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Gustave LeBon_ The Evolution of Forces ~ Part II

Gustave LeBon_ The Evolution of Forces ~ Part II
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Transcript Dr. Gustave Le BON The Evolution of Forces The International Scientific SeriesD. Appleton and Company ~ New York ~ 1908  Part II The Problems of Physics Book IThe Dematerialization of Matter and the Problems of Electricity Chapter I ~ The Genesis of Current Ideas on Relations of Electricity & Matter1. Part of Electricity in Transformation of Chemical Compounds2. The Like in Dissolution of Simple BodiesChapter II ~ The Transformation of Matter Into Electricity1. Transformation of Matter into Energy2. Electrification by Influence3. Different Forms of Electric Influence4. Mechanism of Leak from Insulating Bodies5. Difference of Tension Between Electricity Produced by Chemical Changes & by FrictionexplainedChapter III ~ The Problems of Magnetism, Magnetic Induction & Lines of Force1. Problem of Magnetism2. Problem of Origin of Lines of ForceChapter IV ~ The Electric Waves Ultrafiltration Plants nuoveenergie.comNeed Membrane Technolo? Nuove Enerie is the Solution Tesla Coil Parts & Plans teslastuff.comEverthin You Need to Build a Qualit Tesla Coil ! Pannelli Solari - Prezzi  Gustave LeBon: The Evolution of Forces ~ Part II di 10427/04/2014 12:26  1. Properties of Electric Waves2. Sensitiveness of Matter to Electric Waves3. Propagation of Electric Waves to a Distance & Their UtilizationChapter V ~ The Transparency of Matter to Electric Waves1. History of Experiments on Transparency2. Transparency of Dielectrics to SameChapter VI ~ The Different Forms of Electricity & Their Origin1. Does Electricity Exist in Matter?2. Various Forms of Electricity Book IIThe Problems of Heat and Light Chapter I ~ The Problems of Heat1. Old and New Ideas on the Causes of Heat2. Changes of State Under Heat & Energy Resulting Therefrom3. Can Heat be the Measure of all Forms of Energy?4. The Conception of the Absolute ZeroChapter II ~ Transformation of Material Movements into Ethereal Vibrations & Radiant Heat1. Nature of Radiant Heat & Transformation by Matter of Ethereal Vibrations2. Permanence of Radiation of Matter3. Electric Emissions which Accompany HeatChapter III ~ Transformation of Matter into Light1. Emission of Light by Matter2. Influence of Wavelength & Amplitude on Light3. The Invisible Spectrum4. Distribution of Energy Throughout Spectrum5. Absorption of Light by Matter6. Chemical and Photographic Action of LightChapter IV ~ The Dematerialization of Matter by Light1. Dissociation of Matter by Different Radiation of Solar Spectrum2. Origin of Phenomena Exhibited by Radium Book IIIThe Problems of Phosphorescence Chapter I ~ Phosphorescence Produced by Light1. Different Forms of Phosphorescence2. Action of Different Parts of Spectrum on Phosphorescent Bodies3. Phosphorescence of Diamond4. Intensity of Phosphorescence & Temperature5. Decay of Phosphorescence by Action of TimeChapter II ~ Phosphorescence Produced by Heat1. Method of Observation2. Properties of Bodies Phosphorescing by Heat3. Analogies between Phosphorescence by Light & HeatChapter III ~ Phosphorescence from Other Causes than Above1. Phosphorescence by Impact & Friction2. By X and Cathode Rays & High-Frequency Effluves Gustave LeBon: The Evolution of Forces ~ Part II di 10427/04/2014 12:26  3. By Chemical Reactions4. Phosphorescence of Living Beings5. Of GasesChapter IV ~ The Causes of Phosphorescence1. Phosphorescence as a Manifestation of Intra-Atomic Energy2. Chemical Reactions Causing Phosphorescence Book IVBlack Light Chapter I ~ Invisible Phosphorescence1. Divisions of Black Light2. History of Invisible Phosphorescence3. Properties of Invisible Phosphorescence4. Transformation of Invisible Phosphorescence into Visible5. Invisible Phosphorescence Preceding Visible6. Comparative Effects of Infrared Rays and Heat on Phosphorescence7. Radiations of Metals and Non-Phosphorescent BodiesChapter II ~ The Infrared Rays & Photography Through Opaque Bodies1. Visibility through Opaque Bodies2. Photography through Same3. Instantaneous Photography in Dark4. Transparency of Different Bodies to Infrared Rays5. Use of Invisible Rays to Make Distant Bodies VisibleChapter III ~ The Part Played by the Various Luminous Radiations in Vital Phenomena1. The Part of Light in Vital Phenomena2. Observation of Effects of Solar Spectrum in Plant Life3. New Method of Study of Physiological Action of Infrared RaysChapter IV ~ The Antagonistic Properties of Some Regions of the Spectrum1. Rays Which Illuminate & Rays Which Extinguish2. Opposite Properties of Different Regions of the Spectrum Book VForces of Unknown Origin & Hidden Forces Chapter I ~ Universal Gravitation & Hidden Forces1. Causes of Gravitation2. Consequences of Gravitation3. Forces Dimly SeenChapter II ~ The Molecular & Intra-Atomic Forces1. Attractions and Repulsions of Material Elements2. Molecular Equilibria3. The Force and the FormChapter III ~ The Forces Manifested by Living Beings1. Living Matter and Cellular Life2. Instability the Condition of Life & Intra-Atomic Energies3. Forces Which Regulate the Organism4. Morphogenic Forces5. Interpretation of Vital PhenomenaIndex of Subjects [Not included] Gustave LeBon: The Evolution of Forces ~ Part II di 10427/04/2014 12:26  Index of Names [Not included]  Part II The Problems of Physics Book IThe Dematerialization of Matter and the Problems of ElectricityChapter IGenesis of the Current Ideas on the Relations of Electricity with Matter The first part of this work was devoted to the development of the theories deduced from my earlierexperiments. This second part will be especially experimental. My observations of the dissociation of matter led me into very varied researches. Notwithstanding their fragmentary nature, they may, I think,interest the reader; and the account of them will be given in such a way as not to interfere with the generalplan of this work. 1. The Part Played by Electricity in the Transformation of Chemical Compounds The laws of physical phenomena may be determined, but as we are ignorant of their underlying causes,their interpretation necessarily varies. If the facts do not change, the explanation of them is frequentlymodified. A great theory once accepted is immediately applied to the interpretation of known facts. Thedoctrine of the conservation of energy has for 50 years seemed able to furnish the key to all phenomena. Itis now the theory of electrons for which this role appears to be reserved. By reason of the importance nowgiven to the prevailing ideas on the atomic structure of electricity, it may be interesting to point out theirgenesis.Now dogmas are spontaneous only in appearance. Those who are attracted by a new belief especiallyappreciate its novelty, while it is in reality very old. Its history, generally forgotten by the textbooks, showshow certain ideas grow up and the slow progress of their evolution.It is to the illustrious Davy, about the beginning of the last century, that the srcin of the present ideas onelectrical dissociation, now termed ionization, goes back. Having passes a current through a solution of potash, and having noticed that the potassium went to one of the poles and the oxygen to the other, heconcluded, rightly but much in advance of his time, that the two elements of a compound are charged withdifferent electricities, which are neutralized by combination. The affinity which draws together andassociates the elements of bodies must have its srcin in the attraction of contrary electricities. We do notstate the matter otherwise at the present day.It was on the hypothesis of Davy that Berzelius founded the dualistic theory which governed chemistry for30 years. The compounds called binary, such as acids and oxides, were formed from an electro-negativeunited to an electro-positive element by the attraction of their contrary electricities. The compounds calledtertiary -- that is to say, salts -- came from the combination of an electro-positive base and an electro-negative acid.The dualistic theory vanished when Dumas. Laurent, and Gerhard discovered the phenomenon of substitutions, and showed that in a compound an electronegative element could be replaced by anelectropositive without sensibly changing its properties. Trichloroacetic acid, for example, is acetic acid inwhich three atoms of chlorine (an electronegative element) have replaced three atoms of hydrogen (anelectropositive one). The conceptions of Davy and Berzelius, correct as they were, were abandoned for along period.Their readoption was the consequences of the researches of the illustrious Faraday. Towards 1830, hediscovered the laws of electrolysis, and measured the electric charges given up by bodies at the poles of the battery when they are decomposed by the electric current. He noted that when an electric current ispassed through the solution of a salt, the latter is decomposed into two elements charged with contraryelectricities, which are found at the two poles. This operation, the result of which is to resolve compoundbodies into their elements, is called, as we know, electrolysis. The bodies capable of undergoing such anoperation are called electrolytes. The products of the decomposition constitute ions. Simple bodies,considered as such to be indecomposable, evidently could not be electrolytes and consequently produceions. This last was a fundamental point. Gustave LeBon: The Evolution of Forces ~ Part II di 10427/04/2014 12:26
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