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  11/29/12Languages of India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia1/ Languages of India Language families of greater India. Nihali, Kusunda, and Thai languages are not shown. Officiallanguage(s) For Central Government: StandardHindi  written in the Devanāgarī  script(the Indian Constitution recognises English  as a subsidiary officiallanguage) Regionallanguage(s) Angika  ·  Assamese  ·  Beary bashe  · Bengali  ·  Bodo  ·  Chhattisgarhi  ·  Dogri  · Garhwali  ·  Garo  ·  Gujarati  ·  StandardHindi  ·  Kannada  ·  Kashmiri  ·  Khasi  · Kodava Takk   ·  Kokborok   ·  Konkani  · Kumaoni  ·  Maithili  ·  Malayalam  · Manipuri  ·  Marathi  ·  Mizo  ·   Nepali  · Oriya  ·  Punjabi  ·  Rajasthani  ·  Sanskrit  ·  Santali  ·  Sindhi  ·  Tamil  ·  Telugu  · Tulu  ·  Urdu  · Languages of India From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Languages of India  belong to several languagefamilies, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages (asubbranch of Indo-European) spoken by 74% of Indiansand the Dravidian languages spoken by 23% of Indians. [1][2] Other languages spok en in India belong to the Austro-Asiatic, Tibeto-Bur man, and a few minor language familiesand isolates. [3] The official language of the Central Government of Repu blicof India is Standard Hindi, while English is the secondar yofficial language. [4]  The constitution of India states that The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagariscript. [5]  Neither the Constitution of India nor Indian lawspecifies a national language, a position supported by a HighCourt ruling. [6]  However, languages listed in the EighthSchedule of the Indian constitution are sometimes referredto, without legal standing, as the national languages of India. [7][8] Individual mother tongues in India number severalhundred; [9]  the 1961 census recognized 1,652 [10]  (SILEthnologue lists 415). According to Census of India of 2001, 30 languages are spoken by more than a millionnative speakers, 122 by more than 10,000. Three millennia of language contact has led to significant mutual influence among the four language families in India and South Asia. Two contact languages have played an important role in thehistory of India: Persian and English. [11] Contents 1 History2 Inventories3 Language families4 Official languages5 Official classical languages6 Regional languages6.1 Practical problems7 Language conflicts8 Writing systems9 See also  11/29/12Languages of India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia2/ The Hindi-belt, including Hindi-relatedlanguages such as Rajasthani andBihari. 10 References11 External links12 References History  Main article: Linguistic history of India The northern Indian languages from the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family evolved from Old Indo-Aryan by way of the MiddleIndo-Aryan Prakrit languages and Apabhraṃśa of the Middle Ages.There is no consensus for a specific time where the modern north Indianlanguages such as Hindi-Urdu, Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi,Punjabi, Rajasthani, Sindhi and Oriya emerged, but AD 1000 iscommonly accepted. [12]  Each language had different influences, withHindi-Urdu (Hindustani) being strongly influenced by Persian.The Dravidian languages of South India had a history independent of Sanskrit. The major Dravidian languages are Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam,Kannada and Tulu. [13]  Though Malayalam and Telugu are Dravidian insrcin, over eighty percent of their lexicon is borrowed fromSanskrit. [14][15][16][17]  The Telugu script can reproduce the full range of Sanskrit phonetics without losing any of the text's srcinality, [18]  whereasthe Malayalam script includes graphemes capable of representing all thesounds of Sanskrit and all Dravidian languages. [19][20]  The Tamil and Kannada languages have lesser Sanskrit andPrakrit influence. [ citation needed  ]  The Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman languages of North-East India also havelong independent histories. [ citation needed  ] Inventories  Main articles: Languages with official status in India and List of languages by number of native speakers in India Dialectologists distinguish the terms language and dialect on the basis of mutual intelligibility. The Indian censususes two specific classifications in its own unique way: (1) 'language' and (2) 'mother tongue'. The 'mother tongues'are grouped within each 'language'. Many 'mother tongues' so defined would be considered a language rather than adialect by linguistic standards. This is especially so for many 'mother tongues' with tens of millions of speakers thatare officially grouped under the 'language' Hindi.The Indian census of 1961 recognised 1,652 different languages in India (including languages not native to thesubcontinent). The 1991 census recognizes 1,576 classified mother tongues [21]  The People of India (POI) projectof Anthropological Survey of India reported 325 languages which are used for in-group communication by theIndian communities.SIL Ethnologue lists 415 living Languages of India (out of 6,912 worldwide).According to the 1991 census, 22 'languages' had more than a million native speakers, 50 had more than 100,000  11/29/12Languages of India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia3/11 and 114 had more than 10,000 native speakers. The remaining accounted for a total of 566,000 native speakers(out of a total of 838 million Indians in 1991). [21] According to the most recent census of 2001, 29 'languages' have more than a million native speakers, 60 havemore than 100,000 and 122 have more than 10,000 native speakers.The government of India has given 22 languages of the 8th Schedule the status of official language. The number of languages given this status has increased through the political process. Some languages with a large number of speakers still do not have this status, the largest of these being Bhili/Bhiladi with some 9.6 million native speakers(ranked 14th), followed by Garhwali with 2.9 million speakers, Gondi with 2.7 million speakers (ranked 18th) andKhandeshi with 2.1 million speakers (ranked 22nd). On the other hand, 2 languages with fewer than 2 million nativespeakers have recently been included in the 8th Schedule for mostly political reasons: Manipuri/Maithei with 1.5million speakers (ranked 25th) and Bodo with 1.4 million speakers (ranked 26th). Language families The languages of India belong to several language families. The largest of these in terms of speakers is the Indo-European family, predominantly represented in its Indo-Aryan branch (accounting for some 700 million speakers,or 69% of the population), but also including minority languages such as Persian, Portuguese or French, and Englishas a lingua franca. Kashmiri and other Dardic languages, which form part of the Indo-Iranian, and arguably Indo-Aryan family, have some 4.6 million speakers in India.The second largest language family is the Dravidian family, accounting for some 200 million speakers, or 26%.Families with smaller numbers of speakers are Austro-Asiatic and numerous small Tibeto-Burman languages, withsome 10 and 6 million speakers, respectively, together 5% of the population.The Ongan languages of the southern Andaman Islands form a fifth family; the Great Andamanese languages areextinct apart from one highly endangered language with a dwindling number of speakers. There is also a knownlanguage isolate, the Nihali language. The Shompen language or languages is/are poorly attested and unclassified.Sentinelese is entirely unknown.Most languages in the Indian republic are written in Brahmi-derived scripts, such as Devanagari, Kannada, Eastern Nagari - Assamese/Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Oriya, etc., though Urdu is written in an Arabic script, and a few minor languages such as Santali use independent scripts. Official languages  Main article: Languages with official status in India#Eighth Schedule to the Constitution The official languages of the Republic of India are Standard Hindi (41% of the country speaks Standard Hindi or another Hindi dialect) and English. According to the article 343 (1) of the Constitution of India, The OfficialLanguage of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. [22]  The individual states can legislate their own officiallanguages, depending on their linguistic demographics. For example, the state of Maharashtra has Marathi as itssole official language, the state of Punjab has Punjabi as its sole official language, the state of Andhra Pradesh hasTelugu as its sole official language, the state of Orissa has Oriya as its sole official language, the state of Tamil Naduhas Tamil as its sole official language, the state of Karnataka has Kannada as its sole official language and the stateof Kerala has Malayalam as its sole official language, while the state of Jammu and Kashmir has Kashmiri, Urdu,  11/29/12Languages of India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia4/ and Dogri as its official languages.Article 345 of the constitution authorizes the several states of India to adopt as official languages of that state — which people of that state can then use in all dealings with all branches of the local, state and federal governments — either Standard Hindi or any one or more of the languages spoken in that state. Until the Twenty-FirstAmendment of the Constitution in 1967, the country recognised 14 official regional languages. The Eighth Scheduleand the Seventy-First Amendment provided for the inclusion of Sindhi, Konkani, Meiteilon and Nepali, therebyincreasing the number of official regional languages of India to 18. At present there are 22 official languages of India. [23]  Individual states, whose borders are mostly drawn on socio-linguistic lines, are free to decide their ownlanguage for internal administration and education.The following table lists the official languages, aside from English, set out in the eighth schedule as of May 2008: [24] Language FamilySpeakers (in millions, 2001) [25]  State(s)Assamese/Axomiya Indo-Aryan,Eastern13Assam, Arunachal Pradesh Bengali Indo-Aryan,Eastern83West Bengal, Tripura, Andaman & Nicobar Islands Bodo Tibeto-Burman1.4Assam Dogri Indo-Aryan, Northwestern2.3Jammu and Kashmir  Gujarati Indo-Aryan,Western46Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Gujarat Hindi Indo-Aryan,Central258–422 [26] Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh,Bihar, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, the national capitalterritory of Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh,Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand Kannada Dravidian38Karnataka Kashmiri Indo-Aryan,Dardic5.5Jammu and Kashmir  Konkani Indo-Aryan,Southern2.5–7.6 [27] Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Kerala Maithili Indo-Aryan,Eastern12–32 [28] Bihar  Malayalam Dravidian33Kerala, Andaman and Nicobar Islands,Lakshadweep, Pondicherry Manipuri  (also Meitei  or Meithei )Tibeto-Burman1.5Manipur Indo-Aryan,Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman
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