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PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SELECTED EDUCATION POLICY DOCUMENTS L I\.'WAZULU NATAL SCHOOLS 1998 I I I i KISTA:\lAH CHETTY I I I! PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SELECTED EDUCATION POLICY DOCUMENTS IN KWAZULU NATAL SCHOOLS BY KISTAMAB CHETTY BA (UNISA) B.D.E. (WESTVILLE) RED. (UNIZUL) SUB\fITTED IN ACCORDA.c~CE \VITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF \\:\STER OF EDUCATION l'\ THE oepart\1ent OF EDUCATIONAL Pl\NNr 'G~'-TI AD\HNISTRATIO' AT THE U:-ilVERSITY OF ZULULAJ'H) SUPERVISOR PROFESSOR RP NGCONGO DATE SUBMITTED DECE\fBER 1998 (i) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I express my heartfelt indebtedness and sincere gratitude to the following people for their indispensable assistance and unwavering support during the course ofthis study: There would have been no work ofthis magnitude without the persistence, sage advice and wisdom of Professor RP. Ngcongo who provided firm guidance and encouragement during the study Mrs Elrina Calitz from Research International, for her commitment and dedication with which she guided me during the research project The ChiefSuperintendent of Education and Culture Mr M.B. Nobin, who pennitted me to conduct this research in the Scottburgh District ofkwazulu NataL The Turton Circuit Superintendent of Education and Culture Mr S.S. MaphuIDulo for the support and encouragement given to me during the course of my study All the principals v.ho granted me authorization to conduct mv research in their respective schools and all the educators who made a significant contribution to the research by so willingly and kindly completing the questionnaires The principal ofwoodgrange-on-sea Primary Schooll\Ir S. Chetty for granting me time and opportunity to conduct the research. My friend and colleague Mr V.P. Govender who chauffeured me through unfamiliar and distant territories to reach my target population for the completion ofthe questionnaires. (ii) My friend Mr E.RG. Naidoo of the University of Zululand for his motivation and encouragement and for saving me many hours oftravelling by regularly taking my work to and from my supervisor at the Durban-Umlazi campus, My newly found friend Mr Michael Pillay for his unfailing support and assistance during my numerous struggles with my computer and printer. My brother and mentor Mr Dayalan Khandoo of the University of Natal for the indescribable and invaluable advice he gave me during my times ofdoubt and insecurity All of my five brothers. my sister and espedally my mother-in-law, Mrs Devani Chetty and my parents Rangie and Beeva Khandoo who regularly inspired and encouraged me to achieve my goal. My sisters-in-law Jean Chetty and Savathree Poothan and my close mend Dhanasagrie Govender for their confidence and beliefin me, Last but not least mv. husband Seedambaro Chetn', - mv son ;\la2esh and my two ~ ~ - daughters Prenitha and Veloshini for the many sacrifices they have made for me Thev served as my pillars of support from whom I mustered up all my strength to pursue this dissertation through to completion Together, they look over many of my duties and responsibilities and remained cheerful and optimistic during the long and lonelv hours when the research isolated me from them, (iii) DEDICATION I DEDICA TE THIS WORK TO: I My late brother GOPAL BILLY KHANDOO who was a loving and compassionate individual 1\ly husband Seedambaro Chetty and my children Magesh, Prenitha and Veloshini. 1\lay this research inspire you to excel in all your educational endeavours 3. All the students. educators, principals and school governors in South AJrica. lay this research influence and inspire you to develop and adopt a parllclpall\'t! leadership style in the management and governance ofyour institution (iv) D EeL A RAT ION I hereby declare that. PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEME: iT AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SELECTED EDUCATION POLICY DOCUMENTS IN KWAZULU NATAL SCHOOLS represents my own work both in conception and execution and that all sources that are used or quoted have been acknowledged by means of complete references ~~- ~----~ K. CHETTY December 1998 (v) ABSTRACT This study was influenced by the post-democratic ideals for a radical transformation ofeducation systems in South Africa. The various policy documents such as the South African Schools Act (I996), the Labour Relations Act (I995) and the Bill of Rights (1996) that mandate transformation in education systems, aroused interest in the workability and success of implementing these policies in schools. The empirical study, conducted in the Scottburgh District of KwaZulu Natal, attempts to identify gaps between transformatory policy directives that call for stakeholder participation, and management and governance practices within schools. Data was solicited from a sample population ofteachers by means of questionnaires Both open and close-ended questions were used. The open-ended questions were aimed at verifying the findings that emanated from the quantitative data The observations made by teachers ofschool management practices, are reported An analysis is also madeofthe relationship benveen the principal and the pupils, the teachers and the governing body. The following are ret1ected as key findings which emanated from the empirical study There is a general lack ofknowledge by educators and parents about both ne\\ education policy documents that are emerging such as the South African Schools Act (1996). and local school policies that are to be implemented \\';thin specific schools While the South African Schools' Act of 1996 calls participation of parents in policy decisions, more than 20% of the educators indicated that parents do not participate in decisions about, among others, the school's constitution, the learners' code ofconduct, the admission policy and the school's budget. (vi) * Findings from responses to various questions indicate that there is no adequate information-flow between school governing bodies and the staff members. From thefindings, it can beconcluded that although it cannot becategorically stated that schools are implementing policies participatively by involving parents, learners and educators in the decision-making processes, a significant percentage of schools are incorporating relevant stakeholders in the management and governance ofschools. The study concludes with a consideration recommendations which could lead to an improvement of stakeholder participation in the management and governance ofschools (vii) SAMEVATTING Hierdie studie is gemotiveer deur die post-demokratiese ideale vir 'n radikale transformasie van onderrig sisteme in Suid-Afiika. Die heidige beleidsdokumente soos die Suid-Afrikaanse Skole wet (1996), die Suid-Afrikaanse Arbeidsverhoudinge Vet (1995) en die Handves van Menseregte (1996) wat die transformasie van onderrig onderle, het belangstelling geprikkel in die werkbaarheid en sukses van implementering van beleid in skole. 'n Empiriese studie is in die Scottburgh distrik van KwaZulu-Natal ondemeem om die gapings tussen tranformasie beleid en die implementering daarvan in die praktyk bloot te le. Daar word veral klem gele op belanghebbende deelname en bestuur en beheer megarusmes binne skole Data is deur middel van \-Taelyste ingesamel vanuit 'n proefgroep van ondernysers en ander deelnemers in die onderrigsproses Beide geslote en oop\-ta word inges\uit in die vrae\ys Die oopeinde VTae is gebruik ten einde die bevindings van die ondersoek te kontroleer. Die hoofbevindings van die studie toon dat Daar algemene gebrek aan kennis is, by beide onderwysers en ouers, oor die nationale onderwysbeleidsdokumente soos die Suid-Afrikaanse skoot wet, wat nou le v'erskvne kom en plaaslike onderwvsbeleid wat spesitiek in skole geirnplementeer moet word die opstel van 'n skoolkonslitusie. Terwyl onderwysbeleid ouerdeelname vereis in beleidsformulering en -implementering. toon meer as 20% van die onderwysers in die ondersoek dat ouers rue deelneem in besluite soos die opstel van 'n skoolkonslitusie. kode vir leerdergedrag. skooltoegangsbeleid en die skooi die begroting nie Daar is me doeltrelfende en effekriewe inligtinguitruil is tussen die skoolbestuursliggaam en skoolpersoneellede is me. (viii) AI kan daar nie kategories verklaar word dat skole onderrigsbeleid volgens inklusiewe deelname beginsels implementeer nie is daar tekens dat 'n groot persentasie van skole wel beleid probeer implementeer. Die studie word gesluit met voorstelle wat kan lei tot 'n verbetering in belanghebbende deelname in die bestuur en beheer van skole. (ix) LIST OF TABLES PAGE TABLE I Frequency distribution according to gender of educators in primary school! 46 TABLE 2 Frequency distribution according to the age ofthe educators 147 TABLE 3 Frequency distribution according to the home language 148 TABLE 4 Frequency distribution according to qualifications 148 TABLE 5 Frequency distribution according to phase in which educator is teaching 149 TABLE 6 Frequency distribution according to school type 150 TABLE 7 Frequency distribution according to circuit 151 TABLE 8 Frequency distribution according to number ofyears in ofeducators present school IS I TABLE 9 Frequency distribution according to gender of school principal 152 TABLE 10 TABLE Ila TABLE 11 b TABLE lie TABLE 12a Frequency distribution according to items relating to respondent s knowledge of selected policv documents 154 Frequency distribution according to number ofeducators on thesgb 155 Frequency distribution according to the number of parents on the SGB 155 Frequency distribution according to the number ofnon-parents on the SGB 155 Frequency distribution according to the number ofco-opted educators on the 5GB 156 TABLE 12b TABLE 11e Frequency distribution according to the number of co-opted parents on the 5GB Frequency distribution according to the number of co-opted non-parents on the 5GB TABLE 13 Frequency distribution according to management functions of 158 respondents TABLE 14 Frequency distribution according to the items on the role 159 ofthe principal in school management (x) TABLE 15 TABLE 16 TABLE 17 Frequency distribution according to parent participation in school governance 168 Frequency distribution according to the implementation of policies relating to learners in the school 170 Frequency distribution according to the respondents' evaluation of changes taking place in school 173 (xi) APPENDICES PAGE APPENDIX A Questionnaire 217 APPENDIXB APPENDIX C APPENDIX D Letter requesting pennission from the Chief Director ofeducation and Culture 225 Letter requesting pennission from the Chief Superintendent ofeducation and Culture ofthe Scottburgh District 226 Letter from the CSEM granting pennission to conduct the research 227 APPENDIX E Principals' authorisation to conduct research at school 228 APPENDIX F One-sample test 229 APPENDLX G Ranking of statements from the questionnaire 232 (xii) CHAPTER ONE ORIENTATION PAGE LI (a) (b) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (t) 1 2 I., (a) (b) INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Pre-democratic education management policies, structures and functions The Bantu Education Act No. 47 of 1953 School Boards School Committees Mechanisms for implementing Bantu Education Hierarchical management structures Classroom management Curriculum content and teaching methodology The prefect system Lack ofparent participation Unequal and inadequate resources Grappling with policy alternatives The De Lange Commission: 1981 Peoples' Education ') 9 1I & (c) The Educational Renewal Strategy (ERS) J 99 i 2-+ (d) I 2.2 I 3 14 I 4.1 I The National Education Policy Investigation (r\epi) 1993 Post-democratic ( 1994) developments in educational management policies, structures and functions STATEl'vfEl'.'T OF THE PROBLH.l OPERATTONAL DEFINITIONS Governance, management and participative management Implementation Policy documents Schools J7 28 2& (xiii) 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND AIMS OF THE RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS PARAMETERS OF THE STIJDY LIMITATION OF EMPRICAL INVESTIGATION STRUCTURE OF THE RESEARCH JJ 1.9 CONCLUSION 34 CHAPTERTIVO PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW PAGE ,.,.,.,.,,....J J '... -' _ I fl\troduction THEORIES OF MA.J'iAGEMENT Scientific management theory Systems theory Human relations theory PARTICIPATIVE \IA:-':AGEMENT AS A THEORETlC.\L FRA\,lEWORK FOt''''DATIONS, PRn\CIPLES AXD FEATURES Foundations ofparticipative management \lanagement assumptions about people \'aluing human beings Developing productive skills Developing receptive skills Developing inquiry skills Developing flexible attitudes Principles of participative ma11agement (xiv) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (t) (g) (h) (I) (j) Leadership Leader as catalyst for transformation Leader as co-partner Leader as participative manager Leader as mediator Leader as initiator ofparticipation Leader as visionary Leader as facilitator ofcapacity building Leader as critical monitor Leader as information manager Leader as innovator Shared organisational goals Accountability Transparency and reciprocal trust Open information systems Impartiality and tolerance Participative decision-making and synergy in management Empowerment and capacity building Equity Features of participative management Decentralization and horizontal power relations Affirmative action Multiculturalism Y i() (xv) BENEFITS OF PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT CONCLUSION CHAPTER THREE POST DEMOCR \TIC POLICY DIRECTIVES FOR TRANSFORMATION OF SCHOOL GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA PAGE ,, ') J..'-_ INTRODUCTION VALUES Al'\iD PRINCIPLES THAT UN'DERLIE POLICY DECISIONS Education and training as basic human rights Freedom ofchoice Accountability and transparency Empowerment and capacity building Representi\ity and inclusivity Redress and equity POLICY DIRECTIVES ANTI L\IPLICAnONS FOR \JANAGDfENT,~'\'D GOVERL'IANCE Reorganisation ofschool categories Rationalisation and redeployment , ~, J..)..J The South African Schools Act, (a) (b) (c) School governing bodies The parents The educators ]'\on-educator personnel 98 loo (xvi) (d) (e) The learners Co-opted members The school's constitution The learners' code ofconduct Compulsory attendance Admission to publie schools Language and religious policy The school's budget Curriculum 2005 and the National Qualifications Framework Affirmative action THE LINK BETWEEN POLICY DIRECTIVES AND PARTICIPATIVE l\1al iagement CONCLUSION I CHAPTER FOUR E:\IPIRICAL RESEARCH INTO POLICY I~IPLEMENTATION: l\[ethodology AND RESEARCH DESIGN PAGE INTRODUCTION PREPARATION,~!'m DESIGN OF TIIE RESEARCH Permission Selection of respondents Population and sampling considerations Sampling methods used Cluster and simple random sampling (xvii) Choice and size ofsample population THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT The questionnaire as a research instrument Construction ofthe questionnaire Closed-ended questions Open-ended questions 135 4_3.2.3 Scaled items Advantages and disadvantages ofa questionnaire Advantages ofa questionnaire Disadvantages ofthe questionnaire Validity and reliability ofthe questionnaire Validity Reliability PILOT STUDY ADMINISTRATIO,\ OF THE Ql'ESTro X~IRE PROCESSING OF D\T\ Descriptive statistical analysis Inferential statistical analysis LHvllTATlONS OF THE INVESTIGATION Limitations ofthe design Methodological limitations CONCLUSION 145 (xviii) CHAPTER FIVE ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETAnON OF DATA PAGE to INTRODUCTION DESCRIPTIVE AND fnferential STATISTICS Gender of educators in primary schools Age ofrespondents Home language Highest qualification Phase ofteaching School type Circuit Number ofyears in present school Gender ofschool principal Description of knowledge Stakeholder representatives elected on the school's governing body Stakeholder representatives co-opted on the school's overninu body 156 o 0-, Management functions Role ofprincipal in school management Parents participation in school governance Pupil participation Evaluation of changes in school 173 (xix) 5.3 HYPOTHESIS RESTATED SUMMARY OF THE EMPIRICAL STUDY Principal-staffinteraction Principal-governing body interaction Principal-community interaction Principal-pupil interaction CONCLUSION 185 CHAPTER SIX SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGE 6 [ I 62\ (a) (b) (c) INTRODUCTION SlJ1vfMARY AND CONCLUSIONS OF FTh.'DINGS Generalfindings indicate that There is a general lack of knowledge, by stakeholders, about new education policy documents Findings relating to specific constituencies in the management and governance of schools Findings re[aring to school principals Principals do not involve stakeholders adequately in decisions about significant school policies There is a lack ofencouragement, by principals, to create a culture ofpartnership between the staffand the governing body The school management functions remain dominantly in the hands ofthe principal [ (xx) (d) There is a lack ofmutual trust, in some schools, between the principal and the staff Findings relating to the educators 190 (a) (b) (c) (d) School experiences ofeducators are confined to classroom management 190 There is a lack ofinvolvement ofeducators in school management 190 There is a lack ofcontact betv,een educators and the parent component of School Governing Bodies (SGBs) 191 Educators are playing an inactive role as representatives on SGBs 191 (e) There is a lack ofunity among educators in some schools Findings relating to parents (School governing bodies) 192 (a) (b) There is a general lack ofinterest shown by parents in the education ofthe child 192 There is a misperception by educators that semi-literate and illiterate parents cannot participate in decision-making 192 (c) The SGB succumbs to policy decisions made by the principal 192 (d) (e) There is, in some schools, tension between governance and management structures 193 Some educators expressed concern that too much emphasis is being placed on decisions made bv school governing bodies Findings relating to pupils 194 (a) (b) There is little contact between the learners and the school principal 194 There is a need to guide educators to develop and implement effective discipline without using corporal punishment 194 (xxi) 6-3 RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations to the Department ofeducation and Culture Every school, that has a learner population from the four main race groups, must have a governing body that represents learners from the different race groups Educators on the SGB must be given the portfolio of school-basedpolicy officers (SBPOs) Recommendations directed to the school principals Principals must consider appointing a member of staff to be the school's Public RelatiollS Officer (PRO) Principals must initiate the move for l;vide-scale stafr participation by co-opting staff members onto School Governing Bodies Principals must get to know the strengths and limitations of their staffand governing body members Principals must encourage volunteers to participate in management and governance tasks Principals must involve stakeholders in policy decisions by perpetuating horizontal rather than vertical power relations Principals must promote an atmosphere of trust by displaying fair treatment and proper management skills Recommendations directed to the educators Educators must familiarize themselves with relevant policy documents including the Bill ofrights in the National Constitution Educators must take positive steps to become partners in managing their schools Educators must acknmvledge and promote a culture of learning, teaching and especially ofservices 200 , (xxii) Educator-representatives on SGBs must be liaison officers between the parents and the teachers Educators must promote a participative culture in and outside ofthe classroom Educators must workshop the constitution and the code of conduct with learners in their respective classrooms R~ommendationsdirected to the parents (SGB) The governing body must understand that there is a dividing line between their duties as governors and the professional day to day duties ofthe principal a
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