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KUYAYAMA PART 4 PROJECT

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KUYAYAMA PART 4 PROJECT
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    UNIVERSITY OF ZIMBABWE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING   DESIGN OF A LONG RANGE DRONE TO CARRY AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT TO RURAL AREAS: CASE FOR ZIMBABWE By Kuyayama Bernard Tinashe Email:  bentinkays@live.com Supervisor: Eng. Mushiri Projects Coordinator: Eng. Tawanda Mushiri A fourth year project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a BSc honors degree in mechanical engineering    ABSTRACT The different types of drones can be differentiated in terms of the type (fixed-wing, multirotor, etc.), the degree of autonomy, the size and weight, and the power source. These specifications are important, for example for the drone’s cruising range, the maximum flight duration, and the loading capacity. Aside from the drone itself (i.e., the ‘platform’) various types of payloads can be distinguished, including freight (e.g., mail  parcels, medicines, fire extinguishing material, flyers, etc.) and different types of sensors (e.g., cameras, sniffers, meteorological sensors, etc.). Applications of different payloads will be described. In order to perform a flight, drones have a need for (a certain amount of) wireless communication with a pilot on the ground. In addition, in most cases there is a need for communication with a payload, like a camera or a sensor. To allow this communication to take place frequency spectrum is required. The requirements for frequency spectrum depend on the type of drone, the flight characteristics, and the  payload. Since frequency spectrum does not end at national borders, international coordination on the use of frequency spectrum is required. Legal issues on frequency spectrum usage and electronic equipment (national and international legal matters on frequency spectrum and equipment requirements) are discussed, as well as frequency spectrum and vulnerability (an insight in available frequency spectrum and associated risks in using the frequency spectrum) and surveillance and compliance (enforcement of frequency spectrum use, equipment requirements, and the need for international and European cooperation). Finally, future developments in drone technology are discussed. The trend is for drones to become smaller, lighter, more efficient, and cheaper. As a result, drones will become increasingly available to the public at large and will be used for an increasing range of purposes. Drones will become increasingly autonomous and also more capable of operating in swarms.      Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 .................................................................................................................................. 2   1.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................ 3   1.2 BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................................... 4   1.3 AIM .................................................................................................................................................... 6   1.4 PROBLEM STATEMENT .............................................................................................................. 6   1.5 OBJECTIVES .................................................................................................................................... 6   1.6 JUSTIFICATION ............................................................................................................................. 6   1.7 CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................. 6   CHAPTER 2 : LITERARTURE REVIEW ................................................................................. 7   2.1 BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................................... 7   2.2 TYPES OF DRONES ....................................................................................................................... 8   2.2.1 Fixed-Wing Systems ........................................................................................................................... 8   2.2.2 Multirotor Systems ............................................................................................................................. 8   2.2.3 Other Systems ....................................................................................................................................... 9   2.3 SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS OF DRONES .......................................................................... 11   2.4 LEVEL OF AUTONOMOUS ....................................................................................................... 12   2.5 SIZE AND WEIGHT .................................................................................................................... 12    2.6 DIFFERENCES IN ENERGY SOURCE ..................................................................................... 13   2.7 TYPES OF PAYLOADS AND THEIR APPLICATION .......................................................... 14   2.7.1 SENSORS .............................................................................................................................................. 14   2.8 OTHER PAYLOADS .................................................................................................................... 17   2.8.1 LANDING GEAR ................................................................................................................................. 19   2.8.2 SERVO MOTOR .................................................................................................................................. 19   2.8.3 BATTERY LIFE ................................................................................................................................... 19   CHAPTER 3:METHODOLOGY .............................................................................................. 21     CHAPTER 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION An over-simplistic view of an unmanned aircraft is that it is an aircraft with its aircrew removed and replaced by a computer system and a radio-link. In reality it is more complex than that, and the aircraft must be properly designed, from the beginning, without aircrew and their accommodation, etc. (A.S. Danilov, 18 June 2014) The aircraft is merely part, although an important part, of a total system. Figure1.1: A drone surveying a farm landscape capturing images of crops   The whole system benefits from its being designed, from the start, as a complete system, which, as shown in Figure 1.1, briefly comprises: a)   A control station (CS) which houses the system operators, the interfaces between the operators and the rest of the system;  b)   The aircraft carrying the payload which may be of many types;
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