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PART ONE. THE LANGUAGE AND APPROACH OF SCIENCE

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Preface vii PART ONE. THE LANGUAGE AND APPROACH OF SCIENCE Chapter I Science and the Scientific Approach Science and common sense. Four methods of knowing. Science and its functions. The aims of science,
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Preface vii PART ONE. THE LANGUAGE AND APPROACH OF SCIENCE Chapter I Science and the Scientific Approach Science and common sense. Four methods of knowing. Science and its functions. The aims of science, scientific explanation, and theory. Scientific research-a definition. The scientific approach. J Chapter 2 Problems and Hypotheses 18 Problems. Hypotheses. The importance of problems and hypotheses. Virtues of problems and hypotheses. Problems, values, and definitions. Generality and specificity of problems and hypotheses. Concluding remarks-the special power of hypotheses. Study Chapter 3 Constructs, Variables, and Definitions Concepts and constructs. Variables. Constitutive and operational definitions of constructs and variables. Types of variables. Constructs, observables, and intervening variables. Study 31 Chapter 4 Sampling and Randomness 51 Sampling and random sampling. Randomness. The principle of randomization. Random assignment. Sample size. Study xiii xiv CONTENTS Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 PART TWO. SETS, RELATIONS, AND VARIANCE Sets Subsets. Set operations. The universal and empty sets; set negation. Set diagrams. Set operations with more than two sets. Partitions and cross partitions. Levels of discourse. Study Relations Relations as sets of ordered pairs. Determining relations in research. Rules of correspondence and mapping. Functions. Somt' ways to show relations. Study Variance Computation of means and variances. Kinds of variance. Components of variance. Covariance. Common factor variance Chapter 8 Chapter 9 PART THREE. PROBABILITY AND STATISTICAL INFERENCE Probability 1 J r Definition of probability. Sample space, sample points, and events. Determining probabilities with coins. An experiment with dice. A compound experiment. Some formal theory. Compound events and their probabilities. Independence, mutual exclusion, and exhaustiveness. Conditional probability. Study Statistics: Purpose, Approach, and Method 141 The basic approach. Definition and purposes of statistics. Statistical significance and the X 2 test. Levels of statistical significance. Statement of the statistical problem. Binomial statistics. The variance. The law of large numbers. The normal probability curve and the standard deviation. Interpretation of data using the normal probability curve-frequency data. Interpretation of data using the normal probability curve-continuous data. xv Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Statistics: The Standard Error and Testing Hypotheses 169 Examples: differences between means. Examples: correlation coefficients. The general nature of a standard error. A research example. Statistical inference. Study Analysis of Variance: Foundations 187 Variance breakdown: a simple example. Another method of analysis. An example of a statistically significant difference. Computation of one-way analysis of variance. Two research examples. Strength of relations: correlation and the analysis of variance. Components of variance. Study Analysis of Variance: Factorial Analysis 213 Research examples. A simple fictitious example. The meaning of interaction. Factorial analysis of variance with three or more variables. Goals of factorial analysis of variance. Factorial analysis of variance and precision. Some research examples. A further word on interaction. A note of caution. Study Analysis of Variance: Correlated Groups or Subjects 242 Definition of the problem. Extracting variances by subtraction. Applications to educational settings. Study N onparametric Statistics 257 Parametric and nonparametric statistics. Nonparametric analysis of variance and measures of association. Study PART FOUR. DESIGNS OF RESEARCH Chapter 15 Research Design: Meaning, Purpose, and Principles Purposes of research design. Research design as variance control. Maximization of experimental variance. Control of extraneous variables. Minimization of error variance. 275 xvi CONTENTS Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 General Designs of Research: Poor Designs 290 Experimental and ex post facto approaches. Faulty designs. Characteristics lacking in poor research designs. General Designs of Research: Good Designs 301 Adequate designs. The notion of the control group. Matching-pro and con. Variants of basic designs. Experimental and nonexperimental research. Study Research Design and Applications: Randomized Groups 322 Simple randomized subjects design. Factorial designs. Evaluation of randomized subjects designs. Study Chapter 19 Research Design and Applications: Correlated Groups The general paradigm. Research examples of twogroup designs. Multigroup, correlated-groups designs. Factorial correlated-groups designs. Analysis of covariance. A procedural description of analysis of covariance. Research design and analysis: concluding remarks. Study 337 PART FIVE. TYPES OF RESEARCH Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Ex Post Facto Research Basic difference between experimental research and ex post facto research. Control and ex post facto research. Self-selection and ex post facto research. Large-scale ex post facto research. Smallscale ex post facto research. Testing alternative or control hypotheses. Evaluation of ex post facto research. Conclusions. Study Laboratory Experiments, Field Experiments, and Field Studies A laboratory experiment: Sherif's studies of group influence on norms. A field experiment: Verplanck's study of the reinforcement of opinion statements. A field study: Newcomb's Bennington College xvii study. Characteristics and criteria of laboratory experiments, field experiments, and field studies. The field experiment. Field studies. Chapter 22 Survey Research 392 A definition of survey research. Types of surveys. The methodology of survey research. Two studies. Applications of survey research to education. Advantages and disadvantages of survey research. PART SIX. MEASUREMENT Chapter 23 Foundations of Measurement Definition of measurement. Measurement and reality isomorphism. Properties, constructs, and indicants of objects. Levels of measurement and scaling. Comparisons of scales: practical considerations and statistics. 411 Chapter 24 Chapter 25 Reliability 429 Definitions of reliability. Theory of reliability. The interpretation of the reliability coefficient. The standard error of the mean and the standard error of measurement. The improvement of reliability. The value of reliability. Validity 444 Types of validity. A variance definition of validity: the variance relation of reliability and validity. The validity and reliability of psychological and educational measurement instruments. Study Introduction PART SEVEN. METHODS OF OESER V ATION AND DATA COLLECTION Chapter 26 Interviews and Interview Schedules Interviews and schedules as tools of science. The interview schedule. The value of interviews and interview schedules. Study 467 xviii CONTENTS Chapter 27 Objective Tests and Scales Tests and scales: definitions. Types of objective measures. Choice and construction of objective measures. Types of objective scales and items. Evaluation of objective tests and scales. Study 479 Chapter 28 Chapter 29 Chapter 30 Chapter 31 Chapter 32 Observations of Behavior 503 Problems of observation of behavior. Characteristics of observations. Rating scales. Examples of observation systems. Assessment of behavioral observation. Study Projective Methods 525 A classification of projective measures. Projective techniques and behavioral research: an assessment. Available Materials and Content Analysis 539 Uses of available materials. Content analysis. Research examples of content analysis. Some aspects of method in content analysis. Use of content analysis and available materials in psychological and educational research. Sociometry 554 Sociometry: a definition. Methods of sociometric analysis. Some research applications of sociometry. Sociometric measurement in social scientific and educational research. Study The Semantic Differential 564 The construction and use of the semantic differential. Format and administration of the semantic differential. Analysis of semantic differential data. Some research uses of the semantic differential. The semantic differential in behavioral research. Chapter 33 Q Methodology Theory; structured and unstructured Q sorts; analysis of variance. Factor analysis and factor arrays in Q methodology. Strengths and weaknesses of Q methodology. Q methodology in social scientific and educational research. Study 581 xix PART EIGHT. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Chapter 34 Chapter 35 Chapter 36 Appendixes Indexes Principles of Analysis and Interpretation 603 Definitions. Frequencies and continuous measures. The five rules of categorization. Statistical presentation and analysis. Indices. The interpretation of research data. Study The Analysis of Cross breaks 624 Crossbreaks: definitions and purpose. Simple crossbreaks and rules for cross break construction. Types of crossbreaks and tables. Crossbreaks, relations, ordered pairs, graphing. Study Factor Analysis 650 A hypothetical example. Factor matrices and factor loadings. Some factor theory. Graphical representation of factors and factor loadings. Methods of factor analysis. Research examples. Factor analysis and scientific psychological and educational research. Study A. The Research Report 690 B. Historical and Methodological Research 698 C. The Electronic Digital Computer and Behavioral Research 703 Authors Cited 7H Subject Matter 717
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