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Intro. to Linguistics_4 The History of Linguistics

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1. Edi BrataMathla’ul Anwar University 2. Before Nineteenth Centuryo Language was of interest mainly to philosophers (Plato and Aristotle)o Fisis Vs. Nomos Controversyo…
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  • 1. Edi BrataMathla’ul Anwar University
  • 2. Before Nineteenth Centuryo Language was of interest mainly to philosophers (Plato and Aristotle)o Fisis Vs. Nomos Controversyo Analogy Vs. Anomaly Controversyo Nature Vs. Nurture Controversy
  • 3. Nineteenth Century:Historical Linguisticso 1786 is the year which many people regard as the birthdate of linguistics.o Sir William Jones discovers Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Celtic and Germanic had striking structural similarities.o In the mid-19th century Darwin published The Origin of Species.
  • 4. Early to Mid-20th Century:Descriptive Linguistics Emphasis shifted from language change to language description.
  • 5. Early to Mid-20th Century:Descriptive Linguistics Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), ‘the father of modern linguistics’: • Synchronic and Diachronic • La Langue and La Parole • Signifiant and Signifie • Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic
  • 6. Early to Mid-20th Century:Descriptive Linguistics Leonard Bloomfield (1877-1949), ‘Structuralism Linguistics’ : • Linguistics should deal objectively and systematically with observable data. • IC Analysis
  • 7. Early to Mid-20th Century:Descriptive Linguistics John Rupert Firth (1890-1960), ‘Phonology Prosody’: • Segmental • Supra-segmental
  • 8. Mid- to late- 20th Century:Generative Linguistics • Born: December 7, 1928 • Son of a professor of Hebrew • Wife: also a linguist • Ph.D. in linguistics from the University of Pennsylvania, 1955
  • 9. Mid- to late- 20th Century:Generative Linguistics Universal Grammar • Knowledge (internal structure of the human mind)  problem of how this knowledge is acquired • Many people believe that Chomsky claims that language is innate and that there is a universal grammar. This is, in fact, an incorrect interpretation of Chomsky’s theory. • Universal grammar (UG) is a question of how language is acquired, based on universal principles of language.
  • 10. Thank You
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