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Experiment – 1 Aim :-
To study Process control Technique and Different Process Characteristics.
Theory :-
An automatic control system comprises of an arrangement of elements which are inter connected and interact such that some controlled condition forming part of the system ismaintained in a prescribed manner. The important element of a process, measurement,evaluation & the control element.The loc! diagram of a simple closed loop control system is given below. here r # $eference %nput set point. b # 'easurement signal feed bac! signale # r ( b. # error signal )ve *ve.P # controller op.C # controlled output.%mportant Definition and abbreviations.+oop * %n loc! diagram the signal flow from complete process through measurement,error detector , controller and final control element is !nown as
Loop / Process controlloop / feed back loop.
The selection of what controller modes is to be used in process is a function of the
characteristics of process
.
-very process is defined by a equation in which controlled parameter is a functionof the other Parameter and the equation is !nown as
Process equation.1). Nominal Set :-
rom the process equation or !nowledge of and e/perience withthe process, it is possible to identify the set of values for the process parameters thatresults in the controlled variable having the set point value. This set of parameter is!nown as
Nominal Set. 2). ransient
* %f any one of load parameter varies, after e/cursion the parameter returns ti its nominal value. This temporary variation is called the
transient.
!). ontrolled #ariable :-
%t is the 'ost effective process parameter which is to becontrolled.
$). ontrollin% #ariable :-
%t is the Process parameter which is choose to provide acontrol over the controlled variable.
&). Load #ariable
* A load variable is the variable a change in value of whichaffects or deviates the controlled variable to its set point value.
'). Process La% :-
A Process control operations is a time variation problem. At some point in time, a process load changes or transient causes a change in controlledvariable , the process control loop assures, after some finite time later, the variablereturns to its set point value. Part of this time ta!en itself by the process is !nown asProcess +ag.
(). Self e%ulation
* A significant characteristics of the process is the tendency toadopt a specific value of the controlled variable for nominal load with no controloperation. This operation is !nown as a self regulation.
*). +rror :-
%t is the difference between the reference value and measured value.

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