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PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AND GOAL SETTING

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PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AND GOAL SETTING
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  PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AND GOAL SETTING AMONG STUDENTS: A QUANTITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS Joevel M. Dajuela 1  Jhon Ralfh Venecer H. Tercio 2   J’ram G. Barbaso 3  Appollo Van B. Dagayloan 4  Jeovanny A. Marticion 5 Absract The study aims to analyze the level of parental involvement and goal setting among Grade 12 students and determine their significant relationship. The study employed a descriptive survey research design, with one hundred and eighty-nine (189) respondents from Grade 12 of ZNNHS Turno Campus. The researchers adapted two survey questionnaires: a revised Goal Setting Questionnaire to measure the level of goal setting of students in terms of Meaning, Personal Development, and Data-Based and a revised Parental Involvement Questionnaire to measure the level of parental involvement. Both survey questionnaires made use of a 5-point Likert Scale, with 1 as Strongly Disagree and 5 as Strongly Agree. Calculated Alpha coefficient through SPSS software was measured at 0.96, which is an accepted reliability. The data gathered was analyzed through SPSS software with the use of Descriptive Statistics and Pearson correlation r. Results show that students exhibit a high level of Goal Setting and experience a high level of Parental Involvement. It was also found out that Parental Involvement and Goal Setting has a positive, moderate relationship. Despite the fact that Parental Involvement influences Goal Setting among students, they set goals not only to reach their parents’ expe ctations but also to better themselves. The researchers recommend teachers to devise teaching strategies that would help encourage students to set high goals. Parents are also suggested to inspire students to set high goals by being involved in a non-pressuring way.   Introduction  A parent’s duty is to develop and cultivate the behavior, attitude, talents, and skills of their children. This is why the involvement of parents in the lives of students is widely accepted in all sectors of the society. On 2017, the Philippine Statistics Authority reports that one of every ten Filipino children does not attend school. One of the reasons for the increasing out of school youth is the lack of care and supervision of parents for their children. Parental involvement is defined by Nyarko (2011) as the level of willingness and commitment of a parent in participating in the daily activities and lives of students, including the development and fostering of their children [1] . The term ‘parental involvement’ in education is used to describe the conjugal responsibility of teachers and students in ensuring student success [2]. The involvement of parents in the lives of students may prove to be a vital factor on how students perceive and plan short-term and long-term goals. Most of the existing research on the role of parental involvement in a student’s goal setting mainly focuses on the effects of parental involvement on a student’s academic performance [1][2]. There are several studies that suggest that parental involvement has indeed a positive effect on a student’s goal setting. A good parental disposition would result in a student that would be able to apply understanding and knowledge, and bring out the best in their education [2]. However, there are also studies that have concluded that  PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AND GOAL SETTING AMONG STUDENTS: A QUANTITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS Joevel M. Dajuela 1  Jhon Ralfh Venecer H. Tercio 2   J’ram G. Barbaso 3  Appollo Van B. Dagayloan 4  Jeovanny A. Marticion 5 negative outcomes could result in the involvement of parents in the goal setting and achievement of students [3][4]. The existing body of knowledge on the relation of parental involvement in a student’s goal setting commonly tackles on whether the relationship sprouts positive or negative effects. Previous researchers have focused on how factors associated with parental influence and involvement shapes the goal achievement and success a student would likely to reach. The current researchers came up with the current study to determine the demographic profile of the respondents, assess the level parental involvement is prevalent in the goal setting among students, and identify the significant relationship of parental involvement and goal setting among students. This study is heavily anchored on the Goal Setting Theory in 1968 [5] which revolved around the effectiveness of setting specified and measured goals. It suggests that people perform best when there is an identified, desired goal. In addition, the study is also anchored on the Social Cognitive Theory [5] in 1968 which emphasizes on social impact and its external and internal reinforcement. It explains that children can acquire acceptable behavior and attitude from key figures in their lives (e.g., parents). Therefore, the researchers came up with schematic diagram of the study as shown below: Schematic Diagram of the Study This study investigates the relationship between parental involvement and goal setting in students and aims to specifically answer the following questions: 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of a) Age b) Gender and c) Track and Strand; 2. What is the level of goal setting among students in terms of a) Meaning b) Personal Improvement c) Data-Based; 3. What is the level of parental involvement among students? ; 4. Is there a significant relationship between the parents’ educational attainment and goal setting in students? ; 5. Is there a significant relationship between the involvement of parents in their children’s lives and the goal setting of students? This study may benefit the following people: Firstly, the students. Through the findings of the study, students are able to determine how parental involvement can affect how high they set their goals. Secondly, the teachers and school administration as it may help and equip them with the right knowledge and employ appropriate strategies to combat the low level of goal setting in students. Thirdly, the parents as the study may help them understand how their involvement can affect their children’s goal setting and future success. Lastly, the future researchers as this study may aid in future research studies regarding the topic. The study will focus on determining the level of goal setting and parental involvement of ZNNHS Turno Campus Grade 12 students and how parental involvement affects their goal setting. The level of Goal Setting will be  PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AND GOAL SETTING AMONG STUDENTS: A QUANTITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS Joevel M. Dajuela 1  Jhon Ralfh Venecer H. Tercio 2   J’ram G. Barbaso 3  Appollo Van B. Dagayloan 4  Jeovanny A. Marticion 5 divided into three parameters namely Meaning, Personal Improvement, and Data-Based. The level of Parental Involvement will be measured with no parameters. The study will utilize two questionnaires for the data gathering: a Revised Goal Setting Formative Questionnaire [7] and a Revised Parental Involvement Questionnaire [6] with 19 and 14 items, respectively. The respondents’ Parents’ Highest Educational Attainment and Primary Reason for Setting Goals will also be procured. From a total of 372 officially enrolled Grade 12 students, 189 students with ages ranging from 16  –  22 years old will be utilized as respondents for the study. The data will be gathered within the ZNNHS-Turno Campus, Barangay Turno, Dipolog City with a time frame of August to September 2019. Methods The study engaged into descriptive correlational prediction study research design. To predict how the level of parental involvement and students’ goal setting affect each other. The study focuses on Grade 12 students only. The target sample size is 193. Respondents will be answering questionnaires that will be provided by the researchers. The researchers made use of an adapted Goal Setting Formative Questionnaire [7] and a Revised Parental Involvement Questionnaire [6] in identifying the level of goal setting and parental involvement in the lives of the students, consisting of 19 and 14 questions respectively. Both of the questionnaires made use of a 5 point Likert scale, with 1 as Strongly Disagree and 5 as Strongly Agree. The level of goal setting of students is broken down into three subscales which are Meaning, Personal Improvement, and Data-Based. In addition, demographic profiles for the students’ parents are identified as to distinguish the relationship between parents’ involvement and the ir highest educational attainment as well as the primary reason of students in setting goals. To evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire, pilot-testing was done and the data gathered were tested with the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient formula. To analyze the collected numerical data, the raw scores were evaluated through Microsoft Excel. The percentage and mean scores gathered from the respondents were analyzed with the use of Microsoft Excel and Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient formula. The following data were gathered: 0.89, 0.92, and 0.86 as alpha for the subscales Meaning, Personal Improvement and Data- Based respectively as for the Goal Setting Formative Questionnaire. In addition, an  Alpha of 0.90 was computed for the Revised Parental Involvement Questionnaire. Hence, both questionnaires were proven to be reliable and acceptable as it surpasses the standard reliability of 0.75 Alpha. Correlation is an effect size and so we can verbally describe the strength of the correlation between two variables using the guide that Evans (1996) suggested for the absolute value of r. A value of .00-0.19 indicates a very weak relationship, 0.20-0.39 indicates a weak relationship, 0.40-0.59, indicates a moderate relationship, 0.60-0.79 indicates a strong relationship and 0.80-  PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AND GOAL SETTING AMONG STUDENTS: A QUANTITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS Joevel M. Dajuela 1  Jhon Ralfh Venecer H. Tercio 2   J’ram G. Barbaso 3  Appollo Van B. Dagayloan 4  Jeovanny A. Marticion 5 1.00 indicates a very strong relationship.  A rating scale was also used by the researchers in assessing the level of goal setting of the students and the parental involvement that they experience: 1-1.79 for very low level, 1.80-2.59 for low level, 2.60-3.39 for neutral level, 3.40-4.19 for high level, and 4.20-5.00. The numerical data gathered was analyzed through Microsoft Excel and SPSS software. Mean scores and Percentage Count were used to determine the description of data. Pearson correlation r was also used to measure the relationships between the Strand of the respondents, parents’ highest educational attainment, goal setting of students, parental involvement, and primary reason of students in setting goals. Results and Discussion Majority of the respondents who have participated in the study were of age bracket of 16  –  18 years old with frequency of 178 (94.2%), followed by the age bracket of 19 years old and above with frequency of 11 (5.8%). The number of male respondents were 68 (36%) while female respondents were 121 (64%). All respondents were of ZNNHS  –  Turno Annex of which were HUMMS with frequency of 68 (36%). It was followed by STEM with frequency of 54 (28.6%), ABM with frequency of 32 (16.9%), GAS with frequency of 19 (10.1%), and Arts and Design with frequency of 16 (8.5%). Goal Setting Formative Questionnaire  –  Revised Item Mean Description Meaning 1) I set short-term goals (finishing all my homework, exercising for an hour). 3.62  Agree 2) I set long-term goals (earning a college degree and owning a company). 3.83  Agree 3) I set goals to achieve what I think is important. 4.28 Strongly  Agree 4) I dream of what life would be like when I reach my goals. 4.32 Strongly  Agree 5) My goals are important to me. 4.59 Strongly  Agree 6) My goals are based on my own interests and plans for the future. 4.43 Strongly  Agree Mean 4.18 Agree Personal Improvement 7) I set goals to improve myself. 4.30 Strongly  Agree 8) I set goals to help me be more successful in school. 4.24 Strongly  Agree 9) I set goals to help me do my personal best. 4.23 Strongly  Agree 10) I set simple steps/goals to track my progress when I want to learn something new. 4.14  Agree 11) I focus on my own improvement rather 3.94  Agree  PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AND GOAL SETTING AMONG STUDENTS: A QUANTITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS Joevel M. Dajuela 1  Jhon Ralfh Venecer H. Tercio 2   J’ram G. Barbaso 3  Appollo Van B. Dagayloan 4  Jeovanny A. Marticion 5 than worrying about how others may be better than me. 12) When I lose in a competition, I am still pleased to have improved. 3.92  Agree Mean 4.13 Agree Data-Based 13) Based on everything I know about myself, I believe I can achieve my goals. 4.03  Agree 14) When I set goals, I think about barriers that might get in the way. 4.02  Agree 15) When I am struggling, I set goals to help me improve. 4.02  Agree 16) I set goals that are challenging but achievable. 4.01  Agree 17) I set short-term goals to achieve long-term goals. 3.88  Agree 18) Before setting goals, I think about past successes and failures. 3.99  Agree 19) When I set a goal, I am confident that I can meet it. 3.71  Agree Mean 3.95 Agree Results reveal that the respondents exhibit a fairly positive disposition on the meaning of their goals (  =4.18) as they strongly agree that they set goals to achieve what is important to them (  =4.28), they dream of what life would be like when I reach their goals. (  =4.32), their goals are important to them (  =4.59), and that their goals are based on their interests and plans for the future (  =4.43). They also agree that they set short-term and long-term goals. (  =3.62,  =3.83). This result coincides with literature that state that students are perceived to be high goal setters as these goals can help them be more competitive globally and ensure their success [8].  The respondents also report that they agree on setting goals for their own personal improvement (  =4.13). The respondents strongly agree that they set goals to improve themselves, and that goals help them be more successful in school and let them do their personal best (  =4.30,  =4.24,  =4.23). They also agree that they set goals to track progress when they want to learn something new (  =4.14), and that setting goals help them focus on their own improvement rather than the others’ and are still pleased to know that they have improved in the face of loss (  =3.94,  =3.92). This result supports the literature that report that goals are set by students as makes them learn from any wrong that they may have done, encouraging them to move forward [9].  They also report high perception on how they perceive themselves when setting goals (   = 3.95). The respondents revealed that they believe they can achieve their goals, think about the barriers and past failures and successes, set short-term goals to achieve long-term goals, and set goals that are challenging but achievable. (   = 4.03,   = 4.02,   = 3.99,   = 3.88,   =
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