Articles & News Stories

Nostratic vowels a focus on Dravidian and Kartvelian

Description
The present paper discusses the number of vowels of Proto-Nostratic, especially the existence of *e. According to Allan R. Bomhard, “cumulative evidence” supports five cardinal vowels: *a, *e, *i, *o, *u. My claim is that only three suffice. The
Published
of 7
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  General classification Discussion: How many vowels  did Nostratic have, three or five ? A focus on Dravidian and Kartvelian Arnaud Fournet (2019) [draft]   Copyright – October 2019 – v1 2 0. Summary Re: See here a recent version of Bomhard’s approach: https://www.academia.edu/5901593/Bomhard_- _A_Comprehensive_Introduction_to_Nostratic_Comparative_Linguistics_3rd_edition_2018_4_volumes_2_763 _pp._combined_into_a_single_PDF_  Re: See here my assessment of Bomhard’s approach written in 2010. It is available here: https://diachronica.pagesperso-orange.fr/TMCJ_vol_1.1_Fournet_Review_of_Bomhard_2008.pdf  Re: I wrote a more recent assessment of Bomhard’s approach in 2019. It is available here: https://www.academia.edu/s/13d0e91451/reasons-why-bomhards-model-of-nostratic-cannot-be-accepted Bomhard’s model of Nostratic has the following main features: - It has five cardinal vowels: * a , * e , * i , * o , * u . - It has a hyper-complex system of 50+ consonants. The present paper discusses the number of vowels of Proto-Nostratic, especially the existence of * e . According to Allan R. Bomhard, “cumulative evidence” supports five cardinal vowels: * a , * e , * i , * o , * u . My claim is that only three suffice. The paper focuses on Dravidian and Kartvelian, which Bomhard claims support the existence of * e . It compiles and analyzes the roots already collected by Bomhard that are simultaneously present in both groups and contain * a  or * e . To jump to the conclusion, as a rule, the roots collected by Bomhard are acceptable, but a good number of roots can (in fact must...) be reconstructed otherwise with only three vowels and fewer consonants. As a rule, Kartvelian * e  only appears when *  H  1  is present, which therefore is an areal feature shared with PIE. In that case, Dravidian often has long ā  or a retroflex consonant. Indeed, Dravidian retroflex consonants have  probably emerged in contact with laryngeals, especially *  H  1  and *  H  4 . The ancient presence of laryngeals is often  betrayed by alternations between short vowels followed by geminated consonants and long vowels followed by single consonants across Dravidian languages. As a result, non-existing phonemes like * l   y  and * r   y  or * t   y  can be removed. On the whole, the present survey confirms a number of my previous claims: - There is no basis for Nostratic * e . Kartvelian * e  is linked to contact with *  H  1 . - Bomhard’s consonantal system is twice too complex, and must be drastically simplified. - The correct values for laryngeals are *  H  1  [ḥ], *  H  2  [ġ], *  H  4  [ˀ]. The presence of *  H  1  [ḥ] or *  H  4  [ˀ] causes respectively aspiration or glottalization in Kartvelian. For that matter, the system of Kartvelian consonants can also be simplified. There is no need for * q h  or * qˀ  , among others. A. Nostratic *ă Labials Bomhard (2019:t3–1038) 878. * mar- ‘man’ Dravidian * mar-i ‘male child (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:423, no. 4764) Kartvelian: Svan māre ‘man (male)’ Bomhard (2019:t3–949) 808. * wan- ‘period, time’ (AF: * wawn- ) 1  Dravidian * (v)ontu- ‘turn, time’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:93, no. 979) Kartvelian * wona- (better * wawna- ) ‘time’ Bomhard (2019:t3–687) 800. * wal- ‘to go (away)’ 1  Cf. Egyptian wnw.t   ‘hour, division of time’.   Copyright – October 2019 – v1 3 Dravidian * valaca- ‘emigration’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:477, no. 5278) Kartvelian * wal- /* wl- ‘to go’ Bomhard (2019:t3–941) 801. * wal- ‘to flow, to wet’ Dravidian * ol  - ‘to flow’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:96, no. 999), * ōl  - ‘to bathe’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:101, no. 1068), * vāl- ‘to drip, drizzle’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:486, no. 5367) Kartvelian * wlṭ- ‘to wet, to become wet’ Bomhard (2019:t3–956) 814. * war- ‘to comb’ (AF: ? * waH  2 -r  -) Dravidian * vār- ‘to comb’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:485, no. 5357) (!? with ā )   Kartvelian * warcḫ- ‘to comb’ (? metathesized from * waH  2 -rc -) Bomhard (2019:t3–960) 817. * war- ‘to burn, to blaze’ Dravidian * ur- ‘to burn’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:63, no. 656) Kartvelian * war- ‘to glow, to light’ Bomhard (2019:t3–947) 805. * wal   y - ‘bright, shining’ (AF: better * waH  1 l  -) Dravidian * oḷi- ‘open space, outside’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:98, no. 1016) (with * ḷ   < *  H  1 l  ) Variant: * vāḷ   (with long ā ) (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:487, no. 5377) Kartvelian * (w)el- ‘to flash (lightning)’ (AF: < * waH  1 l  - with * e  < * aH  1 ) Svan variant hel   supports the presence of *  H  1  Bomhard (2019:t3–973) 829. * wel   y - ‘open (space, field)’ (AF: better * waH  1 l  -) 2  Dravidian * veḷi- ‘open space, outside’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:500—501, no. 5498) (with * ḷ   < *  H  1 l  ) Kartvelian * wel- ‘field’ (AF: < * waH  1 l  - with * e  < * aH  1 ) Bomhard (2019:t3–973) 826. * waǯ- ‘to flow abundantly’ (AF: better * waǯaH  1 -) 3  Dravidian * vac- ‘rain ; to flow’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:471, no. 5214) Kartvelian * weǯ- ‘mineral water’ (AF: < * waǯ-H  1 - with * e  < * aH  1 ) Bomhard (2019:t3–98) 83. *  p h ač’  - (AF: *  paH  1 - č  -) Dravidian Tamil  paccai  ‘skin, hide, Tuḷu  pāca  ‘skin of the leg’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:343, no. 3833) 4  Kartvelian *  peč’w - ‘skin, hide’ (AF: < *  paH  1 č  - with * e  < * aH  1 ) Bomhard (2019:t3–99) 85. *  p h ak  h - (AF: *  paǩ  -) Dravidian Tamil  pakku  ‘scab of a sore, dried mucus of the nose’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:341, no. 3811) Kartvelian *  pakl  - ‘scab’ Bomhard (2019:t3–125) 102. *  p h ar  - (AF: *  par  -) Dravidian Tamil  para  (  parapp -,  parant  -) ‘to fly, to flutter’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:353, no. 3963) Kartvelian *  par  - ‘to fly’ Bomhard (2019:t3–129) 106. *  p h ar   y - (AF: *  paH  4 - r- 5  ‘to cover’) Dravidian *  paṛ-  ‘to cover’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:357, no. 4008) (with * ṛ   < *  H  4 r  ) Kartvelian *  par  - ‘to cover’ Dentals Bomhard (2019:t3–175) 106. * da - Dravidian * daḍḍ-  ‘female (of animals)’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:264, no. 3044) Kartvelian * da - ‘sister’ 2  Cf. Greek ἠλύσιον (with ē  ) ‘the Elysian fields’, Hittite wellu - ‘meadow’. 3  Cf. Arabic wazaġ  - ‘shower’, Egyptian wzš   ‘to urinate’ with palatalized  š   < *  H  1 . 4  With alternation acc  ~ āc  < aH  1 - č  . 5  This reconstruction eliminates the pseudo-phoneme * r   y .   Copyright – October 2019 – v1 4 (NB: Kartvelian * ded(a) - ‘mother’ is from * d  h aH  1 - ‘to suck, breastfeed’) Bomhard (2019:t3–203) 106. * dow/doy - ‘slack, weak’ (AF: * d  h aw -(  H  4  )- ) 6  Dravidian * doy-  ‘to grow weak’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1964:308, no. 3513) (< * d  h aw-y- ) Kartvelian * dowr  - ‘slow, calm’ (better * d  h aw-(e)r- ): Georgian m-dovr-e , Svan dwer-i  Bomhard (2019:t3–177) 146. * dag  - (AF: * d  h aH  1 -  ğ-  ‘to put’) Dravidian * taŋk- ~ *takk-  ‘to stay, to be in place’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:260—261, no. 3014) Kartvelian * deg  -, * dg  - ‘to stand’ (AF: < * d  h aH  1 -ğ  - with * e  < * aH  1 ) PIE * d  h eH  1 - ‘to put’ Bomhard (2019:t3–179) 147. * daġ  - ‘to burn, be bright’ (AF: * d  h ag  h (w)-  ‘to burn, be bright’) Dravidian * dag-  ‘to burn, be bright’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:259, no. 2998) Kartvelian * dġ  - ‘day’ (Substratic Germanic * dag  -) PIE * d  h eg  hw -  ‘to burn’ Bomhard (2019:t3–184) 151. * daq h - ‘(male) goat’ (AF: * d  h ak- ) Dravidian Tamil takar   ‘sheep, ram, goat’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:259, no. 3000) Kartvelian * daq - ‘goat’ (Substratic English *  stag   ‘deer’) Bomhard (2019:t3–230) 190. * t  h al   y - ‘to press, push’ (AF: * taH  1 - l- 7  ‘to cover’) Dravidian Tamil taḷḷu ( taḷḷi- ) ‘to push’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:272—273, no. 3135) (with * ḷ   < *  H  1 l  ) Kartvelian * tel- ‘to press’ (with * e  < * aH  1 ) Bomhard (2019:t3–234) 194. * t  h ar  - ‘to drag’ (AF: * tar- ) (?) Dravidian * dar(a)dar-  ‘sound of dragging’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:269, no. 3093) Kartvelian * tar  - ‘to drag’ Bomhard (2019:t3–242) 200. * t  h ar  - ‘to drink’ (AF: * tar- ) (?) Dravidian * tar-  ‘to drink, swallow’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:275, no. 3174) Kartvelian * tr  -, * tver  - ‘to drink (wine)’ S(h)ibilants Bomhard (2019:t3–331) 279. *  s  y ew - ‘to give birth ; child’ (AF: *  swaH  1 - ) 8  Dravidian Tamil cēy ‘son, child’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:244, no. 2813) Kartvelian: *  š(k)w- ‘to give birth, to beget’ Bomhard (2019:t3–313) 262. * t  hy am - ‘bovine’ (AF: * čaw-m- ) Dravidian * cawma  ‘wild buffalo’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:247, no. 2849): note especially Kuwi homma ‘bison’, hōma ‘sambar’ Kartvelian: Georgian (Imeruli) čoma  ‘cattle’ Bomhard (2019:t3–319) 267. * t  ˀy am - ‘sour, rotten’ (AF: * čaH  4 -m- ) 9  Dravidian * cam-  ‘to rot’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:212, no. 2424) Kartvelian * mč’aḫ - ‘sour’ Bomhard (2019:t3–323) 272. * t  ˀy ar  - ‘to rustle, squeak’ (AF: * čaH  4 -r- ) Dravidian * car-  ‘to rustle’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:207—208, no. 2355) Kartvelian * č’(k’)ar  - ‘to squeak, chirp’ 6  There is no need to posit * o  in this word. Cf. PIE * d  h ow-ks- /* d  h u-ks- ‘to be weary’, * d  h w-en -(  H  4  )- ‘to die, fade away’. 7  This reconstruction eliminates the pseudo-phoneme * l   y , and accounts for Kartvelian * e . 8  Cf. Hurrian  šeni  ‘brother’ with e . 9  NB: the pseudo-phoneme * tˀ   y  does not exist, it is the fusion of * č   and  H  4 .   Copyright – October 2019 – v1 5 Bomhard (2019:t3–405) 272. * č  ˀ  i/er  - ‘to cut’ (AF: * čaH  4 -r-  and * čiH  4 -r- ) 10  Dravidian * cēr-  (< * čiH  4 -ar- ) ‘to plow’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:244—245, no. 2815) Kartvelian * č’ar  -, * č’er  - ‘to scratch, to write’ Bomhard (2019:t3–404) 339. * č’am-a ‘reed, grass’ (AF: * čaH  4 -m- ) 11  Dravidian * camp- ‘elephant grass, sedge’   (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:207, no. 2347) Kartvelian * č’am- ‘grass’ (< * čaH  4 -m- ) Bomhard (2019:t3–323) 303. * c h ag  - ‘to prick, to pierce’ (AF: * cağ  h - ) Dravidian * cak(k)-  ‘to pierce’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:202, no. 2278) Kartvelian * cag- ‘to prick, to pierce’ Bomhard (2019:t3–362) 303. * c h ag  - ‘to prick, to pierce’ (AF: * cağ  h - ) Dravidian * cak(k)-  ‘to pierce’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:202, no. 2278) Kartvelian * cag- ‘to prick, to pierce’ Bomhard (2019:t3–362) 304. * c h aḥ - ‘to prick, to pierce’ (AF: * caH  2 - ) Dravidian Tamil cāttu ( cātti ) ‘to beat, to thrash’ (< * caH  2 -t- ) (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:214, no. 2450) Kartvelian * ceḫ- ‘to grind, to crush’ (< * caH  2 - ) Bomhard (2019:t3–365) 306. * c h al  - ‘part, piece’ (AF: * cal- ) Dravidian calli ‘small pieces’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:209, no. 2381) Kartvelian * cal- ‘part, piece’ Bomhard (2019:t3–396) 330. *  ǯag  w -a ‘a small tree, a bush or shrub’ (AF: *  ǯaH  1 -ğ  hw - ) Dravidian cak(k)uli ‘the Manilla tamarind tree’   (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:201, no. 2273) Kartvelian *  ǯegw- ‘blackthorn, sloe’ (with * e  < * aH  1 ) Bomhard (2019:t3–402) 336. * č  h an- ‘to grow’ (AF: * čaH  1 -n(d)- ) Dravidian * cand- ‘to grow (up)’   (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:205, no. 2329) Kartvelian * čen- /* čn- ‘to grow, to flourish’ (< * čaH  1 -n- ) Dorsals – velars Bomhard (2019:t3–534) 457. * k’ač  h - ‘to tie, put together’ (AF: * ǩaH  4 c- , * ǩiH  4 c- ) Dravidian * kacc- ,  *kāc- (< * ǩaH  4 č- ) ‘to join’   (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:103, no. 1099) 12  Kartvelian: Georgian k’ec- ,   Mingrelian k’ič- , k’ǝč- (< * ǩiH  4 c- ) ‘to put together’ Bomhard (2019:t3–535) 458. * k’ad- ‘to build, form’ (AF: * ǩaH  4 d  h - , * ǩiH  4 d  h - ) Dravidian * kaṭṭ- (< * ǩaH  4 d  h - ) ‘building’   (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:108, no. 1147) (* ṭṭ   < *  H  4 d  h ) Kartvelian: Georgian k’ed- ,   Mingrelian k’id- (< * ǩiH  4 d  h - ) ‘to build, wall’ (* k’   < * ǩH  4 ) Bomhard (2019:t3–563) 481. * k’ar- ‘to bind’ (AF: * ǩaH  4 r- ) Dravidian * kar(r)- (< * ǩaH  4 r- ) ‘to tighten (knot)’   (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:130, no. 1400) (* r(r)  < *  H  4 r  ) Kartvelian: * k’ar- (< * ǩiH  4 d  h - ) ‘to bind, to tie together’ (* k’   < * ǩH  4 ) Bomhard (2019:t3–537) 459. * k’ak’- ‘to laugh, cackle (onomatopeic)’ (AF: * ǩaH  4 ǩ- ) 13  Dravidian Kuwi kak- ‘to laugh’ (Burrow—Emeneau 1984:102, no. 1080) Kartvelian: * k’a(r)k’a- ‘to cackle’ (* k’   < * ǩH  4 ) Bomhard (2019:t3–537) 460. * k’ak’- ‘partridge (onomatopeic)’ (AF: * ǩaH  4 ǩ- ) 10  Cf. Semitic *  ṣar  -, Cushitic *  ṣir  -. 11  NB: the pseudo-phoneme * tˀ   y  does not exist, it is the fusion of * č   and  H  4 . 12  Note the alternation - cc - ~ - āc -. 13  Indo-European forms are based on * k(l)aH  4 -k- .
Search
Similar documents
View more...
Tags
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x