Economy & Finance

Localization 101: How to Avoid Being Left Behind in a Global Economy and Global Job Market

Presented at DocTrain East 2007 by Maxwell Hoffmann, ENLASLO -- This session will interest any technical communicator or content creator in the 21st Century workplace. In our post Cold-War economy, dynamics have changed that influence how we must all think through and deliver content. The “English only” market is shrinking on a daily basis.With our global economy, there are few enterprises that can afford to keep content in English only. World markets and off-shore partners are moving all of us into an international, multilingual marketplace. The majority of internet users no longer have English as a primary language. Beyond product documentation and marketing materials, subcontracting and off-shoring of resources may involve patents and critical business information that is not yet available in English. In the USA, local Spanish is one of the fastest growing market segments.This workshop will explore all critical aspects of localization and how you can get started in a sensible fashion to avoid mistakes up front that can multiply as a project goes into multiple languages.Topics include: * The role of Internationalization * Localization vs. Translation * Best practices for managing translation/localization projects * Common Translation methods * Common Translation tools * Benefits of a CMS solution for localization * What is Translation “Memory”? * Managing Translation Memory * The importance of a terminology glossary * Customer and vendor roles in managing a glossary * The Locale Concept * Formatting requirements; Writing System and Language * Major Localization Activities: o Translation o Addition of locale specific features o Object adjustment for expansion o Change Management o Testing o Involvement of key groups (linguistic team, engineering, desktop publishing and project management) * Criteria for selecting a Localization Vendor o Selection criteria, requirements and research o Managing communications with localization vendors
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  • 1. Localization 101: How to Avoid Being Left Behind in a Global Economy and Job Market Maxwell Hoffmann Manager Consulting & Training
  • 2. About the Presenter <ul><li>Graphic Artist -> Typesetter -> DTP -> Localization </li></ul><ul><li>Worked for variety of publishing solution vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Former FrameMaker product marketing mgr </li></ul><ul><li>10 years in Localized publishing, production, and consulting: large scale projects in up to 22 languages </li></ul><ul><li>Trained over 1,000 people in past 25 years on variety of publishing solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Worked mostly with content creators and tech writers </li></ul>
  • 3. Some definitions <ul><li>Locale: “Combination of language, cultural preferences, character set, and other information that describes a particular target market or audience.” </li></ul><ul><li>Localization (L10N): “Process of adapting a product for a particular locale. Usually comes after internationalization in the shape of a package of services. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization (G11N): “Combination of internationalization and localization, as well as implementation of a global strategy from early product development through localization .” </li></ul><ul><li>Internationalization (I18N): “Process of creating (or re-engineering) a system to support multiple locales with a single set of source code. Usually a pre-requisite for successful localization.” </li></ul>
  • 4. Some more definitions <ul><li>Translation: “Process of translating, editing and proofing text .” </li></ul><ul><li>Translation Memory (TM): “a type of database that is used in software programs designed to aid human translators. Translation memories are typically used in conjunction with a dedicated computer assisted translation (CAT) tool, word processing program, terminology management systems, multilingual dictionary, or even raw machine translation output.” </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Assisted Translation (CAT): “ a form of translation wherein a human translator translates texts using computer software designed to support and facilitate the translation process.” </li></ul>
  • 5. Some more definitions <ul><li>Machine Translation (MT): “performs simple substitution of words in one natural language for words in another. Using corpus techniques, more complex translations may be attempted, allowing for better handling of differences in linguistic typology, phrase recognition, and translation of idioms, as well as the isolation of anomalies.” </li></ul><ul><li>Glossary: “ agreed upon definitions of key words, phrases, product names. Can be in English only (source) or in target languages as well. Glossaries help linguists to avoid ambiguous or alternate translations.” </li></ul>
  • 6. Some more definitions <ul><li>Controlled English (CE): “a controlled language originally developed for aerospace industry maintenance manuals. It offers a carefully limited and standardized subset of English. ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proponents claim that Simplified English can: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce ambiguity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate second language acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve comprehension for people whose first language is not English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make human translation cheaper and easier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate computer-assisted translation and machine translation </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Globalization and You You are Here
  • 8. Globalization: a confluence of events <ul><li>End of the Cold War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalism reaches Eastern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese economy thaws to the West </li></ul></ul><ul><li>European Union (economy and language requirements.) </li></ul><ul><li>GATT and WTO (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs and World Trade Org.) </li></ul><ul><li>NAFTA (Canada/USA/Mexico trade) and immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of Internet and “” boom </li></ul><ul><li>Y2K and growth of India/off-shoring </li></ul>
  • 9. Globalization: end of the Cold War <ul><li>Autumn 1989 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fall of Berlin Wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiananmen Square stand off, Beijing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End of Soviet Union by 1991 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>End of the “Cold War” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge new market opens that was “out of sight, out of mind” for 77 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China liberalizes economic policies, huge market opens </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Former Soviet Republics become viable markets <ul><li>Now becoming common languages for Localization/Translation </li></ul><ul><li>Significant “Soviet Satellite” Languages: </li></ul><ul><li>Hungarian </li></ul><ul><li>Polish </li></ul><ul><li>Czech </li></ul>
  • 11. Mobility of Manufacturing and Services <ul><li>General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (typically abbreviated GATT ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uruguay Round from 1986 to 1994, extended the agreement fully to new areas such as intellectual property, services, capital, and agriculture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of this round the WTO (World Trade Org) was born. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing (and Services) have moved offshore; more documentation not in English </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Recommended Reading <ul><li>When USA firms had to prep for Y2K, few programmers available for “old” programs </li></ul><ul><li>Turned to East Indian firms </li></ul><ul><li>Work was fast, good </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband became common, jobs went off shore </li></ul><ul><li>Software and services become portable; national boundaries are porous </li></ul>
  • 13. Transformation of China <ul><li>Fourth largest economy </li></ul><ul><li>Manufactures half the world’s motorcycles </li></ul><ul><li>Some predict will be No. 1 economy by 2050 </li></ul><ul><li>Read “A Year Without Made in China” to see impact on consumer goods in USA </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing supply chains are now permanently multinational and multilingual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on manufacturing instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English source content translation can affect paint with or with lead content </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. European Union <ul><li>Formally established 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>Currency (Euro) strengthens against Dollar </li></ul>? ? ?
  • 15. How does the EU affects me? <ul><li>The EU has 23 official and working languages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish and Swedish. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medical devices and drugs require multilingual labels </li></ul>
  • 16. Internet commerce eliminates boundaries <ul><li>English speakers now a minority on WWW </li></ul><ul><li>Developing countries using cell phones for internet more </li></ul><ul><li>Rental kiosks making Internet shopping available to villages in India </li></ul><ul><li>Shoppers with limited English twice as likely to buy when WWW site is their own language </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic (Latin America Spanish) is fastest emerging market domestically </li></ul>
  • 17. The world has changed, but we haven’t <ul><li>Virtually all USA managers grew up during the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Internet commerce is recent ; global impact not obvious to everyone </li></ul><ul><li>We (USA) live (almost) in entirely in an English-only environment </li></ul><ul><li>We (USA) have a fairly homogenous popular culture </li></ul><ul><li>Translation and Localization is still an afterthought for many enterprises </li></ul>
  • 18. Change in the last 7 years <ul><li>In 2000, the three biggest countries by GDP were the U.S., Japan, and Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>The next four were France , Italy, the U.K., and China. </li></ul><ul><li>Seven years later China made it to the fourth slot. </li></ul>Source: “On the Web, Some Countries Matter More than Others” by Common Sense Advisory
  • 19. Balance of Language/Financial Power is shifting <ul><li>Top 10 economies in 2007 </li></ul>Source: “On the Web, Some Countries Matter More than Others” by Common Sense Advisory
  • 20. Balance of Language/Financial Power is shifting - cont <ul><li>Probable top 10 economies in 2050 </li></ul>
  • 21. Quiz: Which languages give you 76% of On-Line Access Population? <ul><li>Question: name the 10 languages, in correct order: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese-Simplified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Korean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swedish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portuguese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese-Traditional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ANSWER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese-Simplified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portuguese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Korean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian </li></ul></ul>Source: “On the Web, Some Countries Matter More than Others” by Common Sense Advisory
  • 22. Quiz: How do you reach 88% of the most economically active users? <ul><li>Question: which 5 languages do you add to English to reach 88% of “spending” Internet users? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese-Simplified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portuguese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Korean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ANSWER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish (incl. USA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ FIGS-J” </li></ul></ul>Source: “On the Web, Some Countries Matter More than Others” by Common Sense Advisory
  • 23. Your global markets will be tempered by sales opportunities <ul><li>Chinese-Simplified </li></ul><ul><li>Czech </li></ul><ul><li>Danish </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>Estonian </li></ul><ul><li>Finnish </li></ul><ul><li>French </li></ul><ul><li>German </li></ul><ul><li>Greek </li></ul><ul><li>Hungarian </li></ul><ul><li>Italian </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Latvian </li></ul><ul><li>Lithuanian </li></ul><ul><li>Norwegian </li></ul><ul><li>Polish </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese </li></ul><ul><li>Russian </li></ul><ul><li>Slovak </li></ul><ul><li>Slovenian </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>Swedish. </li></ul>Languages in a recent proposal for a medical device company (Doc and Help):
  • 24. Agenda <ul><li>How you influence cost of Localization/Globalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Future career opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overview of Localization Process </li></ul><ul><li>Common Challenges to Localization </li></ul>
  • 25. Agenda - cont. <ul><li>Primary areas of Interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content creation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled or simplified English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glossaries and Terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing Translation Memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text formatting and page layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for selecting a Localization vendor </li></ul>
  • 26. INTRO: How You influence L10N costs
  • 27. Your areas of Influence <ul><li>Text (content) structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled or Simplified English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent wording to leverage previous translations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terminology (glossaries) agreed upon definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Page Layout and template design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text expansion in target languages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Text formatting issues </li></ul><ul><li>File management , directory structure and internal communications </li></ul>Source: “On the Web, Some Countries Matter More than Others” by Common Sense Advisory
  • 28. Overview of the L10N process
  • 29. Localization Processes <ul><li>L10N Equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Processes </li></ul>
  • 30. Quality, Cost, Turnaround <ul><li>An equilibrium of three opposing forces </li></ul>Time Cost Quality
  • 31. Understanding Roles (You) <ul><li>Fundamentally you (customer) are responsible for: </li></ul><ul><li>Planning for localization early </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying internal contact(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly identifying the scope of work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Format of the source material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated word counts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target markets/languages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establishing priorities in timeline, cost and quality </li></ul>
  • 32. Understanding Roles (L10N vendor) <ul><li>Your LSP (Language Service Provider) should: </li></ul><ul><li>Help you to set realistic expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Generate strong understanding of project scope </li></ul><ul><li>Provide accurate analyses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated resources needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project timeline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communicate consistently </li></ul><ul><li>Have an early warning system for unexpected problems </li></ul>
  • 33. Understanding Roles (Handoffs) <ul><li>Common pitfalls and fixes </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Become educated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terminology debates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish expectations with in-country representatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine guidelines for glossaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glossaries will belong to you and can be used by multiple vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conflicting priorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance timeline , cost, and quality </li></ul></ul>
  • 34. Defining the Project <ul><li>Project scope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Format of the source material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esti
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