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Mgt 350 final exam guide 27) When deciding between decision alternatives, this tool helps the manager to focus scarce resources on the most common causes of a problem. A. Venn Diagram B. Pareto chart C. Benchmarking D. SWOT analysis E. For

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27) When deciding between decision alternatives, this tool helps the manager to focus scarce resources on the most common causes of a problem. A. Venn Diagram B. Pareto chart C. Benchmarking D. SWOT analysis E. Force Field Analysis
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  • 1. MGT/350 Final Exam Tutorial/Guide Click Here to Buy the Tutorial Guide/Answers1) Which of the following statements is true about a weak organizationalculture? A. Desirable if an organization has many subcultures B. Desirable if an organization wants diversity of thought and action C. Desirable if an organization wants behavioral consistency D. Undesirable because they lead to weak organizations2) Which of the following conditions is necessary for whistle-blowing to bemorally permissible, but not morally obligatory? A. The firm will do serious and considerable harm to employees or to thepublic. B. The whistle-blower has documented evidence that would convince areasonable, impartial observer that one’s view of the situation is correct. C. The employee has good reason to believe that by going public, thenecessary changes will be brought about. D. The whistle-blower has reason to believe that he or she will be seen asfailing to be loyal to the company.3) Which of the following conditions is necessary for whistle-blowing to bemorally permissible, but not morally obligatory?
  • 2. A. The company’s product poses a serious danger to the public. B. The employee has good reason to believe that by going public, thenecessary changes will be brought about. C. The whistle-blower has reason to believe that he or she will be seen asfailing to be loyal to the company. D. The employee has exhausted the internal procedures and possibilitieswithin the firm, maybe even to the board of directors.4) Which of the following conditions is necessary for whistle-blowing to bemorally obligatory? A. The employee has exhausted the internal procedures and possibilitieswithin the firm, maybe even to the board of directors. B. The whistle-blower has documented evidence that would convince areasonable, impartial observer that one’s view of the situation is correct, andthat the company’s product poses a serious danger to the public. C. The firm will do serious and considerable harm to employees or to thepublic. D. The employee has reported the serious threat to his or her immediatesupervisor.5) Which of the following conditions is necessary for whistle-blowing to bemorally permissible, but not morally obligatory? A. The employee has reported the serious threat to his or her immediatesupervisor.
  • 3. B. The whistle-blower has documented evidence that would convince areasonable, impartial observer that one’s view of the situation is correct, andthat the company’s product poses a serious danger to the public. C. The employee has good reason to believe that by going public, thenecessary changes will be brought about. D. The whistle-blower has reason to believe that he or she will be seen asfailing to be loyal to the company.6) The purpose of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was to A. provide protection for corporations with whistle-blowers B. make whistle-blowing illegal C. provide some protection for whistle-blowers D. create a federal office for whistle-blowers to report to7) According to Aristotle, which of the following is the highest virtue? A. Wisdom B. Courage C. Justice D. Generosity8) Which of the following would be the conclusion a virtue ethicist might makeof one who reacts to strong temptation by frequently giving in to it? A. The person has an excellent character.
  • 4. B. The person has an immoral character. C. The person has a strong character. D. The person has a weak character.11) The Myth of Amoral Business is consistent with which of the following? A. Businesses and people in business are immoral. B. Businesses and people in business are inherently ethical. C. Businesses and people in business are not explicitly concerned withethics. D. Businesses and people in business are unethical.12) Three major approaches to thinking about business ethics are theconventional approach, the principles approach, and the ethical tests approach.Which of the following describes the principles approach? A. It involves comparing a decision or practice with prevailing norms ofacceptability. B. It involves a set of practical questions that do not require deep moralthinking but can help clarify an appropriate course of action. C. It is based on a moral philosophical concept, guideline, or rule thatcan be applied to assist in making an ethical decision. D. It is based on legal mandates and regulations to guide decisions.13) Moral management is the polar opposite of immoral management. Which ofthe following statements most closely describes the primary focus of moralmanagement?
  • 5. A. The focus is solely on business, where different rules apply than inother realms of life. B. The focus is on profitability and organizational success at any price. C. The focus is on both the letter of the law and the spirit of the law. D. The focus is solely on obeying the law.14) Students in which area of study may need more ethics training becauseresearch has found that they rank lower in moral reasoning than other students? A. Philosophy B. Political science C. Business D. Medicine15) Which of these is the best approach to the study of business ethics? A. Special effects B. Normative ethics C. Casuistry D. Metaethics6) In the ethical decision-making process, which of these is the process ofdeciding what is right?
  • 6. A. Moral awareness B. Moral cognition C. Moral judgment D. Moral behavior7) Why did the U.S. Sentencing Commission begin to focus on the ethicalculture of the organization in 2004? A. Researchers had just recently introduced the idea of an ethical culturein 2002. B. More and more consultants were discussing ethical culture in theirprograms. C. Prior to the change, organizations used formal programs as windowdressing. D. Prior to 2004, researchers did not have a definition of ethical culture.8) Which of the following statements is true about a weak organizationalculture? A. Desirable if an organization has many subcultures B. Desirable if an organization wants diversity of thought and action C. Desirable if an organization wants behavioral consistency D. Undesirable because they lead to weak organizations9) Which of the following conditions is necessary for whistle-blowing to bemorally permissible, but not morally obligatory?
  • 7. A. The firm will do serious and considerable harm to employees or to thepublic. B. The whistle-blower has documented evidence that would convince areasonable, impartial observer that one’s view of the situation is correct. C. The employee has good reason to believe that by going public, thenecessary changes will be brought about. D. The whistle-blower has reason to believe that he or she will be seen asfailing to be loyal to the company.10) Which of the following conditions is necessary for whistle-blowing to bemorally permissible, but not morally obligatory? A. The company’s product poses a serious danger to the public. B. The employee has good reason to believe that by going public, thenecessary changes will be brought about. C. The whistle-blower has reason to believe that he or she will be seen asfailing to be loyal to the company. D. The employee has exhausted the internal procedures and possibilitieswithin the firm, maybe even to the board of directors.11) Which of the following conditions is necessary for whistle-blowing to bemorally obligatory? A. The employee has exhausted the internal procedures and possibilitieswithin the firm, maybe even to the board of directors. B. The whistle-blower has documented evidence that would convince areasonable, impartial observer that one’s view of the situation is correct, andthat the company’s product poses a serious danger to the public.
  • 8. C. The firm will do serious and considerable harm to employees or to thepublic. D. The employee has reported the serious threat to his or her immediatesupervisor.12) Which of the following conditions is necessary for whistle-blowing to bemorally permissible, but not morally obligatory? A. The employee has reported the serious threat to his or her immediatesupervisor. B. The whistle-blower has documented evidence that would convince areasonable, impartial observer that one’s view of the situation is correct, andthat the company’s product poses a serious danger to the public. C. The employee has good reason to believe that by going public, thenecessary changes will be brought about. D. The whistle-blower has reason to believe that he or she will be seen asfailing to be loyal to the company.13) The purpose of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was to A. provide protection for corporations with whistle-blowers B. make whistle-blowing illegal C. provide some protection for whistle-blowers D. create a federal office for whistle-blowers to report to14) According to Aristotle, which of the following is the highest virtue?
  • 9. A. Wisdom B. Courage C. Justice D. Generosity15) Which of the following would be the conclusion a virtue ethicist mightmake of one who reacts to strong temptation by frequently giving in to it? A. The person has an excellent character. B. The person has an immoral character. C. The person has a strong character. D. The person has a weak character.16) Which of the following describes a moral ideal? A. A pleasure or happiness B. A disposition C. A goal toward which we can strive D. A talent or ability17) All actions by nations or companies involve—first and foremost—which ofthe following? A. Actions by individuals B. Actions by legislative bodies
  • 10. C. Actions by corporate entities D. Actions by nation states18) According to the Executive Ethical Leadership Reputation Matrix, whichtype of leader is an executive characterized as a weak moral person and a strongmoral manager? A. Unethical leader B. Ethical leader C. Ethically neutral leader D. Hypocritical leader19) According to the Executive Ethical Leadership Reputation Matrix, whichtype of leader is an executive characterized as a strong moral person and astrong moral manager? A. Unethical leader B. Ethical leader C. Ethically neutral leader D. Hypocritical leader20) Which of the following is one of the moral responsibilities of management? A. Management is responsible to the board. B. Management is responsible to the workers. C. Management is responsible to maximize profits.
  • 11. D. Management is responsible to the shareholders.21) Which of the following is the general obligation derived from the system offree enterprise that covers the wide range of issues from just compensation totruth in advertising to providing the quality of goods or services that onerepresents oneself as providing? A. The obligation to be fair in the transactions in which it engages B. The obligation not to undermine the freedom and values of the system C. The obligation to do no harm D. The obligation to live up to the contracts into which one enters freely22) Which of the following is the general obligation derived from the system offree enterprise that is sometimes called the moral minimum? A. The obligation to be fair in the transactions in which it engages B. The obligation not to undermine the freedom and values of the system C. The obligation to do no harm D. The obligation to live up to the contracts into which one enters freely23) Which of the following is the general obligation derived from the system offree enterprise that holds that parties must be able to count on the actions ofother agents with whom they interact? A. The obligation to be fair in the transactions in which it engages B. The obligation not to undermine the freedom and values of the system C. The obligation to do no harm
  • 12. D. The obligation to live up to the contracts into which one enters freely24) In an example of a conflict of interest, which of the companies belowconducted a series of off-the-books partnerships managed by the company’sexecutives to hide the organization’s debt, inflate its stock price, and benefit theexecutives financially? A. Merrill Lynch B. Enron C. Citicorp D. Adelphia25) There are a number of ways to categorize an organizations stakeholders.One way is to use categories such as primary and secondary and social andnonsocial. Which of the following describes primary stakeholders? A. Their stake in the organization represents public or special interests. B. They may include the government, civic institutions, and competitors. C. They have a direct stake in the organization and its success. D. They may include environmental pressure groups or animal welfareorganizations.26) Some theorists contend that there are three attributes that managers musttake into consideration when determining how to attend to or respond tostakeholder claims. They are A. core, strategic, and environmental
  • 13. B. production, management, and employee C. legitimacy, power, and urgency D. instrumental, descriptive, and normative27) __________ is defined as the gap between the home market and a foreignmarket resulting from the perception and understanding of cultural and businessdifferences. A. Psychic distance paradox B. Social responsibility C. Sustainability D. Ethical relativity28) “When in Rome, do as Romans do” is an example of A. imperialism B. ethical relativism C. cultural collaboration D. psychic distance paradox29) According to the annual Corruption Perception Index (CPI), which countrywould be the least corrupt? A. United States B. Haiti
  • 14. C. Bangladesh D. Denmark30) 2) Critical thinking may be stored for use in future decision making.Examples of mechanisms used to “store” critical thinking for futureprogrammed decisions include A. a regression analysis B. a Stakeholder Analysis C. a Pareto Chart D. pre-opening checklist E. a SWOT Analysis3) When facing a critical decision, a manager should use critical thinking inorder to ______ uncertainty A. eliminate B. increase C. reduce D. randomize4) Kathy is a manager deciding between two applicants for a position reportingto her. One applicant for the position is a close personal friend of Kathy’s.Because Kathy is concerned that self serving bias may influence her toincorrectly see her friend as the best candidate, she should A. allow someone else to make the decision. B. eliminate her bias by not allowing her friend to apply
  • 15. C. ignore her bias and be strictly objective D. any of the above would be an equally valid choice from acritical thinking perspective E. seek input from others before making the decision.5) Jane has a term paper due, a sick child who needs her attention, and a majorproject due at work. To save time, she decides to submit a paper for school thatis less than her best, but will earn a passing grade. The best description of Jane’sapproach is A. creativity B. analyzing C. satisficing D. optimizing6) Despite all the measures followed, successful decisions are not alwaysguaranteed so it is important to A. develop contingency plans B. only allow the most senior leaders to influence decisions C. use logical thinking to guarantee a correct outcome D. accept that some decisions will not work and move on toother issues E. develop appropriate measurements for the impacts ofdecisions
  • 16. 7) One way for a leader to develop alternative perspectives for decision makingis to A. increase the use of the logical thinking style B. rely on the intellectual component of stereotyping C. apply past decision successes to current decisionopportunities D. increase the homogeneity of his or her team E. consult with internal stakeholders in other departments8) One way for a leader to develop alternative perspectives for decision makingis to A. assign the role of devil’s advocate for meetings B. rely on the intellectual component of stereotyping C. apply past decision successes to current decisionopportunities D. increase the homogeneity of his or her team E. increase the use of the logical thinking style9) Critical thought involves the consideration of diverse perspectives.Disadvantages of group decision making include A. a decision that accounts for the interests of diversestakeholders B. all of the above are disadvantages of group decision making C. a more autocratic environment D. a process that is more time consuming
  • 17. E. increased security of confidential information10) During problem formulation, the decision maker must account for theinterests of diverse stakeholders. An important step toward this outcome is theestablishment of A. measurements for the decision B. decision Implementation Processes C. criteria, goals, and objectives D. timelines and resource allocations E. contingency plans11) The outcome of the process of framing the problem includes A. a timeline for decision implementation B. an assessment of resources needed to execute a decision C. a list of criteria, goals, and objectives for a decision D. a list of potential alternative courses of action E. the measurements one will use to evaluate the decision12) Conflict is a force of influence upon decision making, and may hamperdecision implementation if not accounted for in the problem formulation andidentification process. Conflict may stem from such factors as
  • 18. A. inspirational leadership B. routine programmed decisions C. groupthink D. personal attributes E. a lack of a devil’s advocate13) What is the most comprehensive definition of a problem? A. A positive situation that requires action in order to fullyleverage an opportunity. B. A declining economy resulting in reduced revenues C. A negative situation that requires action to mitigate damage D. Gap between current situation and some future desired state E. An increase in the cost of doing business.14) This thinking style may be used to frame a problem in general termsthrough the use of sample data. A. Deductive logical style B. Creative thinking style C. Inductive logical style D. Persuasive thinking style E. All of the above thinking styles frame a problem in generalterms through the use of sample data.15) A form of critical thinking is fair-minded persuasive thinking. Whenengaging in problem formulation and identification with a group, the fairminded persuader would
  • 19. A. emphasizes affective appeals over data and reason B. acknowledges the difficulty that his or her position createsfor the audience C. avoid all affective appeals D. communicate only that information which supports thedesired decision E. emphasize data and reason over affective appeals16) While this decision style offers an opportunity for stakeholder input, it mostlessens accountability for decision making. A. Democratic B. Consensus C. Autocratic D. Collaborative/participative E. Leader decides17) An appropriate profit relative to funds invested would be a primaryconsideration of this stakeholder group. A. Employees B. Customers C. Owners D. Activist groups18) Problems may become apparent to stakeholders through the use of toolswhich compare actual results to expected results. An example of such a tool is a A. SWOT analysis
  • 20. B. Pareto chart C. Financial report D. Fishbone diagram E. Force Field Analysis19) Jan is the owner of a retail store, and is evaluating the need for changes tothe store’s commission structure for sales personnel. She has decided to excludethe sales personnel affected from the decision making process. Jan is probablyseeking to minimize this force of influence on the decision making process. A. Resistance from external stakeholders B. Self serving bias C. Resource availability D. Lack of political support E. Ethical considerations20) Identifying programmed decision opportunities—problems with objectivelycorrect answers, solvable through the use of simple rules, policies, or numericalcomputations—promises this benefit in terms of decision making. A. Ensures that problems are dealt with in a unique fashionaccording to their differences B. Provides decision makers with opportunities for creativeproblem solving C. Greater efficiency D. Provides senior managers with greater visibility to
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