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Paleoethnobotanical Analysis of Three Early Pueblo II Period Virgin Anasazi Sites in Southwestern Utah: 42Ws1191, 42Ws3119, and 42Ws4145

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This paper reports the results of a 27-sample paleoethnobotanical analysis on samples from three Early Pueblo II period Virgin Anasazi sites: two pithouse sites (42Ws1191 and 42Ws3119), and one field house site (42Ws4145). The charred macrobotanical
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  1PALEOETHNOBOTANICAL ANALYSIS OF THREE EARLY PUEBLO II PERIOD VIRGINANASAZI SITES IN SOUTHWESTERN UTAH: 42Ws1191, 42Ws3119, AND 42Ws4145Amanda Jane LandonA Masters Research PaperDepartment of AnthropologyWashington University in St. LouisSpring 2010  2 Table of Contents List of Figures ..................................................................................................................................4List of Tables ...................................................................................................................................6Abstract ............................................................................................................................................8Goals of the Study ............................................................................................................................9Section 1: The Ancestral Puebloan Region ..................................................................................11Section 2: The Virgin Anasazi, Far Western Puebloans ...............................................................13Geography and Chronology ...............................................................................................14T he ―Virgin Pattern‖ ..........................................................................................................16Virgin Anasazi Settlement Patterns ...................................................................................17Trade Relationships ...........................................................................................................19Section 3: Virgin Anasazi Subsistence in Context .......................................................................22Ancestral Puebloan Subsistence ........................................................................................23Virgin Anasazi Subsistence ...............................................................................................27Paleoethnobotanical Reports from the Virgin Anasazi Area .............................................28Virgin Anasazi Plant Use and Animal Use ........................................................................35Section 4: Southern Paiute Plant Use as a Model for Virgin Anasazi Plant Use..........................38Section 5: Ecological and Geographic Setting of the Study Area ................................................47Geography and Climate .....................................................................................................47Flora and Fauna..................................................................................................................48Section 6: Background of the Archaeological Sites .....................................................................4842Ws1191 ..........................................................................................................................4842Ws3119 ..........................................................................................................................5042Ws4145 ..........................................................................................................................51Section 7: Field and Laboratory Methods .....................................................................................52Section 8: Results ..........................................................................................................................56Wood Charcoal ..................................................................................................................56Bark ....................................................................................................................................56Stem ...................................................................................................................................57Resin ..................................................................................................................................57 ―Scaly Bark‖ ......................................................................................................................57  3Nutshell ..............................................................................................................................58Cultivated Plants ................................................................................................................58Wild or Weedy Plants ........................................................................................................60Other Macroremains ..........................................................................................................67Section 9: Discussion ....................................................................................................................69Cultivated Plants and Wild or Weedy Plants .....................................................................69Plant Use Compared Between Study Sites ........................................................................71Comparison of Contexts from the Study Sites ...................................................................72St. George Basin Plant Use Compared to Plant Use in the Higher Elevations ..................76Virgin Anasazi Plant Use Compared to Southern Paiute Plant Use ..................................77Concluding Remarks ..........................................................................................................78Section 10: Conclusion .................................................................................................................78Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................83References Cited ............................................................................................................................84Figures............................................................................................................................................99Tables ..........................................................................................................................................125  4 List of Figures  1. Map of the American Southwest that depicts the major cultural traditions of the area ...1002. Map of the upper branch Virgin Anasazi area, southwestern Utah and northwesternArizona, showing the location of archaeological sites....................................................1013. Map of the study sites showing their location in relationship to each other. ...................1024. Bean Fragment from 3970-1872 (42Ws3119), measured in millimeters ........................1035. Maize kernel fragment from 4871-168 (42Ws1191), measured in millimeters ..............1046. Maize cupule from 3970-1870 (42Ws1191), measured in millimeters ...........................1057. ―Cheno - Am‖ from 3770 -298 (42Ws3119), measured in millimeters .............................1068. Chenopod seed from 3770-399 (42Ws3119), measured in millimeters ..........................1079. Pitted goosefoot seed from 3770-399 (42Ws3119), measured in millimeters .................10810. Nightshade seed from 4871-168 (42Ws1191), measured in millimeters ........................10911. Purslane seed from 3770-399 (42Ws3119), measured in millimeters .............................11012. Saltbush seed from 3770-399 (42Ws3119), measured in millimeters .............................11113. Sedge Family seed from 4870-238 (42Ws4145), measured in millimeters .....................11214. Stickleaf seed from 4871-186 (42Ws1191), measured in millimeters ............................11315. Tobacco seed from 4872-406 (42Ws1191), measured in millimeters. Note how thereticulated pattern on the seed coat is worn off of part of the seed. ................................11416. Tobacco seed from 4872-406 (42Ws1191), measured in millimeters. Note how thereticulated pattern on the seed coat is worn off of the seed. ............................................11517. Tobacco seed from 4872-406 (42Ws1191), measured in millimeters. ............................11618. Wooly wheat seed from 3770-298 (42Ws3119), measured in millimeters .....................117  519. Unidentified Seed Type 1 from 4873-510 (42Ws1191). The type is characterized bylarge, low ridges on the seed coat. ...................................................................................11820. Unidentified Seed Type 2 from 4873-510 (42Ws1191). The type is characterized by asmooth seed coat. .............................................................................................................11921. Unidentified Seed Type 3 from 3770- 399 (42Ws3119). Image A retains the ―fringe‖ around the embryo, and Image B is just the embryo. ......................................................12022. Unidentified seed fragment from 3770-298 (42Ws3119). ...............................................12123. Unidentified Seed from 3970-1865 (42Ws3119). ...........................................................12224. Unidentified seed from 4871-168 (42Ws1191). ..............................................................12325. Unidentified seed fragment from 4873-510 (42Ws1191). This seed coat appears to besegmented  —  two segments are present. ...........................................................................124
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