Origins of the Cold War

Origins of the Cold War Yalta February, 1945 A. The Big Three met -- Franklin Roosevelt Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Elections in Poland became the big issue The U.S. wants the Poles to be able to choose
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Origins of the Cold War Yalta February, 1945 A. The Big Three met -- Franklin Roosevelt Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Elections in Poland became the big issue The U.S. wants the Poles to be able to choose their own government Communists wanted to control it because they saw it as an invasion route to the USSR The United Nations All three agreed on the UN Used to maintain world peace Provided mutual security 50 Nations met in San Francisco There would be two parts The General Assembly The Security Council Harry S. Truman Ascended to Presidency when FDR died Met with Stalin in Potsdam, July 1945 Stalin still wanted war payments from Germany Truman still wanted Polish elections Differing Goals The U.S. desired Democracy and economic opportunity The USSR desired satellite nations in its borders Totalitarian Communist governments Controlled by USSR The Cold War had begun Stalin predicted Communism would defeat Capitalism Churchill asked America to prevent Stalin s IRON CURTAIN from falling on other nations (Western Europe) The U.S. began a policy of CONTAINMENT Preventing Communism from escaping Eastern Europe Truman issued the TRUMAN DOCTRINE declaring that the U.S. would help countries threatened by Communism Polish Elections Poland got elections two years later Too late the Soviets eliminated the competition in Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia Hungary Romania East Germany Finland Yugoslavia Cold War on the World Scene The Marshall Plan (1947) Enacted to support the policy of CONTAINMENT Said that the U.S. would provide financial aid to help Europe rebuild in the post war U.S. tried to prevent the DOMINO THEORY the belief that if one nations falls to Communism, they all would The Eisenhower Doctrine (1947) Political measure of the cold war Stated the U.S. will safeguard the countries of the Middle East Germany Germany became a Cold War struggle Stalin attempted a blockade of goods and people from East Berlin to West Berlin The U.S. began the BERLIN AIR LIFT moving supplies in by plane Problems in the United Nations The USSR constantly vetoed things in the UN North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Formed in 1949 Comprised of 10 nations, including the U.S. and Canada Designed to promote the safety of Western Europe Used the idea of COLLECTIVE SECURITY China Fell to Communism in 1949 U.S. citizens blamed Truman and the containment policy Soviets detonated their first A-bomb in 1949 U.S. jumped ahead with the development of the Hydrogen Bomb (Hbomb) in 1952 USSR sent SPUTNIK, the first satellite, into orbit in 1957 USSR developed the INTER CONTINENTAL BALLISTIC MISSILE (ICBM) Fear of each other Each side used BRINKMANSHIP, coming right up to the edge of war, to protect their national interests Americans questioned their own technology when a U-2 spy plane was shot down over the USSR Cold War at Home The HOLLYWOOD TEN Fear of Communism ran rampant throughout the U.S. The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) formed to investigate Communism HUAC put many Hollywood persons under the gun Many even Humphrey Bogart were accused of being Communists Eventually, ten people, known as the Hollywood 10, were jailed and placed on a blacklist, never to work again 2 nd Red Scare (1950 s) Led by Joseph McCarthy Accused many of being Communist, even political and military personnel WWII Veterans Came home and started families BABY BOOM The GI Bill helped them buy houses and go to college Society Industry flourishes Many new cars made New roads and related industries developed as a result Drive-in restaurants Drive-in movies Motels and Hotels Culture Beatniks challenged the conformity of the 1950s by stressing spontaneity Rock and Roll came of age as teens broke out of societal norms
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