Meluhha, 3rd m BCE, of Indus Script Inscriptions of metalwork catalogues is a Proto-Indo-Aryan or a Proto-Asianic language

"The Hurrian language (Mitanni) is attested from the last centuries of the 3rd millennium BCE until around the middle of the thirteenth century BCE. It was called À ur-li-liin Hittite, Á orî in Hebrew,×ïññátïò1 in Greek, and [x rġ] */xuruγi/ in
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  1 Meluhha, 3rd m BCE, of Indus Script Inscriptions of metalwork catalogues is a Proto-Indo-Aryan or a Proto-Asianic language "The Hurrian language (Mitanni) is attested from the last centuries of the 3rd millennium BCE until around the middle of the thirteenth century BCE. It was called À ur-li-liin Hittite, Á orî in Hebrew,×ïññátïò 1 in Greek, and [x rġ] */xuruγi/ in the Ugaritic alphabetic script (the Hurrianending¯i-appears in other ethnonyms). Hurrian is also possibly attested in Egyptian as Àr, vocalized as *[xuru]. The Hurrians are attested in Hattic as <wa-ur-li>, where <wa-> expresses the plural. Hurrian was the language of the once-powerful Mitanni Kingdom...clue of an ancient presence is the non-nati ve Sumerian word tabira ‘metallurgy’, which has obvious and strong connections with the following set of Hurrian words: tab ‘to melt (metal)’, tabiri ‘metal - melter’ and tabrenni ‘(copper)smith’.This shows a lasting and widespread presence of the Hurrians in the mountains of eastern Anatolia, where the resources, work, and trade of metals have been a major economic activity and whereHurrians are the apparently native element...Our discussion now comes to an end. In the course of this book, we have attempted to show, through a careful analysis of the relevant phonological, morphological, and lexical data, that Urarto-Hurrian and Indo-European are, in fact, genetically related at a very deep level, as we indicated at the beginning of this chapter by quoting from the famous Third Anniversary Discourse (1786) of Sir William Jones. We propose that both are descended from a common ancestor, which may  be called “Proto - Asianic”, to revive an old, but not forgotten, term." (Arnaud Fournet & Allan R. Bomhard, 2010, The Indo-European Elements in Hurrian , Charleston, La Garenne Colombes,  pp.1, 2, 159) The shaded area indicates the location of the Mitanni Kingdom around 1350 BCE The word tabira 'metallurgy' is cognate with Santali word tam(b)a 'copper'. A number of cognate expressions in Indian  sprachbund (speech union of Meluhha, mleccha) are: 5779 tāmrá    dark red, copper -- coloured  VS., n.  copper  Kauś., tāmraka  -- n. Yjñ. [Cf. tamrá -- . -- √tam?]Pa. tamba  --  red , n.  copper ,  Pk. taṁba  -- adj. and n.; Dm. trāmba  --  red  (in trāmba -- la c  ̣ uk     raspberry  NTS xii 192); Bshk. l ām    copper, piece of bad pine -- wood (<  *red wood ?); Phal. tāmba    copper  (→ Sh.koh. tāmbā ), K. trām   m. (→ Sh.gil. gur. trām  m.), S. ṭrāmo  m., L. trāmā , (Ju.) tarāmã ̄  m., P. tāmbā  m., WPah. bhad. ṭḷām  n., ki ̃ th. cāmbā , sod. cambo , jaun. t  ã ̄bō , Ku. N.  2 tāmo   (pl.  young bamboo shoots ), A. tām , B. t  ã ̄bā , tāmā , Or. tambā , Bi t  ã ̄bā , Mth. tām , tāmā , Bhoj. tāmā , H. tām  in cmpds., t  ã ̄bā , tāmā  m., G. tr  ã ̄ b ̃ , t  ã ̄ b ̃  n.;M. t  ã ̄bẽ    n.  copper , t  ã ̄ b   f.  rust, redness of sky ; Ko. tāmbe   n.  copper ; Si. ta m ̆ ba   adj.  reddish , sb.  copper , (SigGr) tam , tama.  -- Ext. -- ira  -- : Pk. taṁbira  --  coppercoloured, red , L. tāmrā    copper -- coloured (of  pigeons) ; -- with -- ḍa  -- : S. ṭrāmiṛo   m.  a kind of cooking pot , ṭrāmiṛī     sunburnt, red with anger , f.  copper pot ; Bhoj. tāmrā    copper vessel ; H. t  ã ̄bṛā , tāmṛā    coppercoloured, dark red , m.  stone resembling a ruby ; G. t  ã ̄baṛ   n., tr  ã ̄bṛī  , t  ã ̄bṛī    f.  copper pot ; OM. tāṁbaḍā    red . -- X trápu -- q.v. tmrika -- ; tmrakra -- , tmrakuṭṭa -- , *tmraghaṭa -- , *tmraghaṭaka -- , tmracūḍa -- , *tmradhka -- , tmrapaṭṭa -- , tmrapattra -- , tmraptra -- , *tmrabhṇḍa -- , tmravarṇa -- , tmrkṣa -- .Addenda: tāmrá -- [< IE. * tomró  -- T. Burrow BSOAS xxxviii 65]S.kcch. trāmo , tām ( b ) o   m.  copper , trāmbhyo   m.  an old copper coin ; WPah.kc. cambo   m.  copper , J. cāmbā   m., kṭg. (kc.) tambɔ  m. (← P. or H. Him.I 89), Garh. tāmu , t  ã ̄ bu.   tmrakra  5780 tāmrakāra   m.  coppersmith  lex. [tmrá -- , kra -- 1] Or. tāmbarā    id. . tmrakuṭṭa  5781 tāmrakuṭṭa   m.  coppersmith  R. [tmrá -- , kuṭṭa -- ] N. tamauṭe , tamoṭe    id. . Addenda: tāmrakuṭṭa -- :  Garh. ṭamoṭu    coppersmith ; Ko. tāmṭi. tāraká -- 1 see tr -- Add2. tmraghaṭa  5782 * tāmraghaṭa    copper pot . [tmrá -- , ghaṭa -- 1]Bi. tamheṛī     round copper vessel ; -- tamheṛā    brassfounder  der. * tamhe ṛ     copper pot  or < next? tmraghaṭaka  5783 * tāmraghaṭaka    copper -- worker . [tmrá -- , ghaṭa -- 2] Bi. tamheṛā    brass -- founder  or der. fr. * tamheṛ   see prec. tmracūḍa  5784 tāmracūḍa    red -- crested  MBh., m.  cock  Suśr. [tmrá -- , cūˊḍa -- 1]Pa. tambacūḷa  -- m.  cock , Pk. taṁbacūla  -- m.; -- Si. ta m ̆basiluvā    cock  (EGS 61) either a later cmpd. (as in Pk.) or ← Pa. tmradhka  5785 * tāmradhāka    copper receptacle . [tmrá -- , dhká -- ]Bi. tamahā    drinking vessel made of a red alloy . tmrapaṭṭa  5786 tāmrapaṭṭa   m.  copper plate (for inscribing)  Yjñ. [Cf. tmrapattra -- . -- tmrá -- , paṭṭa -- 1]M. t  ã ̄boṭī    f.  piece of copper of shape and size of a brick . tmrapattra  5787 tāmrapattra   n.  copper plate (for inscribing)  lex. [Cf. tmrapaṭṭa -- . -- tmrá -- , páttra -- ] Ku.gng. tamoti    copper plate . tmraptra  5788 tāmrapātra   n.  copper vessel  MBh. [tmrá -- , pˊtra -- ]Ku.gng. tamoi    copper vessel for water . tmrabhṇḍa  5789 * t āmrabhāṇḍa    copper vessel . [tmrá -- , bhṇḍa -- 1]Bhoj. tāmaṛā , tāmṛā    copper vessel ; G. tarbhāṇ̃   n.  copper dish used in religious ceremonies  (< * taramh ã ̄ḍ̃ ). tmravarṇa  5790 tāmravarṇa    copper -- coloured  Tr. [tmrá -- , várṇa -- 1]Si. ta m ̆ bavan    copper -- coloured, dark red  (EGS 61)  prob. a Si. cmpd. tmrkṣa  5791 tāmrākṣa    red -- eyed  MBh. [tmrá -- , ákṣi -- ] Pa. tambakkhin  -- ; P. tamak    f.  anger ; Bhoj. tamakhal     to be angry ; H. tamaknā    to become red in the face, be ang ry . tmrika  5792 tāmrika    coppery  Mn. [tmrá -- ]Pk. taṁbiya  -- n.  an article of an ascetic's equipment (a copper vessel?) ; L. trāmī    f.  large open vessel for kneading bread , poṭh. trāmbī    f.  brass plate for kneading on ; Ku.gng. tāmi    copper plate ; A. tāmi    copper vessel used in worship ; B. tāmī  , tamiyā    large brass vessel for cooking pulses at marriages and other ceremonies ; H. tambiyā '  copper or brass vessel'.(CDIAL 5779 to 5790).  3 The approximate area of Hurrian settlement in the Middle Bronze Age is shown in purple "The Hurrians  (/ ˈhʊəriənz/ ; cuneiform: ฀฀฀ ; transliteration:  Ḫu -ur-ri ; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East. They spoke a Hurro-Urartian language called Hurrian and lived in Anatolia and Northern Mesopotamia. The largest and most influential Hurrian nation was the kingdom of Mitanni, the Mitanni perhaps being Indo-Iranian speakers who formed a ruling class over the Hurrians. The  population of the Indo-European-speaking Hittite Empire in Anatolia included a large population of Hurrians, and there is significant Hurrian influence in Hittite mythology. By the Early Iron Age, the Hurrians had been assimilated with other peoples. Their remnants were subdued by a related people that formed the state of Urartu. According to a hypothesis by I.M. Diakonoff and S. Starostin, the Hurrian and Urartian languages shared a common ancestor and were related to the Northeast Caucasian languages. The present-day Armenians are an amalgam of the Indo-European groups with the Hurrians and Urartians." Arnaud Fournet & Allan R. Bomhard have demonstrated the Indo-European elements in Hurrian and suggested that the Hurrian may be derived from “Proto - Asianic”. I suggest that such a Proto-Asianic form is suggested by Meluhha (Mleccha) vocabulary used in the rebus renderings of over 8000 Indus Script inscriptions which include seals from Bogazkoy (Hurrian settlement area).  4 The Louvre lion (Hurrian foundation peg) and accompanying stone tablet bearing the earliest known text in Hurrian language. Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. [Manfred Mayrhofer, 'Welches Material aus dem Indo-arischen von Mitanni verbleibt für eine selektive Darstellung?' In: E. Neu (Hrsh.),  Investigationes philologicae et comparativae: Gedenkschrift für Heinz Kronasser   (Wiesbaden, O. Harrassowitz 1982), 72  –  90. Paul Thieme, The 'Aryan Gods' of the Mitanni Treaties , Journal of the American Oriental Society 80, 301  –  317 (1960).](See Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni)...The Hurrians had a reputation in metallurgy. The Sumerians borrowed their copper terminology from the Hurrian vocabulary. Copper was traded south to Mesopotamia from the highlands of Anatolia. The Khabur Valley had a central position in the metal trade, and copper, silver and even tin were accessible from the Hurrian-dominated countries Kizzuwatna and Ishuwa situated in the Anatolian highland. Gold was in short supply, and the Amarna letters inform us that it was acquired from Egypt. Not many examples of Hurrian metal work have survived, except from the later Urartu. Some small fine bronze lion figurines were discovered at Urkesh. Hurrians, like Meluhha speakers were expert metallurgists. This explains why the entire set of over 8000 Indus Script Inscriptions are wealth accounting ledgers of metalwork catalogues.   Two-headed eagle, a twisted cord below. From Bogazköy . 18th c. B.C.E (Museum Ankara). eruvai 'kite' Rebus: eruva 'copper' dhAtu 'strands of rope' Rebus: dhAtu 'mineral' dh a ̄ ̆vaḍ    m.  a caste of iron -- smelters ,   dhāvḍī     composed of or relating to iron (Note the three strands of the rope hieroglyph on the seal impression from Bogazkoy; it is read: tridhAtu 'three mineral elements'). It signifies copper compound of three minerals; maybe, arsenic copper? or arsenic  bronze, as distinct from tin bronze? Hieroglyph: dhAu 'rope strand' Rebus: dhAtu 'mineral element' dh a ̄ ̆vaḍ    m.  a caste of iron -- smelters ,   dhāvḍī     composed of or relating to iron  (Marathi)(CDIAL 6773)Alternative:  मेढा   [ mēḍhā  ] 'a curl or snarl; twist in thread' (Marathi) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ    ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) rebus: medha 'yajna'   eruvai  'eagle' Rebus: eruvai  'copper'. eraka 'wing' Rebus: erako 'moltencast copper'. A mlecchita vikalpa reading for eagle: hangar ‘blacksmith’ (i.e. maker of thunderbolt vajra weapon). The adjective  somabh r  ̥ t   repeatedly used in Yajus-samhita and the Brahmana-s is a standing epithet of the eagle: ‘he who brings the soma’.    5 Griffith: RV VI.20.6: 6 As the Hawk rent for him the stalk that gladdens, he wrenched the head from Namuci the Dasa.He guarded Nam, Sayyas' son, in slumber, and sated him with food, success, and riches. Sayana/Wilson: RV 6.020.06 And the hawk bore to Indra the exhilarating Soma, when, bruising the head of the oppressor Namuci, and protecting the slumbering Nami, the son of Sapya, he  provided, for the well-being (of the sage), riches and food. aśani ‘thunderbolt’ cognate śyena ‘falcon’, sena ‘thunderbolt’. The semantics of aśani ‘thunderbolt’ leads to the expression hangar ‘blacksmith’. (Pashto. Kashmiri)  See: R  ̥gveda khyna of śyena by Gautama, son of Rhugaṇa who migrated to Karatoya, Ganga -   Brahmaputra basin. Soma and the Eagle (Agni as śyena 'thunderbolt' ) -- Maurice Bloomfield   (1892)    করতোযোনদী    Karatoya river which Sadnīra (Amara) and close to the tin belt of the globe in Ancient Far East (Mekong, Irrawaddy, Salween Himalayan river basins) to unleash Tin-Bronze revolution (ca.4th m. BCE). Amara Kośa asserts   Sadnīra  to be synonym of Karatoya River. See:  ऺदानॎरा     ॎ     ऺदा     नॎरं    पेयमाः   ।    करतख़यानाम्   अमरः   ।   “ अथादग़     कक टे    देवॎ     ऻं    गा     रजला    ।    ऺवा     रवऻा     नः    करतख़याबॏवाहऻनॎ  ”  ृॏेःतदॎजल     ऺदापेयात्    ताथाम्   ।  Source:  वाचम्  It is  posited that these Meluhha speakers had migrated to Mitanni settlements as metallurgical experts. S. Kalyanaraman, Sarasvati Research Centre

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Dec 12, 2018
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