How to Write Scientific Papers

Tips and key sentences to help you while writing a scientific paper
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  How to write a scientific paper Tips for good scientific writing  A scientific paper is a written report describing research results. The format of scientific papers has been defined by editorial practice, scientific ethics, and the interaction between printing and publishing services.  A scientific paper should be structured as follows: 1. Title  An effective title should be able to describe the content of the paper with the fewest possible words. The following words should be avoided:     A study of …      Investigations of …      Observations of … The title should contain keywords used in abstract. Here are some examples of good and bad titles:   Bad title Good title  A study of Single-Injection compared to   Multiple-Injection Technique related to   Ultrasound-Guided Paravertebral Blocks   Single-Injection Versus Multiple-Injection Technique of Ultrasound-Guided Paravertebral Blocks  As you’ll note the words: a study of  , compared to   and related to   have been eliminated as they are unnecessary. “ Compared to  ” has been replaced by “ Versus  ”  . 1. Title 2. Abstract   3. Introduction   4. Materials and Methods   5. Results and Discussion   6. Conclusion  Bad title Good title  An analysis of the role of Antioxidation of   Different Lateral Stellate Ganglion Block in Rats experiencing Isoproterenol-Induced Acute   Ischemia  Antioxidation Role of Different Lateral Stellate Ganglion in Isoproterenol-Induced Acute Myocardial Ischemia in Rats  As you’ll note the words: An analysis of   and experiencing   have been eliminated as they are unnecessary. 2. Abstract 2. Abstract Your abstract will help the reader establish why your topic is important. The abstract should include the following elements:   Main objectives and scope of your study   Summary of results and main conclusions The abstract should not exceed 250 words and it should not go into too much detail in any of its parts since it is an overview. Do not include the following information in your abstract:   Information contained in the title   Reference to table and figures   Reference to literature   Obscure acronyms and abbreviations Here are some useful sentences you can use to introduce your main topic:    X is the main / leading / primary / major cause of ..    Xs are a common / useful / critical part of…      It is well known / generally accepted / common knowledge that X is …       Xs are attracting considerable / increasing / widespread interest due to …      It is widely accepted that X is accountable for / is responsible for   3. Introduction This section of the paper introduces your topic and the background data available. It sets the scene for supporting your objective. In this section you should introduce the pertinent literature you relied on quoting specific data and major findings. Current US Public Health Service guidelines on the management of HIV-infected women during pregnancy recommend use of a combination regimen consisting of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and either one protease inhibitor or one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission and to maintain maternal health 1  ( 1. Stability   of chloroquine in an extemporaneously prepared suspension stored at three temperatures. Mirochnick M, Barnett E, Clark DF, McNamara E, Cabral H Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1994 Sep; 13 (9) :827-8 .)  Your introduction should include the following elements: 1 You should also state why the scientific community needs your work. 2 State what you have done in an effort to address the need. 1.   Stating why the scientific community needs your work      Few researchers have addressed the problem / issue / question of …      Previous work has only focused on / been limited to / failed to address …      Current solutions to X are inconsistent / inadequate / ineffective / inefficient / unsatisfactory    Although this approach is interesting, it suffers from / fails to take into account / does not allow for …      The community has raised some issues / concerns about …   2. Stating what you have done. Here are some useful verbs helping you describe the actions you have taken: to apply ……………………..   We applied M. Barnett’s principles to our analysis   to assess ……………………   We assessed the effects of larger doses of … to compute …………………   The final step is to compute a “damage increment index” Δ(DI)   to derive …………………….   We derived a new set of rules for . . . to design ……………………   We designed a series of experiments to establish …   to implement ……………….   We implemented an algorithm for … to model ……………………   We modelled the diffraction behaviour of … 4. Materials and Methods 5. Materials and Methods Materials and Methods sections tend to be boring to read. To make this section interesting, you should explain and illustrate the choices you made in your experimental procedure. Try to tell your readers what is different or unexpected in your approach. You should also make sure the paragraph's first sentence gives the reader a clear idea of what the entire paragraph is about.  Afterwards you should explain why you have chosen a specific method, model, equipment or sample:    The aim / purpose of X is to do Y. Consequently we / As a result we / Therefore we / …      This method / model / system was chosen because it is one of the most practical / feasible / rapid ways to …      The design of X was based on / is geared towards …      Through the use of X, w  e were able to determine …      We used reliable / innovative / traditional techniques based on the recommendations of …       Xs were prepared in accordance with / in compliance with / as required by….      Y was prepared using the same / a similar procedure as for X  5. Results and Discussion In the Results section you present your findings. Data and figures must be extracted, summarised and described. While presenting your results you should be as succinct as possible. In the Results Section you should include the following elements: 1. Reporting results from questionnaires and interviews 2. Report all your results as numerical values and comment on their significance In the Discussion Section you should include the following elements: 1. Explaining how you have got your results 2. Stating what you have found 3. Stating what you have not found 4. Highlighting significant results and achievements Please find below some useful sentences you can use while going through your Results and Discussion sections. 1. Explaining how you have got your results 2. Reporting results from questionnaires and interviews    Changes in X were identified / calculated / compared by using / by relying on    Of the study population / initial sample / initial cohort, 47 subjects completed and returned the questionnaire    The first set of analyses investigated / examined / confirmed / highlighted the impact of …      The majority of respondents / those who responded felt that ….      The correlation / difference between X and Y was tested by relying on / by using    The overall response to this question was surprisingly / unexpectedly / very / quite negative / positive 3. Stating what you have found 4. Stating what you have not found    On average / Generally speaking / Broadly speaking, we found out that X is …      No significant difference / correlation was found / identified / revealed / detected / observed / highlighted between X and Y.    Further analysis / analyses / tests / examinations / showed that …      Overall / Taken as a whole / Generally speaking, / our results show X did not affect Y    These tests revealed / showed / highlighted that …      The analysis did not show / reveal / identify / confirm any significant differences between X and Y. 5. Highlighting significant results and achievements    The correlation between X and Y is interesting / of interest / worth noting / noteworthy / worth mentioning because …      The single most striking / conspicuous / marked observation to emerge from the data comparison was …      These results offer compelling / indisputable / crucial / overwhelming / powerful / unique  evidence for / unique opportunity to present …   3. Conclusion 6. Conclusion This section includes four main elements: 1. Announcing your conclusion 2. Restate your results 3. Highlight your achievements 4. Outline applications of your work 1. Announcing your conclusion 2. Restate your results   Our work has led us to conclude / the conclusion that …     The evidence from this study suggests / implies / points towards the idea that …     This paper has investigated / explained / given an account of …     The upshot of our study is the possibility that …     In conclusion / In summary / In sum / To sum up, our work we can state that ….     The results / findings of this study indicate / support the idea / suggest that …   3. Highlight your achievements 4. Outline applications of your work   We have found an innovative / a new / a novel / a cutting- edge solution for …     These observations have several / four main / many implications for research into …     We have confirmed / provided further evidence / demonstrated that …     Our method / technique / approach / procedure could be applied to …     Taken together, these findings suggest / implicate / highlight that ….     Our findings show that X could eventually / conceivably / potentially / lead to …  
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