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High speed rail in modern cities by UIC

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1. High Speed and the City High speed rail & the city September 2010 UIC International Union of RailwaysCONSULT S.A. 2. High Speed and the city studyIndex1.…
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  • 1. High Speed and the City High speed rail & the city September 2010 UIC International Union of RailwaysCONSULT S.A.
  • 2. High Speed and the city studyIndex1. Introduction 12. Objectives of the study 13. Structure of the study 24. High speed and the city: the actors 25. The key issues 36. The benchmarking study 4 6.1 Cities and stations analysed 4 Barcelona 5 Berlin 7 London 9 Madrid 11 New York 13 Paris 15 Rome 17 Ankara 19 Beijing 20 Seoul 22 Taipei 24 Tokyo 25 6.2 Comparison of schemes 27 6.3 Comparison of indicators and conclusions 287. Recommendations: Lessons from HS experience 328. Acknowledgements 32Annex: abstract of HS station cases graphs 33References 34
  • 3. High speed and the city studyGraph indexA. The actors B.8 Paris-CDG B.16 Taipei Main station A.1 Relationships Paris-CDG Pax B.8.1 Taipei Main station Pax B.16.1 A.2 Monetary flows Paris-CDG City B.8.2 Taipei Main station City B.16.2 A.3 Quality relationship Paris-CDG Operator B.8.3 Taipei Main station Operator B.16.3 A.4 Decision making Paris-CDG Infra manager B.8.4 Taipei Main station Infra manager B.16.4B. The stations B.9 Paris-Gare de Lyon B.17 Tokyo station B.1 Barcelona Sants Paris-Gare de Lyon Pax B.9.1 Tokyo station Pax B.17.1 Barcelona Sants Pax B.1.1 Paris-Gare de Lyon City B.9.2 Tokyo station City B.17.2 Barcelona Sants City B.1.2 Paris-Gare de Lyon Operator B.9.3 Tokyo station Operator B.17.3 Barcelona Sants Operator B.1.3 Paris-Gare de Lyon Infra manager B.9.4 Tokyo station Infra manager B.17.4 Barcelona Sants Infra manager B.1.4 B.10 Paris-Gare du Nord C. Comparison of benchmarking schemes and indicators B.2 Barcelona-Sagrera Paris-Gare du Nord Pax B.10.1 C.1 HS stations birdeye view Barcelona-Sagrera Pax B.2.1 Paris-Gare du Nord City B.10.2 C.2 HS station buildings Barcelona-Sagrera City B.2.2 Paris-Gare du Nord Operator B.10.3 C.3 HS trains at platform Barcelona-Sagrera Operator B.2.3 Paris-Gare du Nord Infra manager B.10.4 C.4 HS related real estate plans & projects Barcelona-Sagrera Infra manager B.2.4 B.11 Roma Termini Station C.5 HS network schemes B.3 Berlin Hauptbahnhof Roma Termini Station Pax B.11.1 C.6 HS stations at commuter networks Berlin Hauptbahnhof Pax B.3.1 Roma Termini Station City B.11.2 C.7 HS stations at subway networks Berlin Hauptbahnhof City B.3.2 Roma Termini Station Operator B.11.3 C.8 Conclusions Pax point of view Berlin Hauptbahnhof Operator B.3.3 Roma Termini Station Infra manager B.11.4 C.9 Conclusions City point of view Berlin Hauptbahnhof Infra manager B.3.4 B.12 Ankara Gari Station C.10 Conclusions Operator point of view B.4 London St Pancras Ankara Gari Station Pax B.12.1 C.11 Conclusions Infra manager point of view London St Pancras Pax B.4.1 Ankara Gari Station City B.12.2 D. Recommendations for HS stations London St Pancras City B.4.2 Ankara Gari Station Operator B.12.3 E. Stations analysis abstract annex London St Pancras Operator B.4.3 Ankara Gari Station Infra manager B.12.4 E.1 Barcelona Sants London St Pancras Infra manager B.4.4 B.13 Beijing South Station E.2 Barcelona Sagrera B.5 Madrid-Atocha Beijing South Station Pax E.3 Berlin Hauptbahnhof B.13.1 E.4 London-St Pancras Madrid-Atocha Pax B.5.1 Beijing South Station City B.13.2 E.5 Madrid-Atocha Madrid-Atocha City B.5.2 Beijing South Station Operator B.13.3 E.6 Madrid-Chamartin Madrid-Atocha Operator B.5.3 Beijing South Station Infra manager B.13.4 E.7 New York Penn Madrid-Atocha Infra manager B.5.4 B.14 Seoul Station E.8 Paris-Charles de Gaulle B.6 Madrid-Chamartín Seoul Station Pax B.14.1 E.9 Paris-Gare de Lyon Madrid-Chamartín Pax B.6.1 Seoul Station City B.14.2 E.10 Paris-Gare du Nord Madrid-Chamartín City B.6.2 Seoul Station Operator B.14.3 E.11 Roma-Termini Madrid-Chamartín Operator B.6.3 Seoul Station Infra manager B.14.4 E.12 Ankara Station Madrid-Chamartín Infra manager B.6.4 B.15 Yongsan Station E.13 Beijing-South B.7 New York-Penn station Yongsan Station Pax B.15.1 E.14 Seoul-Seoul Station New York-Penn station Pax B.7.1 Yongsan Station City B.15.2 E.15 Seoul-Yongsan New York-Penn station City B.7.2 Yongsan Station Operator B.15.3 E.16 Taipei-Main Station New York-Penn station Operator B.7.3 Yongsan Station Infra manager B.15.4 E.17 Tokyo Station New York-Penn station Infra manager B.7.4
  • 4. High speed and the city study 11. Introduction After a call for tenders issued in December 2008, consultant offers were received in January 2009, the decision relied on BB&J Consult, SA, and UIC signed a contractHigh speed rail services mean attractive travel times. High speed rail services being for its development on January 2009.less rapid than air still can hold the majority of market shares when the travel timeranges between 2h and 3h30. This finding leads to the conclusion that the door-to- The study has been directed by Iñaki Barrón de Angoiti, Head of the HS Departmentdoor travel time is the relevant element for modal choice. of UIC, with the collaboration of Michel Leboeuf, Director of the UIC High Speed Scientific Committee, and Naoto Yanase, UIC Senior Advisor High Speed, and hasThe question is consequently, how to reduce the door-to-door travel time when been developed by BB&J Consult, SA. under the direction of Javier Bustinduy, Civilserving large built-up areas? Engineer by UPM and MSCE by MIT, with the assistance of BBJ members Jose Luis Jordi and Teresa Suquet, Civil engineers by UPM.Another important issue relating with rail is the capacity of the stations. This issue iseven more stringent with high speed rail which means bigger volumes of 2. Objectives of the studypassengers, particularly to and from main cities. According to the Terms of Reference of the study, the cases analysed identify bestThe station, as interface between the city (Society) and high speed rail, is a very practices in solving station saturation and optimizing access and egress times toimportant and strategic point for all the actors involved: passengers, railway and from high speed trains, in order to:undertakings, infrastructure managers and the city itself. Very often, there is only - Present a benchmark of examples where dead end stations have beenone station in a big city. It is generally located in the densely populated core city. replaced by through stations or where city-shunts with new stations haveThe upside of this location is the good intermodality with urban modes and the been built around the city so as to avert the inner city station saturation anddownside is the strong limitations it lays on traffic development traffic and comfort give direct access to train to suburbs.for passengers. - Establish a typology of the various cases according to the main purposeVery often, the total number of passengers per year amounts to several times the underlying the change from dead end to through stations, with a city internalcity population and high speed services boosts this ridership producing saturation of or external link.terminals. Consequently one of the issues is to analyse which measures areappropriate to relieve this saturation. - Analyse the different cases from the points of view of the passenger, the city, the operator and the infrastructure manager, identitying the benefits ofThe UIC’s High Speed Department, taking into account the preoccupations and the solution adopted for each one of them.preconisations coming from its members, launched this study in order tounderstand the benefits of serving a city with several HS stations. Apparently it will - Propose a range of criteria in order to identify the favorable context forboth reduce access and egress travel times and relieves the saturation of the main shifting from deadend to through station or to shunts.existing terminal. A strategic issue is to identify the best locations for additionalstations along with the correspondent operating plan. - Explicit the events and the opportunities that may lead to this change, in terms of service for the client.The general objective of the study is to benchmark various cases worldwide so asto understand the pros and cons of various schemes to increase accessibility and - Tell to which extend a high speed line in operation boosts this change.capacity for HS stations. - Explain the benefits drawn from the corresponding investments.
  • 5. High speed and the city study 2 Graph A1 identifies the relationships between these four actors, that take place in3. Structure of the study some cases through the HS station, and in others outside the station.The study presents successively the roles and relationship between the actors, the Relationship between passenger and operator related to information on services,benchmarking report itself, the conclusions and lessons learned under each one of schedules, fares, frequencies, travel times, reservations, and even sales of ticketsthe points of view of the passengers, the city, the operator and the infrastructure uses mainly phone, internet, or travel agents, only a small portion of tickets beingmanager. It concludes with a set of recommendations to enlarge or establish new sold at the operators offices at the station.stations at significant metropolitan areas in a high speed line. Relationship between passenger and the city is related to the trip between theThe benchmarking report includes 17 stations in 12 cities, based in on-site visits to origin point, at the city (or metropolitan area) and the HS station. It can be made byBarcelone, Berlin, Beijing, Madrid, Paris and Seoul, and answers to specific private car or public transport (commuter rail, metro, bus, tram, taxi, bycicle) or justquestionnaires for each point of view filled by the undertakings in the remaining 6 walking. The degree of coverage and quality of the public transport scheme in thecities. city or region, direct lines to the station, its capacity, level of congestion, quality of service and fares are some of the issues involved. The key factor is access time to the station from the different areas of the city or metropolitan area.4. High speed and the city: the actors Relationship between the city (or region) and the railway infrastructure managerWe have identified four main actors in the process of planning, building, or operating relies on the land use planning scheme which must accommodate the HS lines anda High Speed train service in a metropolitan area: stations, and its relationship with urban renewal or developments either in the city centre or in the metropolitan area, as well as uses allowed at the HS station itself. - The passenger: the customer of the operator who actually makes a trip from the origin point to the HS station to board a train or Relationship between operator and infrastructure manager relies on the contract viceversa of service between them, the operator being the client of the infrastructure manager, which provides the service requested on a toll basis for use of lines and - The city (region): responsible for the transport system (public and station spaces. Issues here are the quality of service, in terms of capacity and level private) in the area, that allows the passenger to reach the station, of congestion of the tracks, and punctuality of services. It also involves the train land use planning, and urban operations over or around the station. maintenance or service operations that might be performed at the station, such as cleaning, catering, personnel… - The operator, railway undertaking contracted by the passenger for the HS trip, responsible for delivery of service at a given level of Relationships through the HS station involves the connection between the access quality and maintenance of trains at a depot and/or at the station. modes of the passenger and the platforms where are located the trains. The city and the infrastructure manager have to provide commuter and metro lines and - The railway infrastructure management, responsible for infrastructure stations, bus lanes and stops, road access and parking spaces, taxi stands and of the lines and stations, and their maintenance, as well as traffic holding lines, bike lanes and bicycle parking, as well as pedestrian access to the control. In some cases operator and infrastructure manager are the station. The key factor is the transfer time from the access mode to the HS train same. that has to consider security and access control to the platforms.
  • 6. accesibility: transport systems passenger city (region) (customer) region public transport private transport citizens system (rail & bus) system (highways) not travelling city access urban transport system information time & HS sales HS service info land use travel time planning offices frequency cost transfer urban new regionalmobile phone shops & servicesinternet reservations time renewal developmentstravel agents sales P concourse access control ticketing HS tracks and platforms travel time information customer service on station train operations ticketing control cleaning sales catering... lounges waiting rooms depot rail workshop infrastructure manager operator HS train operation traffic regulation and maintenance and control September High Speed and the city The actors: relationships A.1 2010
  • 7. accesibility: transport systems passenger city (region) (customer) region public transport private transport citizens system (rail & bus) system (highways) not travelling city access urban transport system information time & HS sales HS service info land use travel time planning offices frequency cost transfer urban new regionalmobile phone shops & servicesinternet reservations time renewal developmentstravel agents sales P concourse access control ticketing HS tracks and platforms travel time information customer service on station train operations ticketing control cleaning sales catering... lounges waiting rooms depot rail workshop infrastructure manager operator HS train operation traffic regulation and maintenance and control September High Speed and the city The actors: monetary flows A.2 2010
  • 8. accesibility: transport systems passenger city (region) (customer) region public transport private transport citizens system (rail & bus) system (highways) not travelling city access urban transport system information time & HS sales HS service info land use travel time planning offices frequency cost transfer urban new regionalmobile phone shops & servicesinternet reservations time renewal developmentstravel agents sales P concourse access control ticketing HS tracks and platforms travel time information customer service on station train operations ticketing control cleaning sales catering... lounges waiting rooms depot rail workshop infrastructure manager perceived operator HS train operation traffic regulation and maintenance and control provided September High Speed and the city The actors: quality relationship A.3 2010
  • 9. accesibility: transport systems passenger city / region city (region) (customer) transportation schemeregion public transport private transport citizens system (rail & bus) system (highways) not travelling HS travel city choice HS rail network & access urban transport system information time stations scheme & HS sales HS service info land use travel time planning offices frequency cost transfer urban new regionalmobile phone shops & servicesinternet reservations time renewal developmentstravel agents sales P concourse access control ticketing HS tracks and platforms travel time information customer service on station train operations ticketing control cleaning sales catering... lounges waiting rooms depot rail workshop infrastructure services to be provided manager operator HS train operation traffic regulation and maintenance and control September High Speed and the city The actors: decision making A.4 2010
  • 10. High speed and the city study 3Other services provided at the HS station, normally owned by the infrastructure rail The onboard time is almost an invariant of the HS system, much shorter than themanager are either subcontracted to third parties, such as commercial centres conventional train, but much higher, for instance than the air travel between origin(eating, restaurants, shops) or office spaces, or provided by the operator and destination.(information, reservation, sales, ticketing) as well as waiting areas and otherservices. Some of them may be used not just by HS passengers, but also for other The importance of the access and transfer times, which occur both at origin andtrain services passengers or by citizens which are not travellers. The station is also destination of the trip, will never be sufficiently magnified. A 2h 30min on-vehicle tripan urban equipment in the neighbourhood. on a HS train comes to a 3h30 door to door trip if access time at origin or destination is just 20 minutes, and transfer time, including security and access toThese activities involve monetary transactions schematised on graph A2, the costs platform control is only 10 minutes, which is about the best we can achieve.of each one of them relying strongly on the efficiency of the procedures followed fortheir provision. Monetary flows involved are not limited to the passenger paying the Air travel passengers for a standard one hour flight, comparatively, even if airportsticket fare to the operator. They continue to make a counterclockwise flow in the are usually far less centric than HS stations, can use up to 45 minutes to reach thescheme presented, considering the city or region is subsidizing access modes (both airport, 45 minutes for security, control and proceeding to the gate at the originpublic and private) to the station. (Taxes paid by citizens are not considered in the airport, still leaving 45 minutes to reach its destination point on arrival, for the samescheme) 3h30 door to door time.At the same time, there is a level of quality of service produced in each one of them, Integration of the HS station in the regional and urban transportation system, andreflected on graph A3, which is relevant for the key decisions taken by the different optimisation of the interchange between access modes and HS at the station areactors reflected in graph A4: essential. The city and the infrastructure manager are responsible for a successful solution. • choice of HS or not by the passenger • type of services demanded by the operator to the infrastructure manager The importance of efficiency on the different systems involved • rail schemes developped by the infrastructure manager in the city/region • transport system networks ( public and private) provided by the city or region The other variable relevant for the choice of HS by the passenger is cost. Rail has an advantage, if the station is well deserved by regional or urban transit modes, of5. The key issues having a smaller access cost. Even taxis within the city area are more affordable for the HS station when compared to airports.We have identified three key issues of the HS stations But the main part of the travel cost, which reflects the cost for the operator inThe importance of access and transfer times providing the service, depends on the efficiency of the different activities needed to provide it. More or less efficiency at the stations, or on trips to and from the depot,The HS travel choice by the passenger, in which is based the demand and implies the need of more or less rolling stock, tracks, switches, urban space,feasibility of the whole HS system, involves a trade-off that considers on the one station building surface, and its associated maintenance costs, in a chain that finallyside the cost and convenience of schedule, and on the other side the total travel is transferred to the potential customer.time from door to door. On the other hand, the cost of enlarging a station to increase its capacity, in anDoor to door travel time is composed by the access time toor from the station, the urban env
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