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Flying Books: Applications of Drones in Libraries **Corresponding Author

The paradigm shift from traditional libraries to modern digital libraries made the way for more convenient and easy dissemination of information to the needy people on time. The drone has become a "buzzword" in the modern technological
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  Flying Books: Applications of Drones in Libraries Vysakh.C *   *Research Scholar Orcid-0000-0002-0624-4183 ** Corresponding Author Dr. Rajendra Babu. H **    Assistant Professor  Department of Studies and Research in Library & Information Science Tumkur University, Tumakuru-5721032.  ABSTRACT The paradigm shift from traditional libraries to modern digital libraries made the way for more convenient and easy dissemination of information to the needy people on time. The drone has become a "buzzword" in the modern technological environment which finds applications in almost all the key areas. This paper investigates how this technology can be adopted to support library operations. Many of the libraries abroad like Dubai Library, Rose Memorial Library, NY Public Library and Florida Library have started to use drones as an effective tool for delivering books from library to patrons and vice versa. It is found that Indian libraries lag behind in adopting technologies and drones are yet to take off even the country became the major importer of drones worldwide (22.5%) between 1985 to 2014 (Mallapur, 2015). LIS professionals in India have the potential to absorb the emerging technologies and in days to come drones may be stalled in Indian library courtyards with owing the government’s novel steps to support technological developments as part of the Digital India initiative.  Keywords  –   Drones, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Unmanned aircraft systems, Flying robot, drone assisted book delivery/return   Introduction 21 st   century is commonly regarded as the era of “Technology” which has simplified the day-to- day activities of humans. “Drone” is regarded as one of the 192 major upcoming technologies which find tremendous applications in almost all areas like defense, urban planning, disaster management, healthcare, agriculture, weather  forecasting, waste management, mining and telecommunications etc. (Frey, 2014) & (Mahashreveta, 2018). A drone can be defined as an Unmanned Aircraft System (UASes) which is controlled remotely either by a human operator or by an onboard computer (Rouse, 2018). They can be of different types based on weight viz. Nano (up to 250grams), Micro (250-2kg), Small (2-25kg), Medium (25-150kg) and Large (above150kg) which are used for different applications according to their specifications and capacities. Libraries are not away from technological adoption and drones have been started to be used for various services in the libraries ranging from service delivery to security. The ‘flying book’ system helps the patrons to save their time by taking the ordered book to the door steps and the high pixel camera of modern drones helps the library surveillance. Further applications of drones in libraries are yet to be full- fledged. American futurist ‘Thomas Frey’ predicts that there will be one billion drones in the world by the end of 2030 doing things people cannot yet imagine to (Dronebelow, 2018) , out of which Indian’s share will be a remarkable one with at least $885.7 million commercial drones (Yadav, 2018) by 2030 .   Evolution of drone Source:  Review of Literature The applications of drone are visible in almost all the areas and Drone has become an interesting area of research for the academic LIS community too. A large number of studies have been taken place in the respective area and how it has got embarkation in academic environment is discussed herein. Marron (2013) explains the use of drones for data gathering by the journalism students while it is used for aerial surveying, field mapping, and monitoring by the pupils of geology (Jordan, 2016). Drones are highly helpful for mapping and monitoring biodiversity (Wich, 2018) as well as accounting and auditing (Appelbaum & Nehmer, 2017). Whether the subject is in English, art, science, history and Physical Education etc. drones can be used as a tool which helps the students to learn abstract concepts in off-the-ground ways (Schaffhauser, 2018). As an emerging topic, literature having the essence of drones in library operations is yet to come out. Joiner (2018) as well as Princh, a Danish software company predict the future presence of drones in library for content creation, data collection and book delivery etc.(Princh,2018).The use of drones for book delivery is also shared by Tasevski (2018) in “drone below”, an online blog in which he substantiates t hat the use of drones reduces the accidents in libraries as the staffs don’t want to climb on stairs to take books and it reduces the delay in reaching the books to  patron’s hand. In addition,  Francis Nath explores how drones helps to carry books to densely populated areas where people find difficult to reach library even library is said to be in central position due to rapid expansion of cities (Nath, 2018). Libraries Transform: An initiative of the American Library Association mentions the lending program of drones in Georgia Highlands College Library where the students and faculties can check out drones (Transform, 2019).Likewise, Tampa-based University of South Florida Library offers drone facilities to students for helping them to capture high-resolution aerial video and photos for their project work. University of South Florida Libraries makes use of drones for mapping out the campus to see energy usage (Lynch, 2015). From the available literatures, it is no doubt that the real applications of drones are yet to unveil .  Division   Types   Specifications/Features   Size   Very Small   Nano or micro drones,50CM.   Small   Bigger than the micro drones, 2 meters in length, fixed wings.   Medium   Smaller than light aircrafts but bigger than small drones which weights up to 200kgs.   Large   As large as a small aircraft, Powerful cameras attached to their bodies Range   Very Close   It can be flown around 5km which can stay in the air for 20 minutes or longer even up to an hour.   Close   It can be controlled from up to 50km away from the user that stays in the air for up to 6 hours.   Short   Controlled from 150km away, stay airborne for up to 12 hours.   Mid-Range   Controlled from as far away as 650km.   Aerial Platform   Multi Rotor   It carries several motors on their bodies which can be stay in a stable position in one spot in the air Fixed Wing   Drone mimics the construction style of aero planes which cannot be stay in one place. It glides on its set path for as long as their fuel source permits.   Single Rotor/RC helicopters   It has a single rotor to control its headings which often use gas to power its body instead of electricity. It is best for long time hovering which can carry high payloads.   Abilities   Quad copters   Lifted and propelled by four rotors, Use two pairs of identical fixed pitched propellers.   GPS Drones   It is connected to satellites via GPS which directs the path of the flight and flies back if it runs with less charge on battery.   RTF Drones   It is called the ‘Ready -to- fly drones’ which does not require any assembly or set up. Trick Drones   Small, fast and maneuverable which is normally used for entertainment purpose like stunt drones.   Helicopter Drones   It uses a single rotor to stay up in the air which looks like a remote-control helicopter having the ability of staying in the air for a long time.   Delivery Drones   These are the drones which are mainly used for delivery purpose which have an anchor or basket attached to their body to carry the package.   Photography Drones   Mainly used for aerial photography having a powerful camera attached to the body which can take high clarity images as well as 4K videos? Racing Drones   It is mainly used for air racing which can fly up to 60 miles per hour. Alternative-powered Drones   Run on gas power which is more potent than a battery  –   powered quadcopter.   Endurance Drones   These are the best drones for flying long which have high altitude and payload capacity.It can stay in the air for three consecutive days and can reach a heights of 30,000ft above sea level.   Types of Drones  Application of Drones in Library Operations   The use of drones for the first time was believed to be for military operations by the Australians against Venice (balloon filled with explosives). Many of the balloons got exploded within the territory of Australia itself even though the idea got appraised. Later drones have been deployed for commercial applications. Since the libraries are forefront in adopting the technologies, drones have been started to use effectively for books supply from the library to the patrons like what has been brought by the Amazon in 2013 for product delivery (Prime)(Kolakowski, 2018). The process starts with requesting for a book by the patron through the dedicated library app and the request is received and processed by the concerned section in the library. The ordered book being taken and further hand over to the drone section where the experienced pilot attaches the book with the drone and let it flies to the patron’s hand. After the delivery it automatically flies back to the srcin and all the major processes and progresses are updated to both sender and receiver. Safety Features 1.   GPS-depended move 2.   Drone automatically returns home 3.   Ascending and descending to pre-designated altitude 4.   Drone automatically flies to srcin if the communication link is broken 5.   Drone stabilizes itself in case of motor or propeller failure and performs a safe landing. 6.   Drone hovers in current position or auto lands in case of 1of 6 batteries failure via recalculating remaining battery capacity(Alqadi, 2018). Drones are highly helpful for logistics within the library. Books, furniture’s and other equipment’s can be moved from one place to another with the help of technology equipped modern flying robots. It can also be used as a security tool within and outside library which are far better than fixed cameras as it moves and covers the entire place and offering 24 hours surveillance.
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