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  Journal Article #1 Shelby Davis Article #1: Young adults’ perceptions of using   wearables, social media and other technologies to detect worsening mental health: A qualitative study Principle Findings: Although this study was done in the UK the participants reported multifactorial changes in either behavior, mood or cognition as an indication of mental health deterioration and most of them reported having a combination of all these indicators. Reported behaviors that were identified as signs of mental health deterioration included outbursts, excessive behavior, social isolation, changes to routine, eating habits and sleep. Change in sleep patterns was the most commonly reported sign of mental health deterioration. For example, most participants mentioned that having trouble sleeping was always a marker that their mental health was getting worse. Some participants revealed that a clear sign of their mental health deterioration was contributed to changes in their mood. For example, irritability, low mood, hopelessness, and lack of motivation. Purpose: The study aimed to explore the perspectives of young patients on the feasibility and acceptability of using wearables, social media, and technologies to detect mental health deterioration. Technological interventions may help support and improve mental health. This study is important because it allows us to properly assess how excessive social media influences the youth today. However young peoples’ views o n using different technologies to detect deteriorating mental health in those already diagnosed with a mental health condition are lacking. Methodology: The study was co-produced with young adults who had past mental health difficulties. Interviews were conducted with young adults with a severe mental health condition in a private room at a community mental health site. Data was triangulated by comparing codes and ideas across the two co-researchers and two researchers over two virtual meetings. Themes were finalized and presented in a thematic map Student Observations: Sixteen participants took part in the study (81% female) and had a mean age of 22±1.8, (range 19  –  24) (Table 1). Interviews lasted between 48 and 112 minutes, and in six interviews, two interviewers were present: the researcher and the co-researcher. The participants had varying experiences of using technologies including social media. There were four main themes: (1) dealing with mental health symptoms, (2) signs of mental health deterioration, (3) technology concerns and values and (4) technological applications to identify worsening mental health. Citation:  Dewa LH, Lavelle M, Pickles K, Kalorkoti C, Jaques J, PappaS, et al. (2019) Young adults’  perceptions of using wearables, social media and other technologies to detect worsening mental health: A qualitative study. PLoS ONE 14(9): e022265 Journal Article #2 Shelby Davis Article #2: Teens are anxious and depressed after three hours a day on social media Principle Findings: The researchers found that three hours of social media usage correlated with higher rates of mental health issues, even after adjusting for a history of such problems. Purpose: Understanding how social media, excessive screen time, and other forms of personal technology affect child and adolescent brain development. Much of that is because technology develops faster than it can be studied. It also doesn’t help that researchers have come to conflicting conclusions. For example, this study from last month at the University of California, Irvine, suggested that there was no link between tech time and mental health. Social media, however, might be different: this study published earlier this year found a disturbing connection  between social-media use and social-media addiction. Methodology:  Nearly 6,600 12- to 15-year-old Americans self-reported how much time they spent per day on social media, as well as whether they had any mental health problems. Student Observations: The effects of social media consumption on teens manifest in two main ways, according to the study's authors which demonstrated both internally (depression and anxiety) and externally (aggressive behavior or antisocial behavior). The second part was essentially nonexistent among teens who reported that they didn't use social media. Citation: Basu, T. (2019, September 11). Teens are anxious and depressed after three hours a day on social media. Retrieved from https://www.technologyreview.com/f/614297/teens-are-anxious-and-depressed-after-three-hours-a-day-on-social-media/.  Journal Article #3 Shelby Davis Article #3: Associations Between Time Spent Using Social Media and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems Among US Youth Principle Findings: In this cohort study of over 6,000 US adolescents, increased time spent using social media per day was prospectively linked with increased odds of reporting high levels of internalizing and comorbid internalizing and externalizing challenges, even after adjusting for a history of mental health problems. Purpose: The reason behind this article is to answer the question: Is time spent using social media associated with mental health problems among adolescents? Also, to assess whether time spent using social media per day is prospectively associated with internalizing and externalizing  problems among adolescents. Methodology: A nationally representative cohort study of US adolescents assessed US adolescents via household interviews using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing. Data analysis was  performed from January 14, 2019, to May 22, 2019. Student Observations: Adolescents who spend more than 3 hours per day on social media may be at heightened risk for mental health problems, particularly internalizing problems. In this rather large group study of 6595 US adolescents, increased time spent using social media per day was potentially accompanied by increased odds of reporting high levels of internalizing and comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems, even after adjusting for history of mental health  problems. Citation: Kira E. Riehm, MS 1 ; Kenneth A. Feder, PhD 1 ; Kayla N. Tormohlen, MPH 1 ; et al   Journal Article #4 Shelby Davis Article #4: Online Social Networking and Mental Health Principle Findings: Online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites, such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. Methodology: Student Observations: This brief review focuses on the recent findings regarding the proposed connection  between social networking sites and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem and internet addiction. Citation: Pantic, Igor. (2014). Online Social Networking and Mental Health. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 17. 10.1089/cyber.2014.0070.   Journal Article #5 Shelby Davis Article #5: It Only Takes 3 Hours for Social Media to Worsen Your Mental State Principle Findings: This study was helpful because it highlighted youth aged 12-15 years old. In unadjusted assessments, spending more than 30 minutes on social media, compared with no use, was correlated with increased risk of internalizing problems alone; associations with externalizing  problems were inconsistent. In adjusted assessments, the use of social media for more than 3 hours per day compared with no use remained significantly associated with internalizing  problems alone and comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems but not externalizing  problems alone. Methodology: Self-reported past-year internalizing problems alone, externalizing problems alone, and comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems during wave 3 using the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs  –  Short Screener. The study's authors warn that this 3-hour cutoff may not be an iron-clad rule, but the bigger picture is that that much social media use appears to take a toll on a very specific way: It affects the way teenagers process their stresses, anxieties, and problems. Student Observations: Data analysis was performed from January 14, 2019, to May 22, 2019. Kira Riehm, the study’s lead author and a Ph.D. candidate at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, tells  Inverse  there are three leading ideas that explain why social media may relate to  internalizing behavior: "This pattern of findings may be explained by a number of potential mechanisms, including exposure to cyberbullying, poor quality sleep, or exposure to idealized self-presentation, which have been found in other studies to be associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms," she explains. This longitudinal cohort study of 6595 participants from a nationally representative cohort study of US adolescents, assessed US adolescents via household interviews using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing. Citation: Basu, T. (2019, September 11). Teens are anxious and depressed after three hours a day on social media. Retrieved from https://www.technologyreview.com/f/614297/teens-are-anxious-and-depressed-after-three-hours-a-day-on-social-media/.
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