 2012). In other hand, Speaking is one of four English skills which brings many problems for Indonesian students, especially how to speak English fluently in conducting teaching English process (Nurhayati,, 2016).   Horwitz (1986) highlighted that foreign language anxiety as a distinct complex set of self-perceptions, beliefs, feelings, and behaviors related to classroom language learning arising from the uniqueness of the language learning process. Ramsay (2003) also added that anxiety is a feeling of fear, dread or uneasiness and some anxious people suffer from conditions,  phobias, stress, sadness, panic, and depression. That’s why, anxious students are afraid to make mistakes in the foreign language at least in beginning classes on the university level (Horwitz, 1986). Students who study English as a foreign language (EFL) usually have limited opportunities to speak English outside the classroom (Zhang, 2009 cited in Boonkit, 2010), limited exposure to English speakers or members of the international community, and it was difficult term of finding partner to practice outside the classroom (Jati, 2018). b)   The Use of M- Learning in Students’ Speaking   As mobile technologies develops very rapidly, it’s important to look at their developments particularly, especially the development of Apps which can be utilized in the area of ELT (Jati, 2018). He (2018) added that it has provided abundant resources for listening and reading as well as space for practicing speaking and writing, and it can easily facilitate this rich environment where students can interact and communicate with each other, especially when the students can access it outside the classroom, it can give a personalized touch to students’ learning experiences. Moreover, Cole (2000) stated that online learning allows participants (students) to collapse time and space. Thus, the apps could give flexibility to ensure a fun and easy in learning process. Mobile-speaking application with automatic speech recognition could improve pronunciation (Ahn and Lee, 2016 cited in Sun, 2017), such as Siri, Google now, Cortana. In addition, Sun and Yang (2015) reported that the EFL student perceived using YouTube and Facebook as service learning enhanced their public speaking-related skills, such as idea and content development, pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar. In other word, it also built their confidence in speaking English. The pieces of literature reviewed above ensure that theory of M-learning is applicable in EFL students. It also shows that M-learning can be beneficial as an alternative tool in speaking learning, especially conducting out of classes.   Journal of Universitas Siliwangi 2019 c)   Opentalk App as Speaking Learning Platform Opentalk is a platform to meet people from around the world and have interesting conversations. Once it was downloaded, simply the user can choose the topic would like to talk about. Immediately, Opentalk connects the user with another user from across the globe to have an interesting conversation (“Anonymous,” n.d.). He also added that Conversing with people from around the world, makes us more tolerant, more helpful, more knowledgeable, good communicator and a great friend. In short, Opentalk strives to make the user more confident person. To operate “Opentalk” you need to follow the instructions below:  a)   First, sear ch and download “Opentalk” app on Playstore  for Android based, or  App store  for IOS Based. b)    Next, open the “Opentalk” app.  c)   Then, login with  phone number   or Facebook   account. d)   After that, allow any permissions. e)   Finally, you click “Talk Now”. You will directl y connect with the people globally. You also click “End” to finish your talking. 3.   Research Methodology This current study involved collaboration and negotiation processes between the researcher and participants in using Opentalk App. They engaged students’  speaking activities through Opentalk App-Mediated. Therefore, participatory action research (PAR) was one of the ways to develop the students’ speaking activities. The researcher considered PAR as an ideal one because it deals with action and reflection process. Furthermore, Reason and Bradbury (2008) explained PAR as a participatory, democratic process concerning with developing practical knowing in the pursuit of worthwhile human purposes. They (2008) added that it brings together action and reflection, theory and practice, in participation with others, in the pursuit of practical solutions to issues of pressing concern to people, and more generally the flourishing of individual persons and their communities. In this study, both researcher and participants encouraged one with another in order to practice speaking by discussing process related to their reflections, sharing the topics, motivating each other, etc. This research was conducted in a university, located in West Java, Indonesia because of two considerations: (1) the participants lack in confidence during speaking activities, and (2) the researcher is a student in this university. It required four times to be executed. Four the EFL students recruited as participants in this research. They are,  Halim, Syadi, Tina  and Yati  (male and female English students, pseudonym). They are undergraduate students between the ages of 21 and 22 from English education department. They are in fourth grade semester who want to improve, and interest to enrich experiences their speaking. Before they were recruited, the researcher did a small-talk (interview) with the participants to know what they lack in speaking, appropriate as the participant, and did negotiation process. During negotiation process, the researcher explained the purpose of the   Journal of Universitas Siliwangi 2019 research to avoid misunderstanding and to ensure all of data will be kept confidential. In this study, the researcher took a part both as researcher (outsider) and one of the participants (insider) because both the research participants and the researcher engaged in the process together (Widodo, 2015). This research was conducted in 4 times to acquire the data from the participants. Inspired by the current work on PAR (Widodo, 2016), the design of this participatory action research study through the following stages: Stages Details Stage 1 : Recruiting members Recruiting members having the similar lack in speaking (confidence) Recruiting members having same level (class, year, or equal status) Stage 2 : Introduction Introducing to participants what the Opentalk Application is. Guide the participants how to use the Opentalk Application Step by step. Stage 3 : Negotiating Process Discussing the lack of the participants in speaking. Discussing the role of activities which we will do. Stage 4 : Activities / Practices The participants and the researcher try to use Opentalk Application. The participants and the researcher share what experiences we have got. Stage 5 : Reflection (DICR) The participants and the researcher fill the reflection. Help the participants reflect on the process of using Opentalk Application. Table. C. 1. Stages of Opentalk Application-mediated through PAR The data were collected by using DICR as reflection (Smyth, 1989). DICR helps the students’ documenting the activities and Video recorded was used as the second data collection that could be an evidence of the data collections are real. Next, thematic analysis was chosen as data analysis. There are six phases thematic analysis proposed by Braun and Clarke (2006) as follows; (1) Familiarizing yourself with the data, (2) Generating initial codes, (3) Searching for themes, (4) Reviewing themes, (5) Defining and naming themes, and (6) Producing the Report. 4.   Research Findings and Discussion Drawing on thematic analysis, I identified three emergent themes: (1) Students’ Self  -Confidence Growth in Speaking, (2) Opentalk App as platform in Shaping Students’ Motivatio n, and (3) Speaking Improvement Acquisition. The themes indicated that Students’ Speaking along with the use of Opentalk Application in the speaking activities can encourage students’ speaking. Each of themes were presented with data, together with analysis and discussion.
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