Indus Script hypertexts are a Meluhha tribute to artisans of Sarasvati Civilization evidenced by decipherment of six types of anthropomorphs

--Decipherment of five anthropomorph types, Meluhha Indus Script hypertext expressions, including barāh, baḍhi 'boar' vāḍhī, bari, barea 'merchant' bārakaśa 'seafaring vessel', ಬಡಿಗ 'artificer', बढई baḍhī 'worker
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  1 Indus Script hypertexts are a Meluhha tribute to artisans of Sarasvati Civilization evidenced by decipherment of six types of anthropomorphs --Decipherment of five anthropomorph types, Meluhha Indus Script hypertext expressions, including barāh, baḍ hi '  boar' vāḍhī, bari, barea 'merchant' bārakaśa 'seafaring vessel', ಬಡಗ  'artificer',  बढई   ba ḍhī 'worker in wood and iron', వడ   బ   ు  'carpenter' This is an addendum to: Indus Script standard hypertexts of 1. rim-of-jar and 2. bronze anthropomorph, signify M eluhha rebus karaṇi, kanahār 'supercargo, accountant, helmsman' It is seen that Indus Script anthropomorphs provide variant semantic expansions related to specific pictorial motifs underlying the artifact which is the calling card of a metalwork artisan or seafaring merchant of Sarasvati CIvilization. These variant expressions in Meluhha are presented in this monograph, describing six types of expressive, anthropomorph pictorial motifs. Examples of six types of Bronze (copper) anthropomorph pictorial variants Type 1   mẽḍhā 'curved horn' meḍḍha 'ram' rebus: ayo   meḍh  'metal merchant' Type 2 Focus on the shoulder, horn as upraised arm -- artisan engaged in production of eraka  'molten cast' infusion Type 3 Focus on (Embedded with a 'fish' hieroglyph on the chest); spread legs --  करणक   m. du. the two legs spread out AV. xx , 133 'spread legs'; (semantic determinant) Type 4 Eight Copper anthropomorphs of Sinauli, Bull's head with horns and ficus leaf Type 5 Gold anthropomorph, dance-posture Type 6 Ram with bent horns, spread legs, ligatured with the head of a boar and embedded with hieroglyph of one-horned young bull. Type 1 mẽḍhā 'curved horn' meḍḍha 'ram' rebus: ayo   meḍh  'metal merchant'    2 Axe-ingots, such as this one from Peru in West Bengal, are unsuited to use as axes. (Indian Museum, Calcutta) On an anthropomorph copper plate of 2nd millennium BCE from Keonjhar copper hoard, an inscription dated to 1483 CE has been recorded in Keonjhar, Orissa.(Land grant by Raja Purushottam Deb). Dist. Keonjhar, Or.  –   Around 1985 three type III axeingots and a small stand (nos. 1195-1197), evidently part of the same hoard, to judge from the surface texture and patina, were acquired as a group for the Orissa State Museum from this district. Detailed information exists neither for their  provenance, nor the circumstances of discovery63 . 1195. Axe-ingot, type III. 14.7x12.3x1.3 cm, 972 gm, sharp lead edge (Fig. 19, 1195).  –   Orissa State Museum (0.52.1).  –   Unpub. 1196. Axe-ingot, type III. 17x13.2x1.4cm, rev. surface very rough (Fig. 19, 1196).  –   Orissa State Museum (0.52.2).  –   Unpub. 1197. Miniature stand. 24.6 x 13. 2 x 8. 5 cm, thick light green patina, rough surface similar to other metallic artefacts from eastern Chota Nagpur, heavy corrosion on the legs, legs recently bent inward (Fig. 19, 1197).  –   Orissa State Museum (0.52.3).  –   Unpub.  3 A facsimile of an inscription on a coppe r plate recording a land grant made by Rāja Purushottam Deb, king of Orissa, in the fifth year of his reign (1483). J. Beames The Indian Antiquary , December 6, 1872, p. 355. Land grants made by royal decree were protected by law, with deeds often being recorded on metal plates. John Beames, 1872, Indian Antiquary, Vol. 1, pp. 355-356 On a copper-plate grant from Balasore (AD 1483)  4 [quote]The plate is in the possession of the Bhuyans of Garpada, an ancient and respectable family of zamindars. Their estate of Garhpada is situated on a rocky spur of the Moharbhanj hills about 15 miles north of the station of Balasore. The plate records the grant of the estate to their ancestor, Poteswar Bhat, a Brahman by Raja Purushottam Deb, King of Orissa. This monarch ascended the throne in AD 1478 and the 5 th  year of his reign, the date of the grant would be therefore 1483. The Bhuyan hwever read it the 25 th  year of his reign which would make it 1503. This I shall show presently is incorrect. The text in Roman characters is as follows: Obverse. “Sri Jaya durgAyai namah hira Sri gajapati gaureshwara nava kota karnatakala -vargeswara Sri purushottama deva maharajankar poteswara bhatanku dina s ’Asana pata e anka mesha di 10 am sumabUrn grahana kAle ganga gurbhe purushottamapura s’asana bhUmI chaiidasa ushTottara xxxx dAna desnne bhUmI yavachchandrarke putra pautrAdi  purushannakrame bhaga karu thiba jalarUtna nikshepa sahit bhUmI dehau. Reverse. YAvach chandrascha sUryascha yAvat tishThati medina yAvad dattAmayAhr eshii susya yuktA  basundhurA swadatrAan purushattUm vU brahmavRittim haretyah ShashTir varshasahasrANi vishTAyAm jUyate kRAmih Sri mudunagopAluh saruNam mama”  Translation: Reverence to Sri Jaya Durga. Of the hero, the illustrious Gajapati, lord of GauD, lord of the tribes (of the country) of the nine forts, Karnata and Utkala Sri Purushottam Deh MahArAja to Poteswar Bhat a deed of gift of a s’Asan. In this fifth year of my reign the ten th day of Mesh, Monday at the time of an eclipse, in the womb of GungA, I have given Purushottampura S’Asan land fourteen (hundred) and eight besides, ha 1408 lss, as a gift. This land as long as the moon and sun, son, grandson and the rest, generation after generation enjoying remain! I have given the land together with its tanks and gardens. (The above is in Oriya; the rest is in Sanskrit) Reverse. As long as the moon and the sun, as long as the earth shall stand, so long be the gift upheld of this rich grain-  bearing land; whose of his own or another’s gift a Brahman shall deprive, for sixty thousand years a worm in dung shall be born and live. Sri Mudangopal my  protection. The marks at the end are: first, the ankush or elephant goad, the special sign manual of the kings of Orissa, referring to their ancient title of Gajapati or land of elephants; second, the s’ankh or conch-shell of Vishnu (Jagannath), third and fourth the khandA or straight sword, and the katar or dagger, both emblems of the warrior-caste, the khanDA belonging especially to the hill- people, and he kutAr to those of the plains. With regard to the wording of the deed one or two  points may perhaps stand in need of explanation. GauDeshwara or lord of GauD, i.e. Bengal, is a constant empty boast of the kings of Orissa, who claimed to rule from the great to the little GungA, i.e. from GangA to GodAvari. Their kingdom did frequently stretch as far as the latter river, and even beyond it; but only twice in all their annals did they reach the Ganges and then only for a brief period each time. ‘Karnata kula’ is a mistake of the engraver for karnATotkala ‘Karnata and Utkala’, the forms  which occurs in all the deeds and decriptions of the monarchs of Orissa. This very Purushottam Deb conquered Kanjikaveri or Conjeevaram and spent the greater  part of his reign on the Godavary. The expression later on in this plate ‘GangAgarbhe’ probably r  efers to that river the ‘SAngangU’ or little Ganges of the Oriya as there is no record of this  5 king’s having ever having visited the great Ganges. ‘S’Asan’ in Orissa is a patch of rent -free land with a village inhabited and cultivated exclusively by Brahmans, generally on behalf of some god, whose temple is in their village and whose worship they are theoretically bound to keep up. As a rule the poor Thakur gets very little worship and the money goes into the Brahman’s bellies or on to their backs. These Brahman’s S’Asana are scattered all over the country and are detected at once by the large comfortable homesteads, the groves of cocoa-palms and fruit trees and the generally superior style of cultivation. The cocoa-palm flourishes well in Orissa, but is not grown except by Brahmans owing to the popular superstititon that if a man of another caste plants them, he or his children will die in a year and a day. .. ‘Di10um’ and ‘ba1408ti’. This is the Oriya fashion of writing figures, the name of the article is d ivided in two and the numbers written in between, the above form stands for 10 diam, and 1408 bAtI respectively. Thus they would write 10 rupees, Ta10nka’ –   10 Tanka; 5 maunds would be mA5na…Potesar Bhat obtained possession and he and his descendants held the estate for some generations…Aurangzeb…The Brahman resisted for a long time, but finding that the Emperor was deaf to remonstrances, he eventually consented, embraced Islam and returned to Orissa with an order for his restitution to his estates. Since that time the family has been Muhammadan, and the present head of it, Ghulum Mustafa Khan, and his brothers are men with quite a Mughal type of countenance, probably derived from frequent intermarriages with Mughul and Pathan ladies. The archaic form of the letters in this grand renders it very valuable as showing the gradual development of the modern Oriya alphabet from a southern variety of the Kutila type… [unquote](The Indian Antiquary, Dec. 6, 1872, pp. 355-356), Excerpted from the full text of the Indian Antiquary, Vol. I 1872 embedded. This Keonjhar copper plate grant is on an anthropomorph which is comparable to the antropomorph type noted in Metmuseum dated to ca. 1500-500 BCE.
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