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Fadhila Balqis Critical Reading Response DISCRIMINATION BEHIND NEST AND NNEST DICHOTOMY IN ELT PROFESSIONALISM

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Fadhila Balqis Critical Reading Response DISCRIMINATION BEHIND NEST AND NNEST DICHOTOMY IN ELT PROFESSIONALISM
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  Fadhila Balqis Critical Reading Response   1   CRITICAL READING RESPONSE   “DISCRIMINATION BEHIND NEST AND NNEST DICHOTOMY IN ELT PROFESSIONALISM”   Written By Rahmah Fithriani Criticize by Fadhila Balqis Department of English Education Faculty of Tarbiyah Science and Teachers Training State Islamic University of North Sumatera Medan, Indonesia. Email: fadhila.balqis@uinsu.ac.id  INTRODUCTION English is a global language. It taught in different contexts to learners with different requirements and needs, the question is whether the Native Speaker ideal is relevant today‟s reality and who should be allowed to teach it? In accordance with that question, the journal entitled “ Discrimination behind Nest and Nnes t Dichotomy in ELT Professionalism” was written by Rahmah Fithriani (2018) investigating the discrimination between Nest and Nnest in the ELT industry. The critic will argue whether I agree or disagree in the critique section. Then, the critic will give responses about those statements and the content, the critic also will explain what the critic has learned and did the text communicate with her or not. SUMM RY English is no longer the property of native speakers but belongs to those who speak it. English grows and becomes the most widely spoken language in the world of technology, science, education, as well as politics. Even English is a second language to 375 million speakers and a foreign language to 750 million foreign users, it couldn‟t be deny that  Non- Native English-Speaking Teachers (NNESTs) worldwide face challenges in the English Language Teaching (ELT) profession especially in some Asian countries. The aim of the  paper investigates some discriminations against NNESTs which can be classified into some factors (nativeness, nationality, academic qualification and teaching experience, whiteness,  Fadhila Balqis Critical Reading Response   2   and financial discrepancy). People tend to make NEST (Native English Speaking-Teachers) as a standard for people who would like to teach English. CRITIQUE To start with, in the introduction of the article sited, “ Globalization has made English the world‟s most widely spoken language for trade, education , business, and tourism (Crystal in Rahmah Fithriani, (2018))”. The critic agrees with that statement up to the point “English is the world‟s most widely spoken language for trade, education, business, and tourism .” Morgan is voicing the same with Crystal in Richard Morgan “The Role of English Language Teaching: Linguistic Imperialism or Linguistic Empo werment?”  Many countries chose English as a language of education, diplomacy, science, and technology as well as to remain competitive in the global job market. I also completely agree that English is a global language. Why a language becomes a global language that has little to do with the number of  people who speak it? It is much more to do with who those speakers are. Why is English the global language and not some other? The answer is written by Crystal in his book which entitled “English as global language.” There are two answers to the question: one is geographical-historical; the other is socio-cultural. However, from my point of view, if someone says that English is the world‟s most widely spoken language in the world, I think I cannot stand with this. This is because in Babbel Magazine which released the article on September 6th, 2019 entitled “The 10 Most Spoken Languages in The World.” You have to believe that i n the top 1 is Chinese. There are 1.3 billion native speakers, and there‟s no doubt it‟s the most spoken language in the world. People speak Chinese as if it‟s a single language. It‟s actually a group of related languages, of which Mandarin Chinese is by f  ar the biggest. It‟s an official language in the People‟s Republic of China and The Republic of China (Taiwan). Secondly, the statement “It means English is much used by people of different mother tongues and countries of srcin as a language of contact in immediate interactions. This specific function of English is known as lingua franca (ELF). Furthermore, the use of ELF by multicultural people with a range of fluency and deviation from the so-called Standard English in terms of phonology, lexis, pragmatics, grammar, and communication styles has resulted in many varieties of regional Englishes called World Englishes (WEs) ”. I‟m voicing the same because of the fact that it can be proved by among speakers who come from  Fadhila Balqis Critical Reading Response   3   different linguacultural backgrounds speak English. In accordance with Graddol (2000), the number of English speakers are extremely high, as can be seen from the following figures differentiating types of speakers: first-language speakers or native speakers, i.e. those speakers for whom English is the mother tongue (Great Britain, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand) - 375 million; second-language speakers, i.e. those speakers who use English as an additional language besides their mother tongue, usually because it has a special position or special status, such as being the official language of the country (as in  Nigeria, India or South Africa) - 375 million; speakers who learn English as a foreign language (as in the Czech Republic, Poland, Russia or China) - 750 million. In addition, a “lingua franca” stands for a common language used for communication  between people who do not share their first language (Seidelhofer in Jenkins “English as  a lingua franca interpretation and attitudes”). English as a lingua franca functions on two different levels: on a local level and on a global level. Seidelhofer in her book “Understanding English as a Lingua Franca”, determines these levels as “localized” and “global”. English as a lingua franca functions on the local level as language uniting peopl e of one country in which various languages are spoken by its population. The global level on which EFL functions as a communication tool among people from different countries of the world is truly impressive. English as a lingua franca functions on the global level as a language uniting people from different countries/of the different first languages. The same idea was explained by Jenskins (2007), English is the language that speakers with different mother tongues use as a means for intelligible communication among each other. In the third place, the author sited, “Nowadays, about 80% of verbal exchanges in English worldwide are estimated between non-native speakers; thus, WEs belongs to everybody who speaks it. In this respect, native speaker competence may no longer be relevant as a golden standard to reach and the belief that the ideal English teacher is a native speaker may no longer be maintained”. I absolutely agree about the point “Nowadays, about 80% of verbal exchanges in English worldwide are estimated between non-native speakers; thus, Wes belongs to everybody who speaks it”. In accordance with Crystal‟s opinion (1999), “This honorary position English language enjoys today, as the first language that's been spoken by more people as a second language than a first is attributed to its superiority in domains such as politics, economics, the press, advertising, broadcasting, motion picture,  popular music, international travel, and safety, education and communication.  Fadhila Balqis Critical Reading Response   4   Moreover, is just a native speaker only who is be able to teach English? To answer that question, Braine (1999) identifies that native speaker speaks more fluently and confidently and correct their students intuitively. Their pronounced sociolinguistics competence allows them to appropriate their language and speaking to different contexts more than non-native speakers. Following Cook (1999) states that creativity in language use and knowledge of standard and non-standard English is one of the n ative speaker‟s biggest advantages. In my opinion, native speakers might not be always as golden standards to reach and believe that the ideal English teacher should be like a native speaker. Because instead of  just “native speaker‟ label, I prefer to consider the teacher competences like personal,  professional qualities, pedagogical skills, and the method/strategy that teachers will use in teaching. The next is, “Unfortunately, despite these ELF and WEs phenomena, the practice of English language teaching (ELT) worldwide still constructs professionalism within the dichotomy between native and non-native speakerism. This dichotomy has resulted in racial and linguistic discriminations in ELT professionalism because of a widespread belief in the dominance of native speaker standards in language and language teaching methodology. The term „discrimination‟ itself is defined as “a selectively unjustified negative behavior toward members of the target group that involves denying individuals or groups of people equality of treatment which they may wish” (Allport, 1954: 51). Personally, I would say that I‟ve never faced this kind of situation when I see there‟s dichotomy between native and non -native speakerism in real life but from the example that I give next, it might be one of dichotomy  between them. When I look at some English courses advertisements, its aim may to attract  people to join their courses, and to attract the people that must be “native speaker tutor”   phrase. The people have opinions about the native speaker is more capable enough to teach English. One of the studies showed that NNEST are affected by the ideology of native speakerism, which ultimately leads to low professional self-esteem (Hye Kyung Kim in her  journal, “Native Speakerism Affecting Nonnative English Teachers‟ Identity Formation: A   Critical Perspective”). I think NNEST need to increase their personal and proffessional confidence to perceive them as English teachers. CONCLUSION The critic decided to give responses to this article because of the topics related to my life and the world that I am living for. As Nnest wants to be, it‟s necessary to understand  Fadhila Balqis Critical Reading Response   5    people‟s stigma and opinion about Nnest in teaching professionalism. After knowing the reasons and the factors, it would be great if the Nnest does n‟t take Nest  standards too seriously. Despite having their accents, applying their creativity in language use, and  pronouncing English words just like them, it would be better if we improve our teacher competences too. In addition, whatever the reasons are, the critic disagrees of treating Nnest under the discrimination. Because English is not just the property of Native speakers, but it  belongs to who speaks it. REFERENCES Crystal, David. (2003).  English as Global Language . (2nd ed). Cambridge: Cambridge Univeristy Press. Graddol, David. (1997). The Future of English? A Guide to Forecasting the Popularity of the  English Language in the 21st Century. London: British Council. Jenskins, Jennifer. (2009). English as a lingua franca: interpretations and attitudes.  Article of World Englishes , 28 (2), 200-207. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jennifer_Jenkins4/publication/227663650_English_as_a_Lingua_Franca_interpretations_and_attitudes/links/59e71408aca2721fc2304dd6/English-as-a-Lingua-Franca-interpretations-and-attitudes.pdf?srcin=publication_detail Kim, Hye Kyung. (2011).  Native Speakerism Affecting Nonnative English Tecahers‟Identity Formation: A Critical Perspective.  Article of Research Gate , 66  (4), 53-71. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hye_Kyung_Kim2/publication/276836845_Native_Speakerism_Affecting_Nonnative_English_Teachers%27_Identity_Formation_A_ Critical_Perspective/links/5a0f5fff0f7e9bd1b2bdc611/Native-Speakerism-Affecting- Nonnative-English-Teachers-Identity-Formation-A-Critical-Perspective.pdf?srcin=publicationdetail Lane, James. (2019). The 10 Most Spoken Languages In The World. Retrieved from https://www.babbel.com/en/magazine/the-10-most-spoken-languages-in-the-world/ Lukic, Petra. (2017  ).  English Language Students’ Attitudes towards  Native and Non-Native  English Teachers.  (Magister thesis). University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia. Retrieved
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