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Kenneth Sweeney Gov/English GRP 12 November 2014 Politikal Parties “Democracy is a pathetic belief in the collective wisdom of individual ignorance” -H. L. Menck A man no matter how strong will inevitably fall when outnumbered; such is the case in micro and macro examples from the assassination of Julius Caesar to the defeat of Nazi Germany at the hands of the Soviet Union. Since the dawn of civilization, man has found solace and enclave amongst numbers of his own. Through only natural and logi
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  Kenneth Sweeney Gov/English GRP 12 November 2014 Politikal Parties “Democracy is a pathetic belief in the collective wisdom of individual ignorance”  -H. L. Menck A man no matter how strong will inevitably fall when outnumbered; such is the case in micro and macro examples from the assassination of Julius Caesar to the defeat of Nazi Germany at the hands of the Soviet Union. Since the dawn of civilization, man has found solace and enclave amongst numbers of his own. Through only natural and logical progression, factions  became a staple of society and humanity at large. In time, a tribal mindset led rise to this  behavior on all levels of life from the formation of book clubs to the birth of nations. Between such large and small examples exist the factions responsible for political activity and representation, political parties. Their existence sought to bridge the one and the many, and yet  both in theory and in practice the person’s voice is lost among the noise of the crowd. While allowing political movements to organize, the creation of political parties obstructs both the democratic process of the individual as well as the political process of the United States. To better understand the issue being addressed, one must explicitly state the premise of which the term “political parties” encompasses. A political party consists of those who together attempt to influence public policy through the election of representatives that promote their mutually agreed upon political views. Politics shall be defined as action between groups and  individuals to influence public policy at a national level. These groups may be as diverse as others and any field. It is not necessary for complete agreement on all social issues; a uniformity of age, gender, race, or religion is also often not required. To state another way would be to say that political parties are made up of allied political individuals. These groups have allowed and even facilitated many social actions to occur that otherwise would not have transpired by the will of separate individuals alone. Thus, the existence of parties allows much to happen, but following logical progression demonstrates how these  parties can outweigh the will of a group of divided persons of equal size. This theory suggests that the individual power, in the form of voting, has no impact against the force of the parties collective voting. In societies dominated by a two-partism, specifically the United States, this results in any one person's vote being utterly meaningless. In elections where it is one party against it’s one opponent, the only thing that matters is the momentum of either one. The will of an individual in social reform which may ally with a party or even be regarded as independent, is cast aside for the will of the omnipotent parties. Theory is only important if practice fails to disprove it. In the situation of pointless votes, it could be seen that mathematically the majority renders every individual’s important right without purpose. Through multiple computer aided calculations published in  Economic Inquiry , it was found that a person’s vote mattering depends on the state. It was determined to be a 1 in 1  billion chance in the majority of states, but a 1 in 10 million chance in a few states such as New Mexico and New Hampshire. This is to represent the popular vote, but to include the factor of the electoral college taken in votes for presidential elections, an added 1 in 1000 chance can be added to each state. In a country with roughly 316 million citizens, of which only 57.5% vote, even at 100% the 1 in 1 billion becomes even less when there is not even enough citizens to  satisfy the conditions (Gelman 325). This directly supports the theory that a person’s vote is meaningless. Innate in man’s psyche is the hatred and fear of what has been referred to as “the horde”. To be wiped out worse yet consumed by this mass and to lose one’s individuality, one’s humanity ranks as a universal and primal fear. Man has fought valiantly against it both in times of persecution. War was waged to end the existence of fascism and totalitarianism which recognized people only as appendages of the state. Geopolitical struggles even presently are the spread of communism and socialism which in varying degrees removes the socioeconomic identity of individuals. Utilitarianism as a philosophy favoring the good of the majority has even  been met with fierce opposition for its dismissal of the minority. What worse a fate for not only a man to be destroyed but to be made that he never existed at all? I t is this way that a citizen’s vote is in the United States, smothered by the presence of oppressive parties, supposedly of the  people. Before this paper is laid a truly horrendous act committed against the people everyday. Conclusions would be drawn henceforth that political parties hold the power. This would  be stated as factual had a simple fact been false. Why is it then that individuals don’t simply conform and join a party to instigate social reform? Hypothetically, had the previously stated  been reality it directly collides with the bi-party system mentioned before. As stated, elections  become one-on-one brawls between the two parties who attempt to outperform the other with sheer size (in the form of allied voters). This equates to an individual picking one party or the other if they want a voice, with no alternative. Suppose that the two giants then come to a draw, a stalemate even where the size and political power is perfectly matched, therein lies the inherent flaw of the bi-party setup, the complete absence of mediation.   To ensure a proper political victory in the United States, often a 2/3rds majority between the parties is required. The unfortunate possibility that may arise is the equally matched 50/50 split. In such situations as legislation this would result in simply a policy failing to pass. At the  presidential level, this leads to a stalemate of rather devastating magnitude. The absence of a third and or any number of additional parties is two fold in it’s effect. First: it prevents any mediation from an unbiased or outside source of any kind. Second: it fails to allow mathematical victories in any situation outside of the 2/3rds majority (Quinn 385). The obvious solution while preferred is unsuccessful in action, as additional parties simply cannot form at the level of the dominant two. At this point in time, citizens have either accepted one of the 2 large parties or political indifference. There simply are not enough  politically unaligned and willing candidates to form new parties. For a large enough group of individuals to leave existing parties and create a new one would invoke a period of political unimportance that may result in a new politically present party or it may not, which would also result in a period of disregarded political opinions of said individuals. The average person who wishes to be politically active does not wish to risk being disregarded even to potentially create a new party. This continues into the model that man fears the horde and would rather join it. In the age of conformity it is simply easier to join an existing party than question the system as a heretic would. The uneducated accept this blindly without a second thought. In yet another hypothetical, suppose the needed number of willing persons did assemble a new political faction. At this point this third-party is still at a disadvantage. With recent constraints on financial support for campaigns being lifted, a legally defined infinite amount of money could be unleashed by both the left and the right. This means that any new party to stand any chance would have to compete financially which without a standing history it would fail to
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