BusinessLaw

Metal reduction in wine using PVI-PVP copolymer and its effects on chemical and sensory characters

Description
Viti 46 (3), (27) Metal reduction in wine uing copolymer and it effect on chemical and enory character H. MIRA ), P. LEITE ), 2), 3), S. CATARINO 3), J. M. RICARDO-DA-SILVA 2) and A. S. CURVELO-GARCIA
Categories
Published
of 10
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
Viti 46 (3), (27) Metal reduction in wine uing copolymer and it effect on chemical and enory character H. MIRA ), P. LEITE ), 2), 3), S. CATARINO 3), J. M. RICARDO-DA-SILVA 2) and A. S. CURVELO-GARCIA 3) ) Ecola Superior Agrária de Santarém, Santarém, Portugal 2) Univeridade Técnica de Liboa, Intituto Superior de Agronomia, Laboratório Ferreira Lapa (Sector de Enologia), Liboa, Portugal 3) INIAP, Etação Vitivinícola Nacional, Quinta da Almoínha, Doi Porto, Portugal Summary We tudied the influence of an adorbent rein (a copolymer of vinylimidazole and vinylpyrrolidone), on the removal of heavy metal in wine, mainly copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminium (Al). The tudy alo invetigated the influence of on the phyical-chemical and enory characteritic of white and red wine, comparing it effect when applied in the mut and in the wine. The removal of metal wa more effective when wa applied to the wine than to the mut. The removal of Fe and Pb wa more effective in white wine than in red wine, while the removal of Cu and Al wa higher in red wine. In general, the higher the doe, the greater the quantity of metallic element (copper, iron, lead and aluminium) that are removed. had a minor effect on phenolic compoition. The wine howed ome decreae in total acidity and an increae in ph with. The application of at the doe rate employed here did not affect the wine enory characteritic ignificantly. K e y w o r d :, vinylimidazole, vinylpyrrolidone, metal, wine. Introduction The mineral contituent of mut and of wine are preent in ionic form and alo a colloidal complexe with other compound uch a ome organic acid and polyaccharide. Their primary preence i due to the natural tranfer from oil-to-root-to-grapevine, in which the element are aborbed by the root according to their bio-availability in the oil, thee being afterward metabolied by the plant and further modified in the winemaking proce and during the aging of the wine. Thee natural level can alo be increaed by contamination (SEPPI and SPERANDIO 978; MEDINA and SUDRAUD 979; MCKINNON et al. 992; OUGH 993; ESCHNAUER et al. 996; BAUER et al. 2). A number of different factor can be reponible for the preence of exogenou metal contaminant in wine uch a plant protection product, the winemaking equipment, and accidental contamination of the mut. With technological progre, and epecially with increaed ue of tainle teel in oenological equipment a ignificant decreae in the level of reidual Fe in wine ha reulted. According to EDER et al. (23) clouding problem are often the reult of Cu level above about.5 mg l -. The ue of copper-containing plant protection product can reult in grape reidue which are at leat partially tranferred to the wine. It i alo poible that level of thi cation can be further raied by treatment of the wine with copper ulphate to eliminate unpleaant mell caued by ulphydric acid and by thiol (MATTIVI et al. 2). The preence of Pb in wine can originate from atmopheric pollution, from indutrial emiion and from road traffic (preumably from the old, leaded petrol) (TEISSÈDRE et al. 993 a; AUGAGNEUR et al. 997; FOURNIER et al. 998), or from plant protection and oenological product containing Pb a an impurity (TEISSÈDRE et al. 993 b; MINGUEZ et al. 997). Contamination with Cd i the reult mainly of contact with zinc material rich in Cd and from ome tainle teel (CURVELO-GARCIA 988). GILBERT (979) and MEDINA and SUDRAUD (979) refer to a poible cadmium enrichment in mut from grape growing cloe to major road. ESCHNAUER et al. (996) cite alo plant protection product a poible ource of Cd. High level of metal contamination in wine uch a Fe, Cu, Pb or Cd can influence the phyico-chemical tability of the wine (BOULTON et al. 995), cauing browning, clouding and the formation of precipitate. Thi i quite eparate from iue of food afety and of breaching legal upper limit. The preent OIV (International Organiation of Vine and Wine) upper limit for Pb in wine are 5 μg l - ; for Cd μg l -, and for Cu mg l - (OIV 25, 26) making it ometime neceary to remove exce metal o a to lower the concentration to below thee legal limit. Thi alo bring their content to level that are both afe for the conumer and favourable for the tability of the wine. Thee OIV limit are accepted within the European Community but not necearily outide. The claic removal proce for exce metal in wine (mainly iron, but alo ometime copper, zinc, manganee, nickel, ilver, lead, cadmium and aluminium) i by treatment with potaium ferrocyanide (K 4 [Fe(CN 6 )] 3H 2 O). Thi i ometime called blue fining. The ue of potaium ferrocyanide in wine i a technique which ha limitation uch a the need to carry out preliminary aay to determine the right doe rate. Obviouly, over fining by the addition of too much potaium ferrocyanide can reult in the formation of free cyanide ion o that potaium Correpondence to: Dr. J. M. RICARDO-DA-SILVA, Univeridade Técnica de Liboa, Intituto Superior de Agronomia, Laboratório Ferreira Lapa (Sector de Enologia), Tapada da Ajuda, Liboa, Portugal. Fax: , 39 2 H. MIRA et al. ferrocyanide ue mut be very carefully controlled indeed. Potaium ferrocyanide reidue alo raie environmental problem in dipoal of wate. The addition of potaium ferrocyanide to the mut i not allowed. From a technological viewpoint, thi method ha not anyway been very effective in eliminating Cu in wine that alo contain low level of Fe. Becaue of thee limitation, alternative method have been explored uch a thoe uing adorbent or exchanger rein (FENG et al. 997; PALACIOS et al. 2; EDER et al. 2, 23; BENITEZ et al. 22). Many author have developed method baed on the ue of jut one adorbent rein to lower the level of all of the contaminant metal preent in wine (MATTIVI et al. 994; 2; EDER et al. 2, 23; NICOLINI et al. 24), to value which are both afe for the conumer and which enhance the tability of the wine The adorbent rein referred to by FUSSNEGGER et al. (992) i known a or jut PVI, and i a vinylimidazole and vinylpyrrolidone copolymer (ratio 9:). i inoluble in water and in mot other liquid, and it ha a number of functional imidazole group which connect electively to the variou metal. Reearch ha been carried out into the ue of different doe of in the mut and in the wine with different time of contact, and it influence on wine colour, and on the variou phenolic and aroma compound of wine. Beide it effect on the metal, eem to have a relevant action in wine clarification. Here, a well a decreaing the level of hydroxycinnamic acid derivative, mainly caftaric acid (MATTIVI et al. 994, 2; NICOLINI et al. 24; EDER et al. 2, 23) it alo minimie browning. Mut, mg/l SO 2, Cruhing/preing The treatment of mut and/or wine with for lowering level of metal uch a Fe, Cu, Zn and Al, ha been under dicuion at OIV by expert under both the Wine Technology and, alo the Food Security group. The authoriation doier i currently under evaluation. In May 26, the French Agency of Food Security in an advice (AFSSA 26) commented that utiliation of PVI- PVP at a doage of 8g/hL did not appear to preent any rik to conumer health. The aim of thi work wa to tudy the influence of on metal reduction (Fe, Cu, Pb, Cd, Al) and, epecially to confirm that there were no important change in the chemical and enory characteritic of either white or red wine. We alo wanted to compare it effect on wine characteritic when it wa ued either in the mut or, later in the wine. Material and Method F i n i n g t r e a t m e n t a p p l i e d t o m u t a n d w i n e : W i n e : White wine were prepared uing grape of the variety 'Fernão Pire' (Viti vinifera L.), and red wine uing 'Catelão' (Viti vinifera L.). Grape were harveted in 22 from the Ribatejo region, Portugal. P V I - P V P : The (Divergan HM, BASF, Germany) wa applied at and 2 g hl - (mut) and 3 and 5 g hl - (wine). Experiment are ummaried in Fig.. Thee application doe are thoe recommended by the upplier. For the mut, the wa introduced before fermentation. They were immediately haken for 2 min, Mut, 8 mg/l SO 2, Cruhing /de-temming Mut Mut + ma with g/hl with 2 g/hl with Ferment. g/hl Ferment. 2 g/hl WM-C WM-D WM-D2 RM-C RM-D RM-D2 a a White wine Red wine Control Wine Clarification with 3 g/hl Clarification with 5 g/hl Control Wine Clarification with 3 g/hl Clarification with 5 g/hl WW-C WW-D WW-D2 RW-C RW-D RW-D2 Fig. : Flowchart of the fining treatment () applied and wine. Metal reduction in wine uing copolymer 4 3 after which they remained at ret during fermentation. Separation occurred at firt racking. The wine were haken for 5 min immediately after introduction of the, after which they too remained at ret for 48 h. F i n i n g t r e a t m e n t a p p l i e d i n w i n e w i t h m e t a l a d d i t i o n : With the aim of confirming the influence of on Fe and Cu we added thee element to matured white and red wine: Addition A (5 mg l - of Fe and.5 mg l - of Cu). Addition B (5 mg l - of Fe and mg l - of Cu). We alo added two level of 25 and 5 g hl - (the amount and 2 repectively). M i n e r a l c o m p o i t i o n : The concentration of potaium (K), calcium (Ca), odium (Na), magneium (Mg), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) wa aayed by Flame Atomic Aborption Spectrometry (FAAS) uing a Varian Spectra /2 (Victoria, Autralia), according to the official method of OIV (OIV 99). The Pb, Cd and Al content were determined by Electrothermal Atomic Aborption Spectrometry (ETAAS), according to the method decribed by CATARINO (2) and CATARINO et al. (22). C o l o u r a n d p h e n o l i c c o m p o i t i o n : The total content of phenolic compound wa meaured by the aborbance at 28 nm (RIBÉREAU-GAYON 97); colour intenity by the um (A 42 +A 52 +A 62 ), where tonality i defined by the ratio (A 42 /A 52 ). For the white wine, colour intenity wa meaured uing aborbance at 42 nm. Colour meaurement of the wine were alo performed according to the CIELAB 76 method (MCLAREN 98). Spectral reading, tranmittance every nm over the viible pectrum nm, were performed with a UV4 Unican Viible Spectrometer (Cambridge, UK), uing quartz cell of path length mm (red wine), and mm (white wine). The oftware Chroma 2. colour meaurement wa ued to calculate the CIELAB coordinate directly. The L, a and b value decribe a three-dimenional colour pace. For the red wine, the total pigment were etimated uing the method of SOMERS and EVANS (977); the polymeric pigment index wa determined by a method propoed by GLORIES (978) and total anthocyanin were evaluated according to the method of RIBÉREAU-GAYON and STONESTREET (965). O r g a n i c a c i d c o m p o i t i o n : Organic acid (tartaric, malic, citric, lactic and hikimic acid) were analyed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) uing a method decribed by TUSSEAU and BENOIT (986 a, b). Two column with revere phae Lichropher RP 8 (Merck, Darmtadt, Germany) (particle ize 5 µm, 25 x 4 mm) were ued. Detection wa made with a UVIS 26 PHD (KONIK Intrument, Barcelona, Spain) et at 2 nm, and the peak area were determined with Konikchrom 5.2 oftware. C u r r e n t a n a l y i : ph, titratable and volatile acidity were determined by Fourier Tranform Infrared Spectrometry FTIR (WineScan FT2, Fo, Slangerupgade, Denmark) (MOREIRA et al. 22 a, b). S e n o r y a n a l y i : Senory analye were performed by ix expert panellit who were member of Comião Vitivinícola Regional of Ribatejo (CVRR). Thee peron were all properly trained and had good previou experience. We aked panellit to look for difference between the control wine and each ample of treated wine. The wine attribute included viual, noe and tate ene, a well a overall (global) appreciation. S t a t i t i c a n a l y i : The data were analyzed by Analyi of Variance uing SPSS 2. for Window. The treatment mean were eparated by the Scheffée tet at the 5 % ignificance level. Reult and Dicuion F i n i n g t r e a t m e n t a p p l i e d i n m u t a n d w i n e : M u t a n d w h i t e w i n e : The reult of applying in mut and wine were analyed eparately. The ummary of our variance analyi reult with white wine i hown in Tab.. For phenolic compoition we confirm that, either in the mut or in wine caued a light, but ignificant decreae in the level of phenolic compound in the wine. Thi wa expreed in a reduction in the total phenol index (Ipt). However, no ignificant difference appeared between the two doe rate ued. Thi i conitent with the obervation of MATTIVI et al. (2). According to thee author, remove alo ome phenolic compound from the wine and, in particular the low molecular weight one. It i thee that are mainly involved in the oxidative browning of white wine. Alo NICOLINI et al. (2, 24) and EDER et al. (2, 23) refer to the influence of on the reduction of hydroxycinnamate, thu improving colour tability. In fact, with regard to the wine chromatic characteritic, we confirm a light, but not ignificant decreae in A42 and in the co-ordinate L, a and b. A for mineral compoition, we found that had no effect on Ca, Mg and Na content, regardle of whether the product wa ued in the mut or, later in the wine. Thi reult i in line with that of other author (EDER et al. 2, 23; NICOLINI et al. 24). However, the application of in the mut did have a light, but ignificant effect on the potaium content when compared with the control. Thi eem to indicate that the application of in the mut caue a premature elimination of thi cation, and thi probably contribute to tartaric tabiliation in the ubequent wine. In the particular cae of Cu, the application of PVI- PVP in the mut or in the wine did not have a ignificant effect on the content of thi metal. Thi reult may be due to the very low copper content of our wine, or to our experimental condition. Alo, the dicontinuou haking may have reulted in inufficient contact between and the wine. Our reult could be explained by that of NICOLINI et al. (24), who found that removal wa fater and more complete when mixing wa more thorough. Alo, EDER et al. (23), ugget that metal removal can occur quite rapidly allowing to be eparated from the wine after only 6 h of contact. Under our condition, no effect on Fe content wa detected with either in white mut or in wine; 4 4 H. MIRA et al. T a b l e Effect of application in mut and wine on ome white wine characteritic Colour and phenolic compoition: Total phenol index (ua) A42 (ua) Effect WM-C WM-D WM-D2 WW-C WW-D WW-D2 Effect n L n a n b n Mineral compoition: Potaium (mg l - ) Calcium (mg l - ) Sodium (mg l - ) Magneium (mg l - ) Copper (mg l - ) Iron (mg l - ) Lead (µg l - ) Cadmium (µg l - ) Acid compoition: Tartaric ac. (g l - ) Malic ac. (g l - ) Shikimic ac. (mg l - ) Lactic ac. (g l - ) Citric ac. (mg l - ) Current analyi: Denity (g ml - ) Alcohol content (% v/v) Titrable acidity (g l - tartaric ac.) Volatile acidity (g l - acetic ac.) ph n n n n n n n n n n n.8b 3a a.2 -.9a 4 7.6a 8 65b 72a 47a 93a a.4a 79.b.7 .3a.45.3a 33a.6a 744a 45.4a 4a a.3 -.7a 6 7.5a 578a 3 69a 46a 9a a.4a 48.5a 4.2 .3a.4a 34a.7a 77a 29.2a 6a a -.a.24 8.a a 4 7a 47a 92a a.4a 5a. .3a a.3a 33a.6a 79a 2.8c 3a a.7 -.3a.45 4.a a 7a 48a 9a a.4a 34.4b.2 .3a.3.2a 34a.8a 724a 9.6b 3a 98.a -.7a 6 6.9a 9 565a 3 7a 48a 9a a.3a 25.5a.8 .3a 4.2a 33a.6a 673a a 3a 5 98.a -.6a 5 6.6a 4 568a 69a 48a 9a a.3a 9.6a 2. .3a.2a 34a.6a 683a 7 n.992a 5.994a a.9927a.995a.993a n 2.7a 2.8a 2.8a 2.8a 2.7a 2.8a 5.7b 5.4a 5.3a 5.5b 5.3a 5.2a n 2.52a.49a.5a.52b.45a.47ab n 3.8a 3.a 3.4a 3.4a 3.7ab 3.2b 3 2 The two experiment (mut and wine) were analyed in eparate. mean; tandard error. Treatment mean were eparated by the Scheffée tet at the 5% ignificance level. Different letter in the ame line indicate tatitically ignificant difference: (p 5), (p ), n-not ignificant; nd - not detected. WM-C: white wine control for mut application; WM-D or D2: white wine, reulting from the application in mut; WW-C: white wine control for wine application; WW-D or D2: white wine, reulting from the application in wine. C control wine; D - amount (low); D2 - amount 2 (high). L.a.b - CIELAB coordinate, au aborbance unit. n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n Metal reduction in wine uing copolymer 42 5 however the Fe content in the wine wa alo very low. Thi may explain the partial diagreement with previou work (MATTIVI et al. 2, EDER et al. 23, NICOLINI et al. 24). Thi difference too, may be related to an inadequate contact between and the wine. For Pb, we ee a decreae in content with, both in the mut and in the wine. However, increaing the doage did not bring about a correponding increae in Pb removal. For Cd, all mut and wine ample howed concentration below our detection limit for thi metal, o no concluion about their removal i poible. Portuguee wine generally have very low cadmium concentration (CATA- RINO 2). We did not find ignificant change in the content of organic acid when the wa applied to the mut or to the wine at either doage. For the white wine, we oberved a light but ignificant decreae in total acidity, but an increae in ph, with when thi wa added either to the mut or the wine. Thi confirmed the reult of EDER et al. (2, 23). did not eem to have any influence on wine denity or alcohol content. The enory analyi reult from the tet panel did not find ignificant difference between the wine regardle of doage and of whether it wa added to the mut or to the wine (Tab. 2). Thi repreent an important technological reult. T a b l e 2 Senory analyi reult for the wine. Value of the core from (minimum) to 5 (maximum) for each attribute, except global appreciation that i caled from to 2 White wine Red wine WM-C WM-D WM-D2 WW-C WW-D WW-D2 RM-C RM-D RM-D2 RW-C RW-D RW-D2 Viual Noe Tate Global appreciation Legend: WM-C: white wine control for mut application; WM-D or D2: white wine, reulting from the application in mut; WW-C: white wine control for wine application; WW-D or D2: white wine, reulting from the PVI- PVP application in wine. RM C: red wine control for mut application; RM-D or D2: red wine, reulting from the application in mut; RW-C: red wine control for PVI- PVP wine application; RW-D or D2: red wine, reulting from the application in wine. C control wine; D - amount (low); D2 - amount 2 (high). M u t a n d r e d w i n e : When wa added to the mut, the phenolic compoition of the wine wa not ignificantly affected (data not hown). On the other hand, when it wa added to the wine (Tab. 4), we aw a mall but ignificant reduction in the total phenol index, in the colour tonality, total pigment and in the total anthocyanin content. The latter effect uually reveal a decreae in the value of all of the parameter analyed. doage had no ignificant effect. MATTIVI et al. (2) alo found a light decreae in total phenol and anthocyanin in red wine. did not remove ignificant amount of K, Ca, Mg or Na when added to either the mut or the wine (Tab 3 and 4). Thi confirm the reult of EDER et al. (2, 23) for mut and for white wine. T a b l e 3 Effect of application in red mut on mineral compoition Potaium (mg l - ) Calcium (mg l - ) Sodium (mg l - ) Magneium (mg l - ) Effect RM-C RM-D RM-D2 n n n n Copper (mg l - ) Iron (mg l - ) n Lead (mg l - ) Cadmium (mg l - ) n 785a 3 83a 4a 7a 4b 7.3a.4 9.9b a 82a 3 4a 7a 2 2ab 6.6a a a 87a 4a 7a a 6.a a 3. .3a .3a .3a mean; tandard error. Treatment mean were eparated by the Scheffée tet at the 5% ignificance level. Different letter in the ame line indicate tatitically ignificant difference: (p 5), (p ), n-not ignificant. RM-C: red wine control for mut application; RM-D or D2: red wine, reulting from the application in mut; C - control wine; D - amount (low); D2 - amount 2 (high). We found a ignificant decreae in Cu content when wa added to the mut. When added to the wine, we oberved a tendency, but not tatitically ignificant, for decreae in Cu content. Copper level were lowered to about 57 % of the initial value, with greater removal in red wine than in white. The probable explanation for thi i copper aociation with the anthocyanin a metal complexe (ESPARZ
Search
Similar documents
View more...
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x