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FUTURE PERSPECTIVES OF TRAINER AIRCRAFT DEVELOPMET

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FUTURE PERSPECTIVES OF TRAINER AIRCRAFT DEVELOPMET
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  “FUTURE PERSPECTIVES OF TRAINER AIRCRAFT DEVELOPMET”   V. Pavlushev K.Usik E.Shpalchenko Introduction.  The report is based on the research, study and comparison of the trainer aircraft gradual enhancement of the two countries: Russia and the United States. According to the tasks facing military pilots’ training of such historical eras as the Second World War the Cold War period and the present time, the authors tried to predict the main directions of improvement and promising developments in this area for the next decades. Military pilot training.  Flight schools have been employing special easier-to-pilot and cheaper-in-production aircraft for training fighter pilots since almost the very srcins of aviation. Development of such aircraft progressed simultaneously with the development of combat aviation. Jet trainers made their appearance at the same time as fighter jets. At the moment fighter pilots fly third- and fourth-generation aircraft. The fifth-generation aircraft is expected to become operational in the near future. At the same time pilots keep on honing their flight skills on common trainer aircraft. We are faced with the necessity of replacing one aircraft model for flying training with another better one, that are in service with such countries as Russia (former Soviet Union) and the United States. This analysis helps us to obtain broad understanding of the trainer aircraft modification and predict the trends for the future development of Trainer Aircraft (hereinafter  –   TA) used in aviators’ training . Pre-war and war period. The USSR.  The development of TA srcinates from the pre-war times. They were the usual small-engine aircraft, convenient in the initial piloting. The single-seat biplane fighter aircraft I-5, and the I-16 fighter-monoplane were used in the 20s, 1930s in our country for pilot training. Considering the early years of the development of aviation in the USSR, in connection with the growing threat of attack by fascist Germany, the Major command decided that the future military pilots must be quickly trained. Since that time, TA began to change and improve: a trend that will continue for many years. For that the improved UT-1, UT-2, UT-2M models were used since 1930s to late 1940s. The cadet was no longer spoiled by the easily-guided glider, but was immediately introduced to a serious machine, which was not very much distinguished from the combat one. Thus, the aerodynamic configuration of the TA was no different from a combat aircraft, in fact, only heavy weapons were removed. The cadet performed his first sorties independently then he had to do practical work in a real battle. Pre-war and war period. The USA.  The development of TA during pre-war and war period  in the United States was planned and aligned. In the absence of a threat near their borders, the Americans designed, constructed and tested various  types of machines and their modifications, for example, the At-3, AT-4, AT-5, O-17, PT-1, Trusty, PT-11, TA-3, TA-5, TW-3, 2T-1, S4, S9, S5 and others. All those  planes were of different companies, designers with various technical solutions and modifications. In 1935, the North American company created the AT-6 plane for the advanced training. It had elements of combat use, as it carried the armament: one fixed machine gun under the engine hood, another in the wing and a third on the root installation in the rear cockpit. Despite the diversity of choices made by the US Air Force and Navy, Major Command did not have certainty about a particular type of aircraft or a long-term contract for its delivery to the Training Command. So, American pilots, as well as the Soviet, were often transferred from a training glider immediately to a combat aircraft. Cold War period. The USSR.  The further TA characteristics and design  progress in the USSR was influenced by the invention and implementation of jet engines. Because of the new requirements for aircraft for the initial flight training, it was necessary to use this innovation. Immediately, many of the characteristics changed: the aerodynamic configuration, the shape and design of the wing, electronics, instruments and equipment as well. The propellers were no longer used. But the general idea of TA usage remained the same: they were also of little distinction from their combat counterparts. The main change was the ability to add a second cabin for the instructor. Also, the development in the aviation industry made it possible to replace some devices for easier initial training and to manufacture less powerful power plants to simplify piloting at the initial stages. The leading Soviet trainers at that time were: the MIG-15 UTI, Su-7b and the Aero L-29"Dolphin" two-seat dual-control jet trainers. Т he primary training role in the 1970 had been fulfilled exclusively by Czechoslovak Aero L-29 Delfin jet. The Aero L-29 Delfin was the predecessor of the no less famous model L-39, produced in 1971  –  1996, which is still in use in the Russian Air Force. The L-39 "Albatros" had more advanced systems and power  plant, but the design of the aircraft didn’t change much. Cold War period. The USA.  The T-38 Talon, which was put into service in 1961, became an aircraft that proved to be reliable for a long time. It still continues to put on the wing the American pilots. The backbone for the US AF pilot training were the Northrop T-38 Talon and the Beechcraft T-6A Texan II. Later the T-38A and AT-38B models have been converted to the T-38C through an avionics upgrade  program. Improvements included such innovations as a HUD (Head-Up Display), GPS (Global Positioning System), INS (Inertial Navigation System), and TCAS (Traffic collision avoidance system). The first two prototypes were equipped with two YJ58-GE-1 turbojet engines with afterburners produced by General Electric Company. So, both countries had the cutting-age TA for initial and advanced military pilots‘ training during the Cold War period. Present time. The Russian Federation.  New fighters require new skills from  pilots. This fact results in the necessity to train pilots directly in maneuver units.  Several projects of a new-generation trainer aircraft had been developed in the world in the past decade. Such projects include the German Mako, the Chinese L-15, and the Italian M346. A decade ago, in 2002, the Yak-130 was selected as the baseline combat trainer for basic and advanced training of Russian Air Force pilots. Now trainees can hone their skills using many types air-launched weapons. The Yak- 130’s combat capabilities are higher than those of the current certificated baseline model. This may come true through installation of an IRST (Infra-red search and track system) allowing the use of thermal imaging and laser beam-riding precision guided munitions and through equipping the aircraft with a radar enhancing its ability to deal with airborne and ground targets. The new TA generation carries a sophisticated avionics suite necessary for manuals and honing of one's flying skills. These aircraft have common features  –   supermanoeuvrability, high thrust-to-weight ratio and multirole capability which is a drastic updating of the combat trainer fleet. The Yak-130's capabilities in terms of weapons and thrust-to-weight ratio make it several times more capable than the L-39 is. It also has a reprogrammable control system allowing simulating the characteristics of various types of aircraft by tweaking the Yak-130's stability and controllability. Comparing the two main domestic training aircraft, we may assume that the Yak-130 is a combat training complex, and the L- 39 is a “flying desk” for modern cadets. While using them both the tendency of a two levelled (basic and advanced) combat training is maintained. Present time. The USA.  The US Air Force currently provides flight training with high-performance, ultra-reliable and easy-to-maintain modifications of the  Northrop T-38 Talon. The main modification features of the T-38 are a rigid wing, a head display, a front control panel, a built-in glass cabin and an extended Esterline CMC Cockpit 4000 avionics kit, which greatly expands the learning opportunities. The systems are integrated with a practical Hands On Throttle-And-Stick (HOTAS),  providing the pilot and instructor with a simpler digital cockpit interface. The CMC Cockpit 4000 Avionics Kit is the first in its class that includes a fully integrated and FAA-certified FMS / GPS dual navigation kit that meets the required standards for navigation performance for modern airspace equipment worldwide. The open design of the Cockpit 4000 provides the flexibility to expand capabilities and continually meet current and future training needs. Modern United States TA are a training complex. It contains flight manual simulators (FMSs) and Flight simulators (IFTs). Training aircraft of the next decade.  The aviation industry is constantly striving to improve the way it works. Aircraft design will not be changed greatly,  but, of course, developing and producing aircraft optronics is a priority.   We are sure   the next decade will provide new training capabilities including simulated radar, electronic warfare, digital mapping, ground proximity warning system and traffic collision avoidance for TA. In our opinion, artificial intelligence (hereinafter  –   AI) is going to improve the pilot training process.  Artificial Intelligence for pilot training programme.  We are sure that AI adoption will bring a brighter future to every pilot. We need a new way to teach airmen, using advanced biometrics, artificial intelligence, and virtual reality systems in their simulators. The implementation of emerging technologies into TA sophisticated suite will decrease the time and cost of training. Moreover, AI could give pilots more situational awareness and decrease their time spent to manage instruments. AI-driven "cognitive air system" will be used for more autonomous functions in combat aviation. AI technologies for combat aviation will be used as  part of the "Man-Machine-Teaming" advanced study programme (MMTP). We need to improve innovative technologies in man/machine teaming within the cognitive airman system, and enhance concepts and technologies in the field of smart-learning process We suppose that the new combat training programme will include a "cognitive air system" concept, which is based on more autonomous functions on board aircraft and a Man/Machine relationship in which the human element is constantly maintained in the decision loop. We must add that autonomy may transform the way humans interact with weapons, but it will never completely replace them. Conclusion. It is obvious that the main direction of the subsequent modification of the TA both in our country and abroad will be equipping it with artificial intelligence modules, more advanced optoelectronics, based on an improved training program with elements of cognitive activity in the framework of the advanced man-machine-team ”  (MMTP). It will allow pilots to be prepared in the  best possible way to accomplish the combat tasks of the future, such as winning air supremacy, in the near or outer space.   With an extremely capable upgraded aircraft, the RF Air Space Forces will have a world-class lead-in Fighter that is to deliver high caliber pilots for a fifth generation air force. Bibliography: 1. http:// авиару .  рф /aviamuseum/aviatsiya/sssr/uchebnye-samolety 2/uchebnye-samolety-1920-e-1940-e-gody/uchebno-trenirovochnyj-samolyot-ut-1/ 2. https://woplanes.com/wikiplanes/usa-warplanes 3. http://wwii.space/uchebno-trenirovochnyie-samoletyi-ssha/ 4. http://www.airwar.ru/enc/other2/at6.html 5. http:// авиару .  рф /aviamuseum/aviatsiya/sssr/uchebnye-samolety-2/uchebnye-samolety-1920-e-1940-e-gody/uchebno-trenirovochnyj-samolet-ut-2/ 6. https://w.histrf.ru/articles/article/show/kholodnaia_voina 7. http://www.airwar.ru/enc/other/t38.html 8. https://456fis.org/GENERAL_ELECTRIC_J85.htm 9. https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aero_L-29_Delfin  10. Громов М.М. На земле и в небе. –    Книга на сайте: http://militera.lib.ru/memo/russian/gromov_mm/index.html 11. Педагогическая технология формирования профессиональной направленности курсантов военных авиационных вузов Аношкин   Александр Юрьевич кандидат педагогических наук 2001, Саратов  12. Ваулин В. И., Васильев П. В., Сафонов А. А. Система профессионального становления курсантов   летного вуза // Молодой ученый. –   2014.  –    № 14.  –    С . 276-279.  –   URL https://moluch.ru/archive/73/12455/ 13. Симаков О.Ю. Опыт подготовки лётных кадров Военно - Воздушных Сил СССР в 1950 - 1960 гг. Ин - т военной истории МО РФ. - Москва, 2003. - 28 с.  14. https://mylektsii.ru/11- 99060.html Предназначение и основные задачи ВВС  15. https://www.baseops.net/militarypilot/usaf_ift.html 16. Air Force monthly.09\2016 Key Publishing Ltd, Stamford, UK-90 p. 17. Artificial Intell igence aviation DARPA’s ALIAS - https://aviationvoice.com/artificial-intelligence-putting-roots-in-aviation-2-201811231057/ 18. Autonomous Decision-Making https://www.livescience.com/5729-robots-ethical-decisions.html Anita Hawser. 19. Artificial intelligence and electronic warfare https://www.defenceprocurementinternational.com/news/air/artificial-intelligence-and-electronic-warfare. Defence Procurement International. 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