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Introduction to Psychology Adapted by

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Introduction to Psychology Adapted by
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  Introduction to Psychology Adapted by Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French  2 Introduction to Psychology   Adapted by: College of Lake County Faculty: Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French (Revised July 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014) This project was funded by a grant from the College of Lake County Foundation. Adapted College of Lake County text can be found at: http://dept.clcillinois.edu/psy/IntroductionToPsychologyText.pdf  Original text materials for Introduction to Psychology by Stangor 2011 (non-HCC version) at:  http://www.saylor.org/site/textbooks/Introduction%20to%20Psychology.pdf   Adapted by: Houston Community College Faculty: Carol Laman, Sandra Greenstone, Huong Ho, Jennifer Suarez, Sheila Weick, Kenneth Woodruff, Robert Morecook, Eileen Mello, Saundra Boyd, Ilija Gallego, Karen Saenz (Revised May, 2013). Houston Community College 2013 revision for Introduction to Psychology by Stangor, 2011 at: http://learning.hccs.edu/faculty/robert.morecook/free-psychology-2301-textbook-dsm-5-version-2013 Original Publication Under the following license: This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 unported license to view a copy of this license, visit  http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/  or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.  3 Table of Contents  •   Chapter 1 -- Introducing Psychology •   Chapter 2 -- Psychological Science •   Chapter 3  –   Brain and Behavior •   Chapter 4  –   Learning •   Chapter 5  –   Memory and Cognition •   Chapter 6  –   Intelligence and Language •   Chapter 7  –   Lifespan Development •   Chapter 8  –   Personality •   Chapter 9  –   Social Psychology •   Chapter 10  –   Defining Psychological Disorders •   Chapter 11  –   Treating Psychological Disorders  4 Contents ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1 Introduction to Psychology ........................................................................................................................... 2 Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................................... 3 Chapter 1 Introducing Psychology ................................................................................................................. 7 Psychology as a Science ............................................................................................................................. 8 The Evolution of Psychology: Central Questions, History, and Contemporary Perspectives  ......... 12 The Many Disciplines of Psychology  ..................................................................................................... 27 Chapter 2 Psychological Science.................................................................................................................. 36 Psychologists Use the Scientific Method to Guide Their Research  ..................................................... 37 Psychologists Use Descriptive, Correlational, and Experimental Research Designs to Understand Behavior  ................................................................................................................................................. 45 Factors that Contribute to Credible Research  ..................................................................................... 56 Chapter 3 Brain and Behavior ..................................................................................................................... 64 The Neuron Is the Building Block of the Nervous System ................................................................... 64 The Brain  ................................................................................................................................................ 71 Psychologists Study the Brain Using Many Different Methods  ........................................................... 81 The Nervous System and the Endocrine System  ................................................................................. 86 Sleeping and Dreaming  ......................................................................................................................... 92 Chapter 4 Learning .................................................................................................................................... 108 Classical Conditioning  ......................................................................................................................... 109 Operant    Conditioning  ......................................................................................................................... 116 Cognition and Conditioning  ................................................................................................................ 124 Other Forms of Learning based on Cognition  ................................................................................... 125 Chapter 5 Memory and Cognition ............................................................................................................. 137 Encoding and Storage: How Our Perceptions Become Memories  .................................................... 138 Retrieval  ............................................................................................................................................... 150 The Biology of Memory  ....................................................................................................................... 152 Cues to Improving Memory  ................................................................................................................. 155 Cognition and Cognitive Biases  .......................................................................................................... 158 Problem-Solving Strategies  ................................................................................................................. 168 Chapter 6 Intelligence and Language ........................................................................................................ 176 Defining and Measuring Intelligence  .................................................................................................. 176 Group Differences in Intelligence  ....................................................................................................... 187 The Development and Use of Language  ............................................................................................. 194  5 Chapter 7 Lifespan Development .............................................................................................................. 213 Conception and Prenatal Development   .............................................................................................. 214 Physical Development across the Lifespan  ....................................................................................... 218 Cognitive Development across the Lifespan  ..................................................................................... 223 Social Development across the Lifespan  ............................................................................................ 235 Chapter 8 Personality ................................................................................................................................ 255 Personality as Traits  ........................................................................................................................... 255 Studying the Nature of Personality  .................................................................................................... 259 Studying the Nurture of Personality  .................................................................................................. 266 Personality Assessment   ......................................................................................................................... 271 Chapter 9 Social Psychology ...................................................................................................................... 287 Social Cognition  ................................................................................................................................... 287 Social Influences  .................................................................................................................................. 295 Social Relationships  ............................................................................................................................ 311 Chapter 10 Defining Psychological Disorders ............................................................................................ 331 Defining a Disorder  .............................................................................................................................. 332 Anxiety, OCD, and PTSD  ....................................................................................................................... 337 Depressive and Bipolar Disorders  ...................................................................................................... 344 Schizophrenia  ...................................................................................................................................... 351 Personality Disorders  .......................................................................................................................... 356 Disorders Originating in Childhood  ................................................................................................... 361 Chapter 11 Treating Psychological Disorders ............................................................................................. 374 Psychotherapy  ..................................................................................................................................... 375 Biomedical Therapy  ............................................................................................................................ 385 Social and Community Therapy  ......................................................................................................... 392 Eclectic Approach to Therapy and Seeking Treatment   .................................................................... 397
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