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Nota Kimia Tingkatan 5 Acid and Base

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Nota Kimia Tingkatan 5 Acid and Base
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  4541 CHEMISTRY   Chapter 7 Chapter 7 : ACIDS & BASES Introduction  :  Activity 1:-Below is a list of acids and alkalis. Examine the list and answer the following questions.Classify the solutions according to pH leel.   ACIDE!TRA"A"#A"I $ine%ar"ie 'uiceBatter( )*uid+ure ,ater-re.h i*/ Coon .a*t .o*utionDeter%ent .o*utionMi*/ o) a%ne.iaToothpa.teAAcid.0 A*/a*i. and Ba.e. 1  Definition  :!i"#n acid  is a chemical su$stance which ionises in water   to produce %%%%%% ion& H ' !ii"#n a*/a*i  is a chemical su$stance which ionises in water   to produce %%%%..%% ion& (H - .!iii"# a.e  is a chemical su$stance that react   with an acid   to form a %%%%%. and%%%%.. only.!i"#lkalis are $ases that can %%%%%%%%%%. in water. 2 )rite the chemical formula for the following compounds : ae-oru*aae-oru*a hydrochloric acid HC* sodium oxide a 2 3 nitric acid H3  magnesium oxide M%3 sulphuric acid H 2 S3 4 calcium oxide Ca3 ethanoic acid CH  C33H copper!**" oxide Cu3 sodium hydroxide a3H lead!**" oxide +3  potassium hydroxide #3H sodium nitrate a3  calcium hydroxide Ca3H6 2  potassium sulphate #  2 S3 4  $arium hydroxide Ba3H6 2 car$onic acid H 2 C3  magnesium hydroxide M%3H6 2 sodium chloride aC* ammonium hydroxide H 4 3H magnesium M% hydrogen ion H  +inc 8n hydroxonium ion H  3  sodium a hydroxide ion 3H 9 car$on dioxide C3 2 sodium car$onate a 2 C3  hydrogen gas H 2 calcium car$onate CaC3  water  H 2 3 copper!**" car$onate CuC3  magnesium nitrate M%3  6 2 Chapter 7  Acids & Bases 1 ,etergent solutioninegar ime /uice0ilk of magnesiaure water 2resh milk Battery fluid3oothpasteCommon salt solution h(dro%enh(droide.a*t,aterdi..o*;e  4541 CHEMISTRY   Chapter 7 The Ro*e o) <ATER In Deterinin% The +ropertie. o) Acid. And A*/a*i. :  !a"3he ro*e  of water   in determining the properties of acid.  :!i"#cids in the absence of water    or   in organic solvents  :  do not show its acidic properties.  acids remain in the form of %%%%%%%%.  no freely moing %%%%%% ions.!ii"*n the  presence of water   :  0olecules in acids will ionise to form %%%%%%. ions& H   HCl 4   H   ' Cl -  3he presence of hydrogen ions causes the acid showing its properties.!$"3he ro*e  of water   in determining properties of a*/a*i.  :!i"#lkalis in the absence of water    or   in organic solvents  :  do not show its alkaline properties  do not ionise  no free mo$ile %%%%%%%. ions are produced.!ii"*n the  presence of water   :  alkali dissoles and ionises to produce hydroxide ions.  5(H 4 5  '  '   3H 9  3he presence of hydroxide ions causes the alkali showing its properties.  Activity 6 :- 1= Complete the ioni.ation e>uation  for these solution in water.   NOTES :  means 1778 9 complete  ionised in solution  degree of dissociation is   high  ; ∴ high concentration of ions. means reersi$le reactions. 3he molecule doesn<t fully 9  partially  ionise in wate. degree of dissociation is   low  ; ∴ low concentration of ions. Chapter 7  Acids & Bases 6 H 6 ('H=( > !i"H   6 ('H 6 ?( @ !ii"H 6 (' =a(H!i" =H @ (H!" =H @ (H'CH > C((H!iii" CH  C33 9 ' H  3 9 2H  S3 429 H  a  3H 9 H 4 3H 9 o*ecu*e.h(dro%enh(dro%enh(droide  Example  : 3richloromethane0ethyl$en+ene#lcoholEther   4541 CHEMISTRY   Chapter 7 2= )rite the ioni.ation e>uation  of the following acids and alkalis :   Acid ? A*/a*iIoni.ation e>uation Hydrochloric acid& HCl HC* @  H    C* 9  =itric acid& H=( > H3    @  H    3 9 ?ulphuric acid& H 6 ?( @ H 2 S3 4   @  2H    S3 429 Ethanoic acid& CH > C((H CH  C33H  H    CH  C33 9 ?odium hydroxide solution& =a(H a3H @  a    3H 9 otassium hydroxide solution& 5(H #3H @  #     3H 9 #mmonia solution& =H >  99#mmonium hydroxide& =H @ (H H 4 3H   H 4   3H 9 Barium hydroxide& Ba!(H" 6 Ba3H6 2   @  Ba 2   23H 9 = Explain the role of   water   in showing the properties of :!i"acids%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%.............................%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%.............................%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%.............................%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%.............................!ii"alkali9$ases%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%.............................%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%.............................%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%.............................%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%............................. 4= Explain the formation of hydroxonium ion& H  3  .%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%...................................%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%................................... Chapter 7  Acids & Bases > In the pre.ence o) ,ater0 acid. ,i** ioni.ed to )or h(dro%en ion.0 H  =The pre.ence o) )ree*( o;in% h(dro%en ion. cau.e. the acid .ho,. it.acidic propertie.=In the pre.ence o) ,ater0 a*/a*i. ,i** ioni.ed to )or h(droide ion.0 3H 9 =The pre.ence o) )ree*( o;in% h(droide ion. cau.e. the a*/a*i .ho,.it. a*/a*ine propertie.=3ne h(dro%en ion coined ,ith one o*ecu*e o) ,ater to )or one h(drooniu ion=  H    H 2 3 @  H  3     4541 CHEMISTRY   Chapter 7 5= ?tate 4  uses of acids and alkalis9$ases in our daily life.!i"%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%!ii"%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%!iii"%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%!i"%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% = ,efine basicity  !monoprotic9diprotic" of an acid.%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%...................................%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%...................................  Activity > :-  Define  and gie an example  of : !i"a  ono  protic acid%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%!ii"a  di  protic acid%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%!iii"a  ono  protic alkali%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%!i"a  di  protic alkali%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Chapter 7  Acids & Bases @ The nuer o) o*e o) H   ion. that i. produced ,hen one o*eo) acid ioni.e. in ,ater=3ne o*e o) the acid produced one o*e o) H   ion ,hen ioni.e. in ,ater=HC* @ H    C* 9 3ne o*e o) the acid produced t,o o*e. o) H   ion ,hen ioni.e. in ,ater=H 2 S3 4  @ 2H    S3 429 3ne o*e o) the a*/a*i produced t,o o*e. o) 3H 9  ion ,hen ioni.e. in ,ater=Ba3H6 2  @ Ba 2   23H 9 3ne o*e o) the a*/a*i produced one o*e o) 3H 9  ion ,hen ioni.e. in ,ater=a3H @ a    3H 9  4541 CHEMISTRY   Chapter 7  Activity @ :-?tate the chemical properties  of acid and alkali   AcidA*/a*i1 Aeact with eta*.  !that are more electropositie than hydrogen in the Electrochemical ?eries" to  produce %%%%% and %%.%%%%%%.  Example  : M%  2HC* @ M%C* 2   H 2 8n  H 2 S3 4  @ 8nS3 4   H 2 2 Aeact with eta* caronate.  produced %%%%..& %%%%.%%%. and %%%%%  Example  : CaC3    2HC* @ CaC* 2   C3 2  H 2 38nC3    2H3   @ 8n3  6 2   C3 2  H 2 3  Aeact with a.e.?a*/a*i.  to produce%%%%% and %%.%%%%%%.  Example  : M%3  2HC* @ M%C* 2   H 2 3Cu3  H 2 S3 4  @ CuS3 4   H 2 3a3H  H3   @ a3    H 2 3   #3H  CH  C33H @ CH  C33#  H 2 3 1 )hen heated   with ammonium salts& it produce %%%%%%%%gas.  Example  : a3H  H 4 C* @ aC*  H    H 2 3  H 4   3H 9  @ H    H 2 3  2 Aeact with acid.  to produce %%%%..and %%%%%%%.  Example  : a3H  H3   @ a 3    H 2 32#3H  H 2 S3 4  @ #  2 S3 4   2H 2 3  #lkali solution can produce  precipitate  !metal hydroxide" with some aqueous salt solution.  Example  : Cu 2   23H 9  @ Cu3H6 2 + 2   23H 9  @ +3H6 2 -e    3H 9  @ -e3H6  Chapter 7  Acids & Bases  .a*th(dro%en %a.aonia.a*tcaron dioide,ater.a*t,aterB*ue  precipitate2rom alkali <hite  precipitate2rom alkali Bro,n  precipitate2rom alkali .a*t,ater
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