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Locating the First Foundation of the Carmelites in India within the context of Elam, the Carmelite mission of Persia and the Restoration of the fortunes of Elam CHAPTER three

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The Context of the Carmelite Mission of Persia is described within a framework of the God's promise of the restoration of Elam. Moreover the Elamo-Dravidian theory is discussed and a spiritual side of Elamo-Dravidian is expressed here.
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  Locating the First Foundation of the Carmelites in India within the context of Elam, the Carmelite mission of Persia  and the Restoration of the fortunes of ElamCHAPTER three  Elam Elam is the oldest civilization rom the soil o Iran and along with Sumerian civilization; it could be considered as one o the earliest civilizations o humanity. It comprised o the modern provinces o Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part o southern Iraq. Elam was also known as Susiana, which is a name derived rom its capital, Susa. Elam was the most powerful and longest lasting civilization of the Iranian plateau. 1   Most of the history of Elam has been recorded by their erce enemies Babylonians and Assyrians, or by their successors, the Persians, who had a strong incentive to undermine the late Elamite kingdom Generally, the Elamite history is divided into four periods namely 2 : a). Proto-Elamite: c. 3200 – c. 2700 BC (Proto-Elamite script in Susa)b). Old Elamite period: c. 2700 – c. 1600 BC (earliest documents until the Eparti dynasty)c). Middle Elamite period: c. 1500 – c. 1100 BC (Anzanite dynasty until the Babylonian invasion o Susa)d). Neo-Elamite period: c. 1100 – 540 BC (Assyrian and Median dominance. Achaemenid period begins by 539 BC.) Some of the major dynasties that ruled Elam are given below 3 :- a). Early Elamite kings, c. 2700–c. 2600 BC b). Awan dynasty, c. 2600–2078 BCc). Shimashki Dynasty, c. 2100–c. 1928 BCd). Epartid dynasty, c. 1970–c. 1500 BCe). Kidinuid dynasty, c. 1500–c. 1400 BCf). Igehalkid dynasty, c. 1400–c. 1200 BCg). Shutrukid dynasty, c. 1200–c. 970 BCh). Humban-Tahrid dynasty c. 830–521 BC A short account on the history o Elam: During the ancient times, Elam was closely tied culturally to Mesopotamia. When the Akkadian dynasty (c. 2334–c. 2154 BCE) came to power, Elamites adopted the 1 http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/3767/11/11_chapter%202.pd Accessed 3  january 2019 2 crystalinks.com. Elam. [Online]. [Accessed 3 january 2019]. Available rom: www.crystalinks.com/elam.html 3 Ibid  186 Te First Foundation o Carmel in India: 1619-2019 Sumero-Akkadian cuneiform script. 4 Eventually, Elam came under the control of Gutians and then of the 3rd dynasty of Ur. As the power of Ur in turn declined, the Elamites reasserted their independence. About 1600 BCE the Kassites caused the fall of both Babylonia and Elam. Elam regained its position as a substantial power in the latter part of the 13th century BCE. The Elamite kings Shutruk-Nahhunte and Kutir-Nahhunte invaded Mesopotamia and succeeded in securing a large number of ancient monuments (such as the Victory Stele of Naram-Sin and the stele bearing the law code of Hammurabi). 5 Shilkhak-In-Shushinak campaigned vigorously, and for at least a short period his domain included most of Mesopotamia East of the Tigris River and reached eastward almost to Persepolis. 6  This was the zenith of the Elamite Empire.  Nebuchadrezzar I of Babylon (reigned c. 1119–c. 1098 BCE) captured Susa and put the power of Elam to an end. In 640 BCE, however, the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal invaded Elam, sacked Susa, and deported some of the leading citizens to Samaria in Palestine. 7 Later Elam formed a satrapy of the Persian Achaemenian dynasty, and Susa became one of the three most important cities of the Persian realm.Location of Ancient Elam 8 4 Te Editors o Encyclopaedia Britannica 2019. Elam ANCIEN KINGDOM, IRAN. [Online]. [Accessed 3 january 2019]. Available rom: https://www.britannica.com/place/Elam5 Ibid6 Ibid7 Ibid8 benedante.blogspot.com 2015. Ancient Elam. [Online]. [Accessed 4 January 2019]. Available rom: benedante.blogspot.com/2015/12/ancient-elam.html  187 the Carmelite mission o Persia and the Restoration o the ortunes o Elam Destruction of Elam by Ashurbanipal 9 9 https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7a/Susa-destruction.jpg Accessed 4 January 2019
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