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GANG AND GANG RELATED INCIDENTS IN SELECTED CORRECTIONAL CENTRES IN THE EASTERN CAPE: A BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF LITERATURE AND PHILOSOPHY in the subject CRIMINOLOGY at the UNIVERSITY OF FORT HARE

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Institutional gangs, also known as the number’s gangs, have become a severe threat to the effective administration of correctional facilities in South Africa. Prior to the 1980s, these gangs were active only in correctional centres, but due to modern
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    GANG AND GANG RELATED INCIDENTS IN SELECTED CORRECTIONAL CENTRES IN THE EASTERN CAPE: A BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS   by Lincoln Gustav Fitz Student number: 201501518 Submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF LITERATURE AND PHILOSOPHY in the subject CRIMINOLOGY at the UNIVERSITY OF FORT HARE Promoters: Prof. Barkhuizen J Prof. Petrus T JUNE 2017   1 GANG AND GANG RELATED INCIDENTS IN SELECTED CORRECTIONAL CENTRES IN THE EASTERN CAPE: A BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS Abstract Institutional gangs, also known as the number’s  gangs, have become a serious threat to the effective administration of correctional facilities in South Africa. Prior the 1980s, these gangs were active only in correctional centres, but due to modern trends in criminal activity and the gangs’ ext ensive drug operations, they have become active within communities too. The numbers gangs have a national network that controls activities in all correctional centres across South Africa; this network operates effectively and independently of geographical areas. The numbers gangs contribute a large proportion of all disciplinary offences (e.g., assault, smuggling, escape, sodomy, etc.) that take place in South African correctional centres. The purpose of this study was to explore the social and cultural dynamics of selected correctional centres, in order to understand the extent to which institutional gangs’  control and manipulate the correctional environment. The study also focussed on the individual-level characteristics of inmates as a contributing factor for deviant behaviour. The social processes that manifest in institutional misconduct and violence in correctional centres have been explained in the literature according to three theoretical perspectives; namely, the importation, deprivation and situational contextual perspectives. To develop a better understanding of the phenomenon of gang activities in correctional centres, this study is grounded in the Social Structure and Social Learning theory to explore the individual, social and cultural dynamics of the centre, making reference to these three perspectives. A mixed research design, comprising both qualitative and quantitative aspects, characterised the methodology used in this study. The data informing the study consisted of primary data (observations, interviews and questionnaires) and secondary data (source documents), with 151 inmates and several centre officials in three Eastern Cape correctional centres participating. This study was substantial for several reasons. It confirmed the findings of prior studies with respect to personal and social characteristics that inmates import into correctional centres, and, in addition, it expanded the existing literature with respect to how and why inmates import their deviant behaviour into correctional centres. It   2 GANG AND GANG RELATED INCIDENTS IN SELECTED CORRECTIONAL CENTRES IN THE EASTERN CAPE: A BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS further brought a new element to the field of criminology, in identifying the demographic characteristics of inmates that contribute towards institutional gang membership and violence in correctional centres. The study also expanded upon prior findings regarding risk factors associated with institutional gang membership by developing a prediction model to predict possible gang membership prior to and after incarceration. Finally, this is the first known empirical study to examine the social and cultural contexts of gang membership in correctional centres in South Africa. Keywords:  Social Structure and Social Learning, prison gangs, importation theory, deprivation theory, situational contextual theory, the numbers gang, social learning theory, South Africa.   3 GANG AND GANG RELATED INCIDENTS IN SELECTED CORRECTIONAL CENTRES IN THE EASTERN CAPE: A BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS Declaration I Lincoln Gustav Fitz  declare that Gang and gang- related incidents in selected correctional centres in the Eastern Cape: A behaviour analysis  is my own work and that all the sources that I have used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by means of complete references.  _________________ _________________ Signature Mr Fitz LG Date     4 GANG AND GANG RELATED INCIDENTS IN SELECTED CORRECTIONAL CENTRES IN THE EASTERN CAPE: A BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS Acknowledgements My sincere gratitude and appreciation go to the following individuals and institutions: •  To the Almighty Father, for Your wisdom and guidance; all praise is due to You- all that I am and ever hope to be I owe it all to the One Who forgives unconditionally. •  Professors Barkhuizen and Petrus, for professional guidance, academic input and for their unwavering support and encouragement throughout this research project •  The Department of Correctional Services, for granting permission and access to the research participants to conduct this study; •  The research participants (inmates and officials), for their participation and assistance in this project; •  To Jane Mqamelo, for the editing and proofreading of this thesis; •  To Rene and the children; your unconditional support and motivation that allowed me to push forward when I was dejected. •  To my family, mother, brothers, and sister; your motivation and support inspired me to finish the project.
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