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Exhibition catalog supported by Dame Vivien Duffield and the Clore Israel Foundation The Museum was restored and developed with the aid of Dame Vivien Duffield and the Clore Israel Foundation Exhibition Tower of David, Museum of the History of

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Exhibition catalog supported by Dame Vivien Duffield and the Clore Israel Foundation The Museum was restored and developed with the aid of Dame Vivien Duffield and the Clore Israel Foundation Exhibition Tower of David, Museum of the History of
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  2e   Exhibition catalog supported by Dame Vivien Dueld and the Clore Israel Foundation The Museum was restored and developed with the aid of Dame Vivien Dueld and the Clore Israel Foundation  The Mount Catalog Editor: Dr. Shimon Lev Design: S&R Design Studio Production: Yael Brandt Hebrew Text Editor: Nufar Kedar Arabic Translator: Albyan Translation Arabic Editor: Dr. Yaron Serri English Translator: Jessica Setbon English Editor: Rose Ginosar Printer: Ahva Printing Press Company Ltd. Exhibition Exhibition Curator: Dr. Shimon Lev   Assistant Curator: Yael Brandt   Academic Consultants: Prof. Ronnie Ellenblum | Prof. Dan Bahat | Prof. Hillel Cohen | Yudit Caplan – Section for Photographic Estates, Israel Museum | Ami Meitav | Prof. Meir Bar-Asher | Eran Tzidkiyahu  Planning and Design: Tal Gur Typographic Design: Noa Segal and Amit Ben Haim Production: Hadasa Greenberg-Yaakov   Film Research: Daniela Reiss Razon, Hagit Ben-Yaacov  Media Research and Arabic Sources: Yuval Abraham Archive Research - Turkey: Ramiz Üzümçeker Exhibition Installation: Amnon Feferberg Ltd.   Printing, framing, hanging of photographs and graphic production: Studio Antonina   Multi-Media Consultant: Eli Gefen, Showlogix   Lighting Consultant: Yehuda Levi  Hebrew Text Editor: Nufar Kedar Arabic Translator: Albyan Translation Arabic Editor: Dr. Yaron Serri English Translator: Jessica Setbon English Editor: Rose Ginosar Registrar and Objects Conservator: Olga Negnevitsky Photography Restoration: Alla Libov Media Equipment: Pro AV Virtual Reality Station: Nimrod Shanit, Holy City   “Eretz Nehederet” translation and subtitles: Tomedes   Interactive Map: Content based on a book by Ami Metav,  Jerusalem - One Square Kilometer    Isometric map: Oded Bitan, Arch.  Photographs by Andrew Shiva and Pini Hamo | towerofdavid.org.il | *2884 ExhibitionTower of David, Museum of the History of Jerusalem March 2019 ISBN 978-965-382-022-79 789653 820227 תמלצה   תובידאב  ˇ ≤∞∞¥ ¨ ןובית   ילג  ¨ םילשורי   לש   ריווא   םוליצ ةرُا      ٍنذإب  | 2004   ،نت   غ   ،سق   يج   ت Aerial photograph of Jerusalem, Gali Tibbon, 2004 | Courtesy of the photographerCover:  4 e Contents   Tower Of David Museum sta Technical Management: Yehuda Vaknin   Head of Maintenance and Infrastructure Team: Liad De-Garcia  Electrician: Abed Gaavis Visual Researcher and Archives: Rachel Balanson Marketing: Neta Yaron   Public Relations: Caroline Shapiro | Lotan Communication  Education and Guiding: Dini Avraham Development and International Relations: Rose Ginosar  Graphic Design: Miri Potash Reservations: Bracha Mark   Internet & New Media: Ricky Rachman   Publications: Tamar Foox   ToD Innovation Lab: Atara Schnitzer   Cultural Events: Einat Ashdot  Administrative Management: Uriel Dagan Deputy Director: Tamar Berliner Museum Director & Chief Curator: Eilat LieberArchives, Libraries and Museums IRCICA: Istanbul, 2009 | Judaica Collection of the Harvard Library, Harvard University | Alinari Archives, Florence | Israel Museum, Jerusalem | Tower of David Museum Collection, Jerusalem | Matson Collection, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington D.C. | Israel Antiquities Authority Archive, Jerusalem | The National Library, Israel | AP | Albatross | LIFE Picture Collection | École Biblique, Jerusalem | National Geographic Image Collection | Luftschibau Zeppelin GmbH Archiv, Friedrichshafen | Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi Archive | IDF and Defense Establishment Archives | Keshet Broadcasting Archive | Aerial Photography Archives, Geography Department, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Getty Images Israel | Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2018 | National Archives of the Netherlands | Central Zionist Archives | British Pathé, London | The Open Museum Tefen | Israel Government Press Oce | Magnum | Imperial War Museum, London | Schlesinger Library, Radclie Institute, Harvard University | Flash 90 | The Getty’s Open Content Program, CA | Max van Berchem Foundation, Geneva | Reuters | Gordon Gallery   Private Collections The Avinoam Zadok Memorial Collection | Ilan Roth Collection, Herzliya jewishimages.com | Buki Boaz, Israeli Photograph Collection, Mevasseret Zion | David Harris Archive | Motti Mizrachi collection | Micha Bar-Am collection | Eran Tzidkiyahu collection | Shimon Lev collection | Collection of the late Dr. Sarah Israel   Thanks to all who assisted us with information, advice and the locating and loan of display items Ayelet Rubin, Eran Laor Cartographic Collection, The National Library | Ilan and Evelyn Roth | Iris Pshedvezki | Eytan Harris | Orna Marton | Buki Boaz | Bernt Hermele | Guy Raz | Gali Tibbon | Gaston Ickowicz | Dr. Avner Wishnitzer | Dr. Gil Weissblei, The National Library | Dr. Chen Bram | Dr. Sarina Chen | Duby Tal | Varda Polak-Sahm | Hanna Abu Saada | Yudit Caplan | Yossi Zamir | Yizhar Be’er | Yaniv Shapira | Yasmie Yaseen | Ya’akov Ya’akov | Yaron Kaminski | Lee Rotbart | Lena Zaidel | Orna and Micha Bar-Am | Menahem Kahana | Nadav Man, Bitmuna | Nadav Shragai | Nir Ortal, Director of the Photography Archives, Yad Ben-Zvi | Naomi Shapira | Amos Zuker | Ami Steinitz | Prof. Arie Dubnov | Prof. Hillel Cohen | Prof. Rehav Rubin | Zachi Dvira | Rachel A. Lev | Ra Kotz | Tammy Manor-Friedman   Tamir Zadok | Ammar Awad | Jean Michel de TarragonSpecial thanks to the Israel Police: Maj.-Gen. Haim Shmueli, Commander of David Sub-District | Chief Superintendent Yuval Reuven, Commander of Holy Sites | Superintendent Dani Mizrahi, Commander of Temple Mount | Sta Sergeant Ortal Asulin, Commander of David Sub-District Police Oce | Senior Sta Sergeant Major Roni Or   We would like to express our appreciation and thanks to all the authors of articles and studies on Jerusalem and the Temple Mount, and especially to all the researchers of Jerusalem who paved our way and enriched us with their knowledge and advice. Special thanks to all the individuals who donated photos from their private albums for the “Israelis on the Mount” project.In preparing this exhibition, we have made every eort to trace the rights-holders for the images and texts on display and to acknowledge them in a manner appropriate to the exhibition setting. Should any error be found in this regard, we will be grateful to have it brought to our attention, and we will do our best to correct it. Foreword  // Eilat Lieber 7e“The Navel of the World” –From the Beginning of Photography to Our Tim e // Shimon Lev 8eFrom Adam and Eve to the Present –The Story of a Sacred Mountain  // Hillel Cohen 13eFirst Documentation of the Mount: 1839–1898   30 From the Visit of Kaiser Wilhelm II to the First Jewish-Arab Nationalist Conict: 1898–1920   53 The Conict Intensies: 1920–1948   81 Under Jordanian Rule: 1948–1967   99 Victory and Reality: 1967–1987   115 Fire on the Mount 139 The Mount and the Volcano: From 1987 to Today   144 The Temple Mount and Archeology 151The Temple Issue 177  7 e6e  ¨ לט   יבוד  ¨ םילשורי   לש   ריווא   םוליצסורטבלא  ˇ ≤∞±∑   بود   ،ا      سق   ةرصسوتا  | 2017   ،لط Aerial photograph of Jerusalem, Duby Tal, 2017 | Albatross “And he saw the place from afar” (Genesis 22:4) Jerusalem is probably the only city in the world where the story of the past dictates the future, and where history is an inseparable part of the everyday events of the present. Historical Jerusalem represents the ancient geographical space where the some of the most central events of human history unfolded. Long ago it became a synonym for sanctity and sublime beauty, for spirituality and purity – but also for rigid fanaticism. Jerusalem has but one center of gravity, known as axis mundi or “the navel of the world.” This place is called “the Temple Mount” – with the denite article. On any given day, we may view this site from the turrets of Phasael Tower in the Tower of David Citadel. There we see it from a safe distance, up high and far away. The Temple Mount exhibition now on display at the Tower of David is an invitation to dare to come closer. We invite visitors to step up boldly and view the site through the analytical perspective of photography. Only one place in Jerusalem is capable of creating the image reected in these photographs – an image at once spectacular and insightful, complex and painful. This exhibition is also an opportunity for encounter and dialogue. It enables us to deepen our knowledge of the site and the many traditions surrounding it. Perhaps this encounter contains the kernel of hope for a dierent future, one of peace and wholeness, as promised in the name of the city itself. Eilat Lieber Museum Director and Chief Curator Jerusalem is built on the vaulted foundationsof a held-back scream. If there were no reasonfor the scream, the foundations would crumble, the city would collapse;if the scream were screamed, Jerusalem would explode into the heavens. Yehuda Amichai, in “Poems of Jerusalem,” Israel, 1987  9 e 8 e The Temple Mount, or in Arabic – al-Haram al-Sharif, dominates the Jerusalem skyline. With the Dome of the Rock and the al-Aqsa Mosque at its center, this rectangular esplanade of some 150,000 square meters occupies one-sixth of the terrain in the Old City. For at least 3000 years, this site has been considered sacred for millions of people around the world, rst by the Jews, later by the Muslims, and has historical importance for the Christians as well. It inspires research in the elds of history, archeology and culture, and incites controversial religious and political sentiment. 1  In Hebrew, it is known as Mount Moriah and Har ha-Bayit (the Temple Mount). In Jewish tradition it is where Isaac was bound, and where Solomon built the First Temple. After its destruction, the Second Temple was built on this same spot by the Jews who returned from exile, and was later renewed by the Hasmoneans and King 1 The Temple Mount – al-Haram al-Sharif has been and will continue to be the subject of many books and studies that address a wide range of aspects. Of these, the most central address the historic-archeological aspect and the architectural-visual aspect as an expression of impressive early Muslim architecture. Researchers have also discussed the religious aspect of the sanctity of the site, past and present, and the Jewish religious laws (halacha) related to it. Another major topic, of course, is the political aspect – the issue of the status quo and potential solutions as a dominant component with regards to the site today, and as a stumbling block in a solution to the regional conict. This exhibition and the accompanying catalog represent the rst attempt to focus on the history of photography of the Temple Mount site, as it reects the historical-political chronology, from the invention of photography to contemporary times. The accompanying texts for the catalog chapters were written by exhibition curator Shimon Lev. Readers who wish to further their knowledge will be interested in a book that represents a rare cooperative eort among Israeli and Palestinian researchers, and researchers abroad: Oleg Grabar and Benjamin Z. Kedar (eds.), Where Heaven and Earth Meet: Jerusalem’s Sacred Esplanade   (Jerusalem: Yad Ben-Zvi Press and University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, 2009). The authors of this volume worked together to address the numerous complex aspects of the site from a wide range of viewpoints – historical, archeological and political. We also recommend the following: Nadav Shragai, The Temple Mount Conict   (Hebrew) (Jerusalem: Keter, 1995), which oers comprehensive historical and political background from the Six Day War of 1967 to the publication date, from the Israeli viewpoint; Aref el-Aref (mayor of Jerusalem under the Jordanians), The Dome of the Rock and Other Muslim Sanctuaries in the Haram of Jerusalem: History and Guide   (Jerusalem: The Commercial Press, 1951). “The Navel of the World” – From the Beginning of Photography to Our Time //   Shimon Lev Herod. Following destruction in 70 CE, it became the focus of Jewish prayer and longing for reconstruction at the nal redemption.The Prophet Muhammad established Jerusalem as the rst direction of Muslim prayer, before the Kaaba in Mecca, and the al-Aqsa Mosque is referred to as “the rst Qibla” or “the rst direction of prayer.” Muslim tradition also maintains that this mosque was the second place of Islamic worship ever built. The Quran mentions the “farthest mosque,” to which Muhammad traveled from Mecca to ascend to heaven on his celestial horse. Muslim tradition regards al-Aqsa as this “farthest mosque.” The site is considered the third holiest in Islam, after the Kaaba in Mecca and The Prophet’s Mosque in Medina. Since its construction, it has had the status of an important Muslim center, except for a short period under the Crusaders (1099-1187). In Arabic it is known as al-Haram al-Sharif (“the Noble Sanctuary”) or al-Aqsa, a general name for the plaza. Both Jews and Muslims believe that the Foundation Stone at the center of the mount is the umbilicus mundi  , the navel of the world, on which the earth rests and from which it expanded. In Christian tradition, the location has historic signicance as the site of many events in the life of Jesus of Nazareth and the place where he founded his new religion. 2 Today the esplanade is home to some of the world’s most architecturally impressive structures – the golden Dome of the Rock over the Foundation Stone, the al-Aqsa Mosque at the southern end, and other domes, water fountains and madrasas (Islamic schools) from various periods. As part of the daily routine, visitors may observe masses congregating for festive prayer ceremonies, tourist groups from around the world listening intently as their guides explain the sights and children from the Muslim Quarter playing soccer across the stone plaza. But beyond these everyday images, this area is imbued with many symbolic meanings. The Temple Mount is the most important sacred site in the modern Middle Eastern reality, both religious and political. It is an active volcano, and every so often, it erupts in fanatic clashes, sometimes with fatal results. On one side of this struggle stand the 2 See Carlo Maria Cardinal, S. L., "What Do I Think When I Imagine Myself Walking on the Temple Esplanade," pp. 375–377 in Grabar and Kedar, above.
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