ETD Contribution of Law Uiversities in India to Shodhganga

ETD Contribution of Law Uiversities in India to Shodhganga
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  590  5 ETD’s Contribution of National Law Universities toShodhganga: A Study Vysakh. C  *  & Dr. Rajendra Babu. H  † Introduction Electronic theses and dissertations (ETD’s) are the rich sources of researchinformation produced by the scholarly community as a part of their doctoral studies.The ETD repositories are considered to be the untapped sources of intellectualoutput for the public good. Keeping all the research findings within the universitydatabases and restricting others to use can bring no societal benefits. Shodhganga, as an open access (OA) repository acts as a central hub whereuniversities upload and download theses and dissertations online by the scholarlycommunity. The UGC Notification (Minimum Standards & Procedure for Awardof M.Phil./ Ph.D. Degree, Regulation, 2009) dated 1st June 2009 mandates thesubmission of softcopy of the theses and dissertations to the national level repositorywith an intention to make available the scholarly output globally. All the universitiesin the country are expected compulsorily be a part of Shodhganga. Those universitiessign the MoU will be financially supported for digitizing their old and new theses.Alongside, they will be provided software for detecting plagiarism (similarity)checking which undoubtedly improves the quality and standard of the researchwork. As long as these are not digitized, it abets to duplicates or plagiarizes.Law as a profession is in a great demand due to the change in social, legal,economic and other circumstances. Professional competency is the main factorwhich decides the success in the profession of law rather than academic excellence(India Education, 2019). *Research Scholar, Department of Studies and Research in Library & Information Science, TumkurUniversity, Tumakuru, Karnataka-5721032. † Assistant Professor, Department of Studies and Research in Library & Information Science, TumkurUniversity, Tumakuru-5721032.  ETD’s Contribution of National Law Universities to Shodhganga: A Study 591 Need for the Study Based on the elaborated literature review for the Studies in Law related subjectsfound that, there are no such studies have found in the field of doctoral studies inIndia. So, we felt it a need to conduct a study to know how many 'doctorates' in lawhave been conferred from and the number of ETD's deposited on onto Shodhgangaby the Indian Law Universities for the period of past ten years from the year 2010to 2019. Objectives of the Study The major objectives of the study are as follows1.To identify the year wise growth of Shodhganga.2.To list the top 10 law universities in the world.3.To find the ETD's contribution by the Indian Law Universities ontoShodhganga.4.To find the top ETD depositing Indian Law universities onto Shodhganga. Scope The study has carried out to know the ETD's deposition by National LawUniversities of the country to the national level repository Shodhganga. Mainly 8universities viz. Dr. Ambedkar Law University, Tamil Nadu; National Law Schoolof India University, Bangalore; Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law, Punjab;Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University, Lucknow; National LawUniversity, Delhi; Gujarat National Law University, Gandhinagar; National LawInstitute University, Bhopal; The Indian Law Institute, New Delhi; have beenconsidered for the study. Methodology Shodhganga, a repository of Indian national ETD's is the main source of datafor the study which is accessed through the link keyword 'Law' has been typed to segregate and select the law universitiesfrom others from the Shodhganga databases search feature. The searching retrievedeight law universities and further tabled to count their theses contribution. Thereferences cited in this article is in-line with the APA 6th edition with the help of Mendeley open source reference management software.  Transcending Technology 592 Review of Literature  A literature review was conducted using Google and Google Scholar with themain focus on those pieces of literature outlined ETD's contribution by differentuniversities at the national and state level to the repository.The ETD’s contributions of West Bengal to the Shodhganga has beeninvestigated by Esh (2015) which found that a total of 228 theses have been depositedby 9 universities in which 'The University of Burdwan' tops the list with 97 theses.In the same line, Dr. Shantashree Sengupta carried out to know the status of Maharashtra in Shodhganga. Shivaji University, Kolhapur with 412 theses and SantGadge Baba Amravati University with 312 theses are the major depositors of theseswhich contributed major shares to make the total number of theses to 2199 beingcontributed by 19 universities in the state of Maharashtra (Sengupta, 2015).Balasubramani &Abu (2015) found that Anna University and Periyar Universityare the top ETD depositors to the national level repository with 2769 and 785 thesesrespectively from the state of Tamil Nadu while it is Aligarh Muslim University with7622 theses among the central universities in India (Jhamb & Samim, 2017). Similarly,Ksh Krishna Devi gave a finding through her study that totally 3390 theses hadbeen deposited by the Central Universities of North- East India to the national levelrepository (Devi & Verma, 2017). Data Analysis and Interpretation Shodhganga acts as an open access repository for the theses and dissertationswhich started operations under the banner of INFLIBNET. At the onset, the numberof universities signed MoU and contributing theses were less. Later, there was ahuge jump in the number of registrants and contributors. As in the first quarter of this year, it reached triple-digit to 397. The year wise growth of Shodhganga isportrayed in the graph below. Figure 1:  Year Wise Growth of Shodhganga  ETD’s Contribution of National Law Universities to Shodhganga: A Study 593 The growth of Shodhganga from year to year is prodigious. The nine-yeargrowth of the repository from 2010 to 2019 shows growth in the number of thesesfrom 1171 to 229553. It is clear that it took only 7 years to reach one lack from onethousand. The upward trend in the graph indicates the number of theses likely to becrossed 3 lacks in the same year or within the next one or two years.Carrier in law is always been a good choice and favourite option for manyyouths as it brings prestige as well as good earnings. The choice of place to peruselegal education is very crucial. The institute should be within a city and close to acourt as suggested by Ved Kumari (The Times of India, 2019). The top 10 LawUniversities in the world according to the 'Times Higher Education World UniversityRanking' (Times Higher Education, 2019) are as tabled below. Table 1: Top 10 Law universities in the World Stanford Law School also known as Stanford Law or SLS established in theyear of 1893 is ranked first with 15878 total FTE (Full Time Equivalency) studentsfollowed by Duke and University of Cambridge in the next positions. The formerhas got 23% of international students where the female to male student ratio is43:57. It is clear that out of the top 10 universities, 6 are from the United States of America and 3 are from the United Kingdom. It is also seen that the University of Melbourne ranked 10th position is the only one university which could find a placein top 10 from other than U.S.A or U.K. No universities from India could find aposition in the top 10 list.The role played by the ‘legal education system’ in the country to make thesociety ‘law-abide’ one is creditable. There are 143 law schools in the country Rank University Country No. of FTE Students No. of Students/ Staff International Students Male: Female Ratio 1 Stanford University USA 15,878 7.4 23% 43 : 57 2 Duke University USA 15037 4.4 18% 48:52 3 University of Cambridge UK 18749 10.9 37% 46:54 4 Yale University USA 12318 5.2 20% 50:50 5 University of Oxford UK 20298 11.0 40% 46:54 6 University of Chicago USA 13562 6.1 25% 44:56 7 Harvard University USA 20595 9.1 26% 48:52 8 London School of Economics and Political Science UK 10028 11.8 70% 52:48 9 New York Universit USA 44433 8.9 32% 56:44 10 University of Melbourne Australia 45030 26.6 42% 56:44  Transcending Technology 594 which produce an average of 60000-70000 law graduates per year (The Bar Councilof India, 2019). The numbers of graduates who are further stepping into Ph.D. arealso increasing which is evident from the following table. Table 2: ETD's Contribution of Indian Law Universities into Shodhganga It is seen from the table that a total of 8 law universities at the national levelcontribute an aggregate of 127 theses into Shodhganga as on 28th May 2019 whichconsumes .05% of the total Shodhganga e-theses collection. Dr. Ambedkar LawUniversity, Tamil Nadu is the table topper with 50(39.37%) theses followed byNational Law School of India University and Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law, Punjab with 22(17.32%) and 17(13.38%) theses respectively. Concerning thepossession of anti-plagiarism software, only Dr. Ambedkar Law University, TamilNadu holds and rest of them except The Indian Law Institute, New Delhi areeligible. Universities not covered under 12(B) are not eligible to get anti-plagiarismsoftware and fund for digitalization or setting up of ETD lab. Sl. No Name Type Coordinator Anti- Plagiarism ETD’s 1 Dr. Ambedkar Law University, Tamil Nadu Public – Yes 50 2 National Law School of India University, Bangalore State Yes Eligible 22 3 Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law, Punjab Public Yes Eligible 17 4 Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University, Lucknow State Yes Eligible 16 5 National Law University, Delhi Public Yes Eligible 10 6 Gujarat National Law University, Gandhinagar Public Yes Eligible 9 7 National Law Institute University, Bhopal State Yes Eligible 2 8 The Indian Law Institute, New Delhi Deemed Yes Not Eligible 1 Total 127
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