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NATIONAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT PLAN (2013 -2027) REPUBLIC OF GHANA

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NATIONAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT PLAN (2013 -2027) REPUBLIC OF GHANA
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    NATIONAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT   PLAN (2013 – 2027)   REPUBLIC OF GH N   FOREWORD The Government of the Republic of Ghana committed itself to a planned approach to the development of the tourism sector through the implementation of the Integrated Tourism Development Programme which culminated into the preparation of the 15-Year National Tourism Development Plan (1996-2010). The Plan positioned the tourism sector as a consistent driver of growth and development as evidenced by increases in public and private sector investments in tourism facilities, arrivals and receipts, employment and contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Building on the success of the first 15-Year National Tourism Development Plan, the Ministry of Tourism with financial and technical support from UNDP, UNECA and UNWTO, has articulated a successor National Tourism Development Plan (2013-2027) to provide stakeholders in the public and private sectors, a guide to the long-term development of the tourism sector. This is against the backdrop of successes achieved, the challenges that continue to impact negatively on the sector, as well as competition from other sectors and countries. This 15-Year National Tourism Development Plan (2013-2027) assesses how tourism can contribute to national and local economic development and enhance its role as a leading sector for employment creation, revenue generation, environmental conservation and national cohesion and overall economic growth. The Plan has, therefore, been prepared with the aim of positioning tourism in the national development agenda, as well as achieving the core objectives of the Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda (GSGDA) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). There is a high expectation among stakeholders that the Plan will promote increased investments in the supply and value chain linkages, product development, infrastructure, marketing and promotion, human resource development and research, as well as information, communication and technological advancement in the tourism sector.  The National Tourism Development Plan is a product of wide consultative processes involving interviews, focus group discussions and workshops to elicit views from diverse stakeholders. This reflects the multi-faceted nature of tourism and the extent to which the Ministry of Tourism has built consensus and partnerships for both the public and private sectors to collectively own the reviewed National Tourism Development Plan. On behalf of the Government of Ghana and the United Nations, we wish to express our deep appreciation to the Government of Ghana (GoG), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Ghana, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and all stakeholders in the tourism sector in Ghana for their interest and financial and technical support leading to a positive outcome. We look forward to the collective support of all stakeholders in the implementation of the Plan and to making Ghana the preferred tourism destination in  Africa.    Table of contents   List of tables  ........................................................................................................................................ v   List of figures  .................................................................................................................................... vi   Executive summary  ....................................................................................................................... vii    Acronyms  ......................................................................................................................................... xvi    Acknowledgements  ...................................................................................................................... xix   Chapter 1: Background to the study  ............................................................................. 2   1.1 Geography, topography and climate in Ghana  ................................................................. 2   1.2 Vegetation and wildlife in Ghana  ......................................................................................... 4   1.3 Tourism in the context of Ghana’s development   ............................................................. 4   1.3.1 Government’s vision on tourism  ......................................................................................... 4   1.3.2 Status of the industry as related to the overall development plans of the country  ............................................................................................................................. 5   1.3.3 Tourism’s positioning within the national development context   .......................... 6   1.4 Achievements since the formulation of the National Tourism Development Plan in 1996  .................................................................................................... 7   1.5 The need for an updated tourism development plan  ................................................... 8   1.6 The nature of the report   .......................................................................................................... 9   1.7 Methodology employed in the study  ................................................................................ 10   Chapter 2: Situation analysis  ....................................................................................... 12   2.1 Structure and performance of the tourism sector in Ghana  ................................... 12   2.1.1 Tourism establishments  ....................................................................................................... 12   2.1.2 Tourism competitiveness  .................................................................................................... 17   2.2 The tourism economy in Ghana  ....................................................................................... 19   2.2.1 Performance before and during the 1996 - 2010 Plan implementation period  ....................................................................................................... 19   2.2.2 Tourist arrivals and the benefits stream  ....................................................................... 21   2.2.3 Conclusion  ................................................................................................................................. 27   2.3 The tourism statistical system  ........................................................................................... 28   2.3.1 Background to tourism data collection in Ghana  ...................................................... 28   2.3.2 The Institutions collecting tourism statistics  .............................................................. 29   2.3.3 The principal data collected  ............................................................................................... 32   2.4 Tourism infrastructure and services  ............................................................................... 38   2.4.1 Infrastructure background  ................................................................................................. 38   2.4.2 Air access  ................................................................................................................................... 38   2.4.3 Maritime water transport and access  ............................................................................ 40   2.4.4 Inland water transport   ......................................................................................................... 41   2.4.5 Roads and highways  .............................................................................................................. 43   2.4.6 Railways ..................................................................................................................................... 46   2.4.7 Energy  ......................................................................................................................................... 47   2.4.8 Water supply  ............................................................................................................................. 48   2.4.9 Sanitation  ................................................................................................................................... 49   2.4.10 Telecommunications  ........................................................................................................... 49   2.5 Market conditions and current marketing actions  ..................................................... 50   2.5.1   Domestic tourism in Ghana  ................................................................................................ 50   2.5.2   International tourism in Ghana  ........................................................................................ 55   2.6 Review of tourism resources and assets  ......................................................................... 73      ii   2.6.1 Natural attractions  ................................................................................................................. 73   2.6.2 Historical heritage  .................................................................................................................. 79   2.6.3 Intangible cultural attractions  ........................................................................................... 82   2.6.4 Other attractions  ..................................................................................................................... 83   2.6.5 Tourist reception facilities / tourist information centres  ...................................... 84   2.6.6 Summary of changes / actions since the 1996 - 2010 Plan  .................................... 85   2.7 Institutional framework   ....................................................................................................... 86   2.7.1 Public sector and para - statal institutions ..................................................................... 86   2.7.2 Private sector institutions  ................................................................................................... 91   2.7.3 Public Private Partnership  .................................................................................................. 92   2.7.4 Inter - Ministerial Committee  .............................................................................................. 93   2.2.5 Civil society  ............................................................................................................................... 94   2.2.6 Traditional rulers and chiefs  .............................................................................................. 94   2.2.7 Assessment of the institutional structure and performance of tourism administration and management in Ghana  ............................................... 95   2.8 Policy and regulatory framework   ..................................................................................... 98   2.8.1 The National Tourism Policy, 2006  ................................................................................. 98   2.8.2 The Tourism Act 817 of 2011 and associated regulations  ................................. 101   2.8.3 The visa regime  .................................................................................................................... 105   2.9   Tourism human resource in Ghana  .............................................................................. 109   2.9.1 Human resource development, employment and quality of data  ................... 109   2.9.2 Linking Information Technology with tourism human resource development   ...................................................................................................... 111   2.9.3 Quality of service and industry/ownership structures  ....................................... 111   2.9.4 Public sector training  ......................................................................................................... 113   2.9.5 Private sector training  ....................................................................................................... 114   2.10 Tourism and the environment in Ghana  ................................................................... 118   2.10.1 The state of the environment in Ghana  .................................................................... 118   2.10.2 Tourism and the environment in Ghana  .................................................................. 120   2.10.3 Coastal management and tourism in Ghana -  Case study: The COAST project and the Ada Demonstration Site  ........................................... 122   2.10.4 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for tourism enterprises  .............. 124   2.10.5 The impact of oil and gas exploration and mining on the tourism sector in Ghana must be clearly understood  .......................................................... 127   2.11 Community involvement in tourism  ........................................................................... 129   2.11.1 Marketing and accrediting community - based tourism: the case of Ghana Rural Ecotourism and Travel Office (GREET)  .................... 129   2.11.2 UNWTO ST - EP Programme and Ricerca e Cooperazione (RC) community tourism activities in Ghana West Coast (GWC)  .............................. 131   2.11.3 UNWTO ST - EP Programme, SNV and the Savannaland DMO, Northern Ghana  .................................................................................................................. 134   2.11.4 Ghana Wildlife Society  .................................................................................................... 135   2.11.5 The COAST ecotourism project: ‘Integrated Tourism Destination Planning and Management, Ada Estuary’  ................................................................ 136   2.11.6 Other notable community participation initiatives in the tourism sector  ...................................................................................................................... 137   2.11.7 The empowerment of women through tourism  ................................................... 138   2.12 SWOT analysis of the tourism sector in Ghana  ....................................................... 140   Chapter 3: Development goals and objectives, strategy rationale and competitive positioning  ...................................................................................... 144   3.1 Development goals and objectives ................................................................................. 144  
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