Health & Medicine

Evaluation of the Planar Array Field Wear Test

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There is a great need for valid field wear testing in the minerals industry because most laboratory results are not directly translatable to field results. The planar array test devised earlier by the Bureau of Mines was shown to give reproducible
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  Wear of Mataria'. ASME 1991 EVALUATION OF THE PLANAR ARRAY FIELD WEAR TEST R. Blickensderfer and J. H. Tylczak Albany Research Center Bureau of Mines U.S . Department of the Interior Albany. Oregon ABSTRACT TIlrre is a great need for 11Ilid field wear t(5lin: in the: minerals industry b«aus.c: most laboratory mullS arc: not dira::tIy ttaIlsl:nablc: to flCld results. The planar array lesI: dnisoed ~ the Burt'au of Min(5 lias shown to ,ive: reproducible "''aT results in an ore feed chute. UsinJ sets of c:i&lll types of alloys, with some dqllicates. and 12 reference spc:timtns, tests were conducted at four different fi eld test si tes. AI aU four sites the alloytd higlt-<::r \\'bite cast iron ""as the most wear resistant. The wear rankings of the other alloys. including low alloy and high alloy steels, are discussed in terms of the abrasive field conditions. COlRlations each fiek wear coodition and four difJcrcnll)'pCS of laboratory abrasion t<5t5 arc: prtSClllc:d and discussed. The: reproducibility of d spttimens in the field wear Icst ""as within 10 pc . \\nid sOOv.s thai this I)pc: of field Icst is more valid Ulan an arbitnuy laboratory abrasion lesl. It is concluded that laboratory wear tesrs are useful forscrc:c:ning the: selection of abrasion resistant mat erial s. but the planar array field test is beller for op t imizing the selection of materials for any given field wear condition. INTRODUCfION Considerable fiek wear testill, has b«n tollllu:ted in minc:rals processin, plan $, bm the resulting data arc: usually not reponed in the: litera Ure. Planl pc:rsoonel nolntally only use their data for selecting wear resistant materia1s in their 0 11 operations. Most of thc:sc inlllant wear teslS arc inadequately controlled, and as Avery (l) pointed out, they may lead the: unwary to the wrell : oondllSion. Among ule few field wear tests that have been reponed In the literarure. reproducibili )' is usually poor or s nOI menlioned. 1llc: Bureau of Mines. U. S. Dc:parunent of Interior, has developed II flek wear Icstin, method thai apsx-arc:d pmiously 10 ,ive good rc:producibility..(Z) The: tesr may help the minerals induslry acquire more mc:anin&fu] wear data and u1timalely make beller, and most COSt e sek'ctions of wear resistant mat e rials. In 11 previous papc:r(Z), lield wear teslS were: classified into several types: seCjutlllial serit$ tests, concurrent serit$ tes $, and concurrent ,f'Oql tests. A melhodology for a concumnt group tcst that used reference: ~ for determining \'3nalions in wear inlensi ), over the tesl site was developed. The 1I\'ar of carh lesl specimen ""'35 COrRCttd for the wear of th e rv.o a djacent references specimens relative to the wear of aU reference specimc:ns. Thus, each tnt spttimen was normallud for irs local wear inlensi ),. A flCk lest using the new method 00 five: p of specimens in a random array in a jaw crusher feed chute pve exceUent reproducibility with a COC'frlcicnt of variation (COY) of 3,4 pel. 339 The purpose of ule presrnl work v.as to (urthcr evaluate ule lest method ..... 11c:n applied 10 different field wear conditions. A standard set of ei&ht alloy pttimcns in a planar army was instaUed II c:ach of four different rlC'ld wear sit= In addition to e\'alualing the: tc:s in, method ilSCH, ir was hoped that the different wear ranl:in&S among be: alloys under each flCk conditioa could be: used to classify or carqorizc' the field conditions. Such information is nc:aled 10 make field wear tc:stin, more accurate and more meaningful. BACKGROUND The I:ey 10 the new fiek wear tcsting method is 10 COITCC1 ule wear of each lest specimen for tht IIllIiations in wear intensi )' Uillt in\'3riab1y occur among i - i 'f i -. i ... .. I i i ~ ~ -" 0 ........ i I I i •• '0 . I ~ ,t -- . , .... _ , - w. . i - " ,- ..-<> -.. - I .. J; .. I •• • •• I 'J ' ' _ I I -0. I - w I •• i •• j 0. I i ". , i r " i - i - I ·_·   Z "- -- .---- - . ., " .m , ,,- i 1-=4 -r r1&Ure I Arrangement of spc:c ffiens In a I)'plCaltc:st plate. Referencc: spcdmens (Rd.) and spacers arc: hardened AlSI 4340 steel.  ~ sites. T spttimens and r ~ all' ahtmaled skle by sid( 10 mal:C' one or mol'{' rov.s in a L1f'XtT plale, as illusuo;ut"d in Figurc I. A ~ ("(juillion from Ihe prtviollS P:lpcr(2) w:ts llS(d 10 COITC"CI for Ihe intvitable gradient of abr;\Sive malerial p."lSSlng o Ihe ~ ·nl(' ~ on tht rderellCt" ~ adjal""t'nl 10 each Icst specim('ll i the inlensity of Ille wear gradient on lhat :s«lion of the plate. The ralio of the mean wear of all n:fC'rcnee specimens 10 the obsr:rved mean l of Ihe ~ I spc'"Cirnt'ns is take as Ihe correclion r:lclor. The oorrt"Cled lI'l:ar deplh, dc, is calculated for tach I spC'cimen :u.:co,, ing to the t'qu.1llon d d ~ d is the wear depth of the lest specimen calculaled from wt'ight change d R is tht' mt'an wear depth of all rcfcrenct' ~ ~ is lhe mean _at fkpth of the rv.o (efercnce spttimtns adjil(('flt 10 the tesl specimetl P ROCED URE Srnimtn5 Mosl specimens ~ nominally 2.'i mm wide by 75 mm Jong and 12 mm Ihrck, with a lest fate of 2.'i by 70 mm. A standard :1('1 incltJded t'igJll test specimens and TWO duplicales plll:l II or 12 reft'rence specimens, depending uPOfl whether spttimens werc arr.mgt'd in one or rv. O rollrS. A l)-pical pla te ~ specimens in TWO ro .... 5 is lJIuslraled in Fi&urc 1. The initial arrangement of the specimcns IIllS randomly selected and ditn I.":tpl he same for all laler tests. The el&hl lest alloys, as descnbc:d in Table 1, included a hi&h-<=r 111lile CMI iron, 13 Mn Hadficld stetl. D2 tool stetl, I\f\ AR (abrasion resistanl) Sleet, high aHoy, low aHoy, and plain camon Slet S, and rLflaJly, a siainiess steel. All excepl me Hadfield Sletl and the stainless steel _I'{' heal Il'{'alni. 1lie rcfertnce specimens WCR' of AlSJ 43-$0 steel, heal ~ 10 a hardness of j15 .1 6 HB. Specimens II"('R' installed in a Sletl plate of 19 mm thkl;ness. Wa. of 111(' wcar depth, d, or each ${lt"Cimc:n WiI$ Q(1("nninro from mass loss (n)("asuR'd 10 J 0.0 1 I), density (mrMured 10 Ihl"("r sigrrirlcanl filllR'S). amI lUcan w("ar swfac(' area (dimensions me3Surt'\l brfore a.nd aft("r l t(' lest in s.. .... cml plaCC"S and 3vt"r.l&ed 10 j 0.01 mm). Specimens wen: dCll"('ased. smlhbcd, ultr.L'lOllicaUy cleaned In soapy wilt er, rinsed 111th akohol and air blolln dl)' ~ weighing. Field Conditions Wear tests werc conducted al fourdiffercnt field siles representiol differct1t field lI"t'ar conditions. 111e siles and field OOI1dilions al"(' summal"i7.cd-in Table Tnt plate Stayton eon"")'O'" dischorge defte,tor plore Vu lcon I'onsr", c ,",ut . r,om ser e"" to con.")'O'" : Tut plate Figure 2 Location of tesl plalcs in field Icst shes. w""nat K l c b:n Sped"","" spec. Q l: ltll '' ,,,,In'l . l l, ~ BlI, II EI SId. H UI Ic .. ..... I' .. 0 .. 18"",lon Tested " ~ " ., . , , .. De" . ki9/"l·Cr ""ite (.u " 3.19 lS.3 0.76 0.3S "" O .S' .. ro' • " 1010' C 4 hr. J£; rolle., SID' C iron 12 IIr. , • 02 1001 suel '" .... 13.7 0.4S 0 .37 '.M 0.1 9 O.Oll 0. 00II 2 , . Hut .Iowly to als' C, then to 1010' t, _Ir cool to 50' C. Double 'oq)tr 150' C I hr. AUt 5ZI00 Utel " 1.'0 1.'7 .. ,. 0.10 .. • " ..... 0.001 ~ " 1160' C 15 .In. W • ..... SO' e I hr ... ISI 1060 lltel " 0.S9 <0. I 0.53 0.1' <0.1 • " ..... 0.OZ6 M'. " &0 ' C 15 .in, W. ._. l00' CIIor A uetl " o.n 0.98 0.41 0. ]8 0.20 0. 14 0.005 0. 004 3 SOl 1 " 1Ir"MIown c""","rd.t Irul ... 1 , ... 514 Type .... " 0.19 0.50 1.'2 O.ZS CI.23 0.21 0 • 'M • • ~ "en..,t .lloy Sletl , T)'pe 31>4 .co'nle . " 1'.9 2.38 0.'1 0.30 '.00 , .... , w"",,··wcOUGhI condl"on Iteel , U lin Hadfield " I. 12 0 .'4 12.' 0.35 .. ., .n 0.012 0.012 220 1 " W condi,ton .'ett, T\'PO A12S, Gr_ BZ hlennce Spec, .... ~ A1SI n 51 .. 1 , . 0." 0.76 0.73 0.13 0.27 LM 0.006 0.01' , 515 1 " 820' C 25 .in, 00. ._. 2S0' t 2 hr , At ; •• r cool, IIQ II II&ler .....-ch. OD ts oil _h. , 0.83v, <0.02 to , 0.03 At, 0.06 Ii, 0.0028 0.15 Cu - Tvpi •• 1 of ..... Se tl d'ffered tn 'heir ""'_. 340  ~ 2'1 ~ f VI oc ty pe<t r .. u of Fe"*", Size .. " ile N_ ~ . .... Inc: i '*"', ..... aM locu;on vol ... Wt ee .. ,. "IneeOIOfY sP r' - D lodl .. RoUlton le_llll"" A Iroy Mine ~  Iotn , S-IOO AtliUlu Chlr, If .. ,r ll ned .. , • • roy , " S ilnr .i1 ie. , boo,lIe, A ._rl "i ...... l. S; .. I, ." ,.. ....... l.r _ ru, ch ... • " , , , , , t ......... M ... , WtNlchct, ~ SUyton ~ Prod. ~ ... SU yton _rey • ~ , 2-12 "'ON: fl tdopro r, ....'" .Hltlas • .. " , , Suy , ,,, , ~ , ongulor • M ohl , ,., Angullr VUI ........ .. ltl ~ Cry, ,., Angullr U_I<9ne, fine lIulned .. , , , NeltN _rry ~ h Hlt_ , " h,,",dily $",";'" .t II 'pccl ..... t II Ullf 2. lie .. tondhl_ of fl.td 1 ... SId. Alae $pKI ... stll,' ' I'tu. '1 .. Sh . ... .. . ,-, , " A ue co 300 • 'S , " '" . " .. AU_,. SII • 511 , .. • " 511 • 511 , " .. SaY'an A 211 • 33 , " Slay ..... 211 • n " " ""It .. ~ 'A ll Ipccl_ ... ee 12 _ h 21nc:ludel ,,",,It.I'u and Hlptl,",u T ' Fac., ,., 12 • U ~ . ' ~ ~ ~ 12 • 46 ~ 25 0 70 ~ »,'" Mo. 0'" No. of luting Ii ~ '"' Uf.r"",. l no ' "lItd, Optelli"ll Pa ued spot o, ... Sproclaoeno (O IY' ) IHO<Ie l) (Tons) " " " , . 1' 0 ,000 • " " ... 2Z5.000 • " " ... 225.000 ,,' ,,' ,,' , . 30,000 " " " '".- " " " , . '".- • " " , . ' ,, ' " " " 1 0.000 " " .r '" '. - " " 21" ' 200. 000 1:01" IrOll I"" I....,i_ ... co ""h.", boelUS. lII.r w . I ... Ihon 0.1 ... 'w nr WII 1110 .sur..: part .. V Ihr""", 1101 '"U 5 ene f.9ICl ... ... 1011 0"..'l1li 'hi Usl "" ... 1101 lIn p l"," W«lt Ih...:ugh • c_ TAll(] . Ptac-..' of Ton SlU of $pKI_ (Orl fl .. WII porollel 10 Ihe long dl ..... ... of &peel ... e ".,,1 foe se, Mo. 4 ... ch VI, .. 90-) 2 and iIIUSIJ'aled in Fi&urr 2. At the Asarco Mine Ihe le'St plate was locaTed in tht vertical sidewalk of an 01'1' chute feeding the primary jaw crushc:r. Tbe on:: "'a' a hard, hf&,h·silica, coar.se minC'-run rock thai mm"e'Q sIov..-1y along the chute. Because: me chUle "'a' run nearly full, the rock oould not rradily 'Otale. At tile Asamera Mine the t e'St plate rtplaced the nomal ore defltttor plate locat ed bC'neath a g)TOCOIle crusher. Tbe on::, consisling of quaru (macrocrystaJline 5i0:2) and chert (dominantly cl)'ptOC1)'StaiUne 5KJ, of 2 to 4 cm size, fell about 1.3 m and struc:k the plate with a velocity of 6 ms ·t at an angle of .t5'. The Sta}100 installation invoh"e'Q a ddleaor plate at the discharge of a CQIll'q'Or that carrird rock.. In me nrst te'St, the rock \\oa'i a m ixture of uncrusht1:l river rock and crushed rock 0 12 to 12 em size COllsisting of " feldspar, quam. and silicat"- In Ute SC'COnd tC$i, me rod:: "'a' all crushed in the size T'a/lge of 2 to 3 em. The rock siruck me plate "'1th a vdocity of about 4 ms'l at an angle of approximalely 30'. At Vulcan, the I plate \loa' instaJlnI in the bottom of a chute hal carried crusIiC'd l of 2 to 3 cm sizto The rock rumbled and slid f/ttly over the tC$t specimens y,ith a A total of len Stt: i of tC$t soecimens wen:: placrd in the four site'S as surn marized in Table 3. Duplicate Stt: i 2 and 3 were placed in one plDte at AS:lf'C(I, and triplicale SC't: i 4, S, 7 werr evaluatrd at Asamera. The specimens in one of the As.lmera SttS II>'C'R' oriented at 90 ' to the others to look for any orientation dreel, two of tile sets, set I at Asarco and 5et 6 at Asamera, consisted of smaller specimens (12 II 46 mm fatt ) 10 look for size err«1S. 341 Thn::e of the selS, No. 4 al Asamera, No, 9 at Stayton and No. 10 at Vulcan, wen:: R'moved early, measured forwtar, and then R'installed lO further testing 10 d the errect of tC'Sting duration on wear r.u1kings. RESULTS Reproducibility TIJ(: two identical5e1S of specimens, Nos. 2 and 3 in Plale 22 at Asan:o that .... c:R' tC'Sted simultan('()USly, gave similarwc:ar rc:sults.. As summarized in Table 4, lhe correctnl wear of d specimens differed OIIly slightly on four of the eighl specimens, v.ith a COV of about 2.J to 3.4 pel. TIle COV of tile other specimens .... -as 10.9 to 17.7 pet. The duplicale specimens of sets.s and 7 at Asamera showed somC'lloilat less llariation than the 5elS at Asarro. The COY's ranged from 0.7 to 123 pet y,;th a mean of 4.4 pet. Another chrd.: of rtproduc:ibility .... a' provided by Ihe dl4l1icate specimens, the D2 tool steel No.4, and the 304 stainless steel No.. &. in each 5eL lJeocause Ihe 02 tool stc:el is 'ieI)' wear resistant and 304 stainless steel is among the least resistant of ferrous alloys. Ibest twO specimens provide a ttst for rtproducibilily of extremely diffefC'tlt ferrous a The results aR' ~ in Table: 5. In five cases Ihe v..as COV le-ss than oS pel; hO'NrVC'r, tllree of the COV's werr over 30 pet. The mean COV v..as 13.8 pel. I  Asarco Plate 22 Spec. Soc 2 Soc 3 Hean Std. CO, .,. Dtl5isnation -) -) Dev. (%) I Hi - Cr \lei 0.561 0 .. 06 0.499 0.088 7.7 2 A1SI 1060 .832 .87) .853 . 029 l.< 3 AISI 52100 .729 .621 675 .076 I.l 4 02 tool steel .561 .587 .574 .018 3. I , AR steel .021 I .217 1.119 .139 2 4 6 A514 law alloy .494 .281 1.388 . 151 o. , 7 13 Hn Hadfield 1 .080 1.046 1.06] . 024 2.3 8 304 stainless 1. 380 1.42 5 1.40] .032 2.3 Ref. AISI 4)1,0 1.003 1.003 1. 003 " " Hean COY 6.1 Asa/llera Plates 16 ,od n Spec. Soc , Soc 7 Hean Std. CO, N, . DeSlsnallon ( ~   Dev. (%) I Hi - Cr WCI 1.089 1 .064 1.077 o. 018 .6 2 AISI 1 060 1.400 I .388 .394 .009 0.7 3 AISI 52100 1.387 I .447 . 417 .042 3.0 4 02 tool Heel I. 560 1 1 .703 1 .6 32 .101 6 2 , AR steel 2. no 2 . 029 2 . 170 .056 2.6 6 As}4 low alloy 2. 74S 3 .267 3 .006 .369 12.3 7 13 Hn Hadfield 2.031 2. 137 2.08l .075 3.6 8 304 stainless 2.9 ,,1 2. 7)4 1 2.839 .1 49 >.l Ref. AISI 4340 2.056 2 .056 2.056 NA NA Hean COY 4.4 NA - 0" applicable IAve ras , wear of two .peciraens TASLE 4. Reproducibility of Specimen \le ar in Duplicate SeL5. Corrected ,",ear. d, . Hu[ De:gtb 11, Std. So< 5ge:c:imen Regli cau s Ifean Oev. CO, '0 . '0. Type (X) 1 4 02 T5 0.0212 0.0219 0.0216 0.0005 2.3 4 4 1.081 1.7 06 1. 394 . 2 12 , 4 1. 651 1 468 1.560 .129 8.3 6 4 I. '" 1.530 1 .682 .215 n , 4 .1 47 .2':5 -- .196 .069 " 0 4 .058 .062 .062 .061 .002 3. 8 1 8 30': SS .026 .041 .0335 .0 106 12 , 6 2 . 886 3.002 2.944 .082 2.8 6 6 2.  93 2.623 2.563 .098 3.6 7 6 2.299 3.165 2 .732 . 6 12 22 8 8 .907 .72 2 .815 .131 16 , 6 .374 1. 354 1. 364 .014 1.0 10 6 .542 0.495 .444 .494 .0':9 ,., Hean COY 13.8 TABLE ,. Wear Reproducibility of Paiu of Similar Specimens Under All Four Field Conditions 342 YaIWjty of the Cormtioo Equation Use of the' COI"T"tttion tqu.lticn brinp d scauer"(d WC'ar meastlrtmnllS o( d :;p«imcm mto l"C'il'iOIlable q:m:rnent. For o:amplC', .... itholn tht oorTttliOn, Iht COY of Iht duplicale pairs of Table 5 included thm: of over 100 pel. Tht mean COY of aU 13 duplicalC pairs \\<15 42.8 pel fOl" WlCOrTtCltd wellf and 13.8 pel fOf COrTtCttd ~ . The variation in WC':J.T of tht n:fel"C'tlcc spedmens serves as an indica lor of 1M variation in mean .... nr inlensity O a WC'ar piale. The \rotsl case: \\<15 plale 16 at Asamera \\lLerr ¥try littlt Oft struct Ihe uppemtOSI ~ cOIIstqutnlly, tht wear of OOt ~ rtfcrtncc sp«imm I\oas ooly 0:129 mm In contrast, a Iowt;r spccimm ~ 4.486 mm, thus, WlCOrTtCltd dL4'iicale :sp«imens could have dilfertd by 3500 pet; in faer, WO duplkates WltorTtttcd did differ by 2040 pel. After applying Ihe corTtClion equallon, Ihe me<U1 COY of d was only 4.4 pet. TILus, tht torTtClion C"QUiItion provides a Si&niftcarll imp["(M:mefll in wtar values.. HO'Io'C'Ier, ..men atremely \aile variations in wear inlmsity exist OYtr thc tcst sile, Ihe use of mon: rlmn WO I"C'fel"C'nct spedmens pC'r lest spccintnt may further ImprDllt the accuracy. Efkct of Spcdmen Orientation TIlt specimens of SCI 4 lit Asamtra WC're plactd at 90' 10 the usual orient.1lion in order to provide Ort flow aeross the .... idth of Ihe specimtns instead of aIoog thtir kngth. Tbe WC'af of SCI" can be: compartd \\IiIh that of 5C1S S and 7, aU of ..... hicb were tc:sttd concurrenlly at As:unera. As sho wn in Table 6. tht most wear resistant specimen, No.1 high ·C r lI1titt cast iron, and me kasl WC'ar resistant, No.. 8 l)pc 304 ss. ranl.::td firsl and las in both oriel1llllions. T'M) other specimtns, Nos. 3 and 5, also had tht samt I1Illkings in both orientations. The oIher thn:e ~ differtd by ont or WO rnnl<s. The mtan coy of 7.6 pet is nO{ quite as good as the mean COY of 4.4 pct beiWttll Sot'ts 5 and 7 at Asamtra. This indicates that Ort flow along me ItngIh of the specimen is prtferable. Spec. No . I 2 3 4 , 7 8 Parallel. Avg. Sets 5 and 7 ~ Rank 1.077 1 1. 394 2 1.4 17 3 1.6321 4 2.170 6 2.084 , 2.839 7 tH ean of 3 specimens 2Hean of 2 specimens At 90' Set 4 1.209 1. 71l 1.1,17 1.394 1 2.165 1. 691 2.656 Hean Rank 1 , 3 2 6 4 7 CO, (%) 6. 2 14 .4 0 11.2 0.1 14 .7 4 .7 7.6 TABLE 6. Effect of Specimen Orientation on Wear lind Ranking. Concurrent tast. at Asamara . Effctt of Specimen Size Tht ~ in stlS 1 and 6 wert smaller, 12 x 46 mm, with ooly 32 pet of tht test surface area of the othtr stl:S. Sct 6 ..... as tc:sttd concurrmrly ... lh selS 5 and 7 at Asamtr.l. Tht wtar conditions WC'rt Ihtrtfore tsStntially identical. The w.ear and rnnldngs are prcscntC'4 in Table 7. Tht resulting ranldngs WC'rt idtnlieal an"Jon& four of Ihe specimens and dilTertd by ooly ooe rank amon, the' o Tht mtan of the: COY's be:\'o\ttIL set 6 and sea 5 and 7 I\oas OIIly 4.7 peL Thus, Wider ule conditions at Asamtra thert was no si&nifK;aD1 tITttt of ~ ~ 00 WC'ar I1Illldng. •  ". ~ 12 • " ~ Sets , ,., 7 Sel 6 Spet. COY '0. Rank Rank (%) I 1.077 1 1 1 1.1 2 1.394 2 1. 3 '.2 3 1. 417 3 1 .504 2 , 2 , 1.632 < 1. 676 < 1 , , 2. 170 6 2.191 6 .7 6 3.006 • 2.524 7 12 .3 7 2.064 , 2.131 , 1.6 • 2.839 7 2.551. , 7.' Hean CO, <.7 TABLE 7. Effect of Sp( cimcn Size on W and Ranking. Concurrent test at Asamera The $mallcr :spc:timcns of stt I at Asarto ~ C(lmparro with the normal siud spttimcns of 5<'1$ 2 and 3 tested WI) yc:ar'5 later. Unfortunately, sptt"imens in sc t I reteived less than 0.1 mm al'crage wear dq>th. A1lhough fooTspc'tim(ns ranked the SilIIlC in both sW:s.. the otllC:r fdIllingo; diffnro more than at Asamera. It is bcliCffil that the iess(c a r from insuffidffit " depth of s(l I (discussed in the ow: S('1:lion) l"3.thcr than the small :;pteimcn sizt. EITrcl or Wear Dtptb 1lutt selS of SjX'(imrns were removw and wt:it,htd aft :'r an imcrmediatc amount of wear , and tAtn rtinstalled for continued testing. TIle results [ orselS 4 al Asamcra and 5dS 9 at Stayton pl'e identical ranling,s for both the intermediate and flllal measurements. Table S. (the rankings at the fWO si(C5 were dirrcrent.) At the intermediate measurement, the mean wear at Asamefil .... 3.'5 about one millimeter. The ratio of intermediatc to fmal...-ear ranged from 0.67 to 0.70 for the test specimens and a&rees weU with the tonnage ratio of 19,800 1OII/29.soo I0Il • 0.67. At Stayton the mcan intennediate wear, measured after 56 days, was about one fourth of a millimeter. Afterc:ontinuing the test to 106 Gays, the wear ranldnp were unchanged. In ~ 10 at Vulcan, thc meal wear after the Intermediate period was only a fN' thousandths millimeter ..... hich was too li nle to live meanin&ful results. A sJig.ht weight gain found for a few specimens was anributed to the visible rust film . In set I at Asart:o, the mean wear was less than 0.1 mm, and several of the W\"ar values, such as 0.G9 mm for AiSI 1060 STeel in conTl1ISt 10 0.03 mm for stainless s are obviously inacrutal e. Thus, it appem thaT wear should ~ 81 least 0.1 mm or more to provide a meaningful tes\. As a test is continued bryond about 025 mm up to 1.5 mm, the ranking of ferrous alloys is not changed. EfkcT of War Conditions The Ial1e variety of wtar cooditions enc(lUlllered in mining and mineral pl'l)(:(:SSing are the cause of diffICUlty in r ..... ear tt'Slin ., and more important ly, diffICUlty in the seltttion of cost effective ..... ear rnislaua: materials. If the wear condiTions that affect the wear ranking of alloys could be identified, the seltttion of a cost effective \\'C:ar material for a gr.-m application 'NOUld be easy. A "''C:ar condition is determined by three major f rach comprised of sub-factors. Briefly, they arc 1) environmenr .... mother liquid or ps. 11$ composition, pli, moisture content or humidity, and t 1) ore - the stu or size distribution, shape, mineralogy, t h compressive stTCflgth, and abrasivity; 3) loading conditions-the contact foret", velocity or velocity distribution of particles, number of bodies ulYolvtd, and the number of degrees of freedom in translation and rotation. Possible effttl$ of field conditions on wear rankings wc:re made by comparing the rankings aI Asarto, mean of duplicate sets 2 and 3; Asamera, mran of duplicate setS S and 7; Sta}100 A, set II; Sta)1on B, set 9; and Vulcan, set 10. Each wear value lira givell an uncenainty range of t 10 pet, which is typical 343 A$alllcra, So< <' Intennediate. Final, 19,800 tons 30,000 tons Iole .. r ratio, Spec. 12 dl)'1 HI diU Intermediate Iolear/ '0. - Rank R . nk final Wear 1 0.666 1 0.991 1 0.67 2 .989 , 1.'03 , .70 J .789 3 1.161 J .68 < .768 l 2 l 2 .&7 , 1. 216 6 1. 776 6 .68· 1 .9 '2 < l.l88 < .68 • 1.528 1 2. .179 7 .70 Tonnage ratio: 19,800/l0,OOO _ 0.66 Stayton, Set 9 IntermcdLate, Final, 3308 tons 6819 tons Wear ratio, Spec :i: i dll.:;t5 lQ i dll.XL-- Intermediate Wear / .,. Rank Rank final Wear 1 O.OLL 1 0,080 1 0 ." .17l < .393 < ." . 137 J .l19 3 ." .100 2 .196 2 " . , .699 , . . 569 , 1. 361 7-' " .326 6 .827 6 ." . 5'l 1 l.l64 ' -1 .<0 Tonnage ratio: ll08/68 19 _ 0 " IWear was calculated by using only the 10 reference specimens In t hu set, d _ 1.686. The final "ear values differ frOQ those in T . ble 6 by the ratio of 1.686/2,056 becau5C d. _ 2.056 was the mean d. used for sets ~ 5, 6, .. nd 7. ZAverage of duplicate specimens. TABLE 8. Effect of Wear Depth on Wear Ranking of the variation found among duplicates. If two or more values overlapped, thry were given the same ranI.:. The resulting ranked groupings arC' presented in Table 9. It is apparent that lhe ranldnp at StaYlOil A and Stayton B arc identical. Hi-Cr wei is fi rst, ASl4 low alloy steel and 3G4 SS arc both last, \h(: other alloys art three each In secon4 and third plaa: as shov.n. At Asaroo there ..... as more overlap of thr gTOI4)S, and both Hi-Cr wei and D2 tool s d ..... ere in fit'$( p1ace. At Vulcan there ..... as more separation of ttIc groups lIoith silt StpanIte rank3 rcsuIting. The rankings al Vulcan \aried marC' from the o btcause D1 tool steel is in rlfS( place and ASl4 low alloy stttl is defmitely in lasI: plate. Thr di(ftTCflccs and similarities in ranldng among s can be panially explained by ttIc wear conditions. I. Environment The environment ranged from dl)' to wet. If corrosion were a factor in the wear, thc relative ranldngs of the 304 stainless S ..... hich is resistant 10 water corrosion, and t A1S1 060 and ASI4 Slcels, ..... hich arc SlISttptible 10 ..... ater corrosion, should have been aITt'Cted. Indec4, from Table 9 It is seen that AlSI 1060 and AS 4 rank lower (more wear). and 304 SS highe .r (less ..... ear) at Vulcan, rC'laTlve 10 the other test sites. This is rtadily o;plamC'd by Thr Iowwear rates at VulCU1 (1 year test) in a humid rnvironmrnt that rrsultC'd in much yeater colTOSioo relative to abrasion . This corrosion dfttt is nOI fOUlld .... tJl re IDr wear Tales are hig.h, for ~ al Asamera (dry) and Stayton ( WC:I ).
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