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PhD Thesis_Rolling_Wheels

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PhD Thesis_Rolling_Wheels
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  UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DI NAPOLI “L’ORIENTALE”  DIPARTIMENTO ASIA AFRICA E MEDITERRANEO CORSO DI DOTTORATO IN VICINO ORIENTE ANTICO (XI CICLO) R OLLING W HEELS   C ARTS AND W AGONS IN S YRIA AND M ESOPOTAMIA   DURING THE 3 RD   M ILLENNIUM BC   A.A. 2012 - 2013 CANDIDATO:  MATTIA RACCIDI TUTOR:  PROF. CARLO ZACCAGNINI    U NI V E RS I T À DEG L I   S TU D I  D I  N AP O L I   “L’O RI E NTAL E ”  DIPARTIMENTO ASIA AFRICA E MEDITERRANEO CORSO DI DOTTORATO I N VICINO ORIENTE A NT I CO (XI CICL O ) R OLLING W HEELS C ARTS AND W AGONS IN S YRIA AND M ESOPOTAMIA DURING THE 3 RD   M ILLENNIUM BC C ANDIDAT O:   M ATTIA R ACCIDI  T UT OR:   P ROF. C ARLO Z ACCAGNINI C OORDINATORE: P ROF. R ICCARDO C ONTINI A.A. 2012 - 2013     Rolling Wheels. Carts and Wagons in Syria and Mesopotamia During the 3 rd   Millennium BC. i CONTENTS  List of figures iii  List of tables v  List of plates vi 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.2 Research methodology 1 1.2.1 Material culture and the five categories 1 1.2.2 Database and catalogue 2  1.2.3 The interaction between the landscape and wheeled vehicles 6 1.3 The context: Syria and Mesopotamia during the 3 rd  millennium BC 7 1.3.1 Syria and Mesopotamia 7 1.3.2 The 3 rd   millennium BC 8 1.4 Brief history of studies 10 1.5 Carts, wagons and chariots 12 1.5.1 Origin and spread 12 1.5.2 From sledges to wheeled vehicles 14 1.5.3 After the 3 rd   millennium BC: the light two-wheeled chariot 16 1.6 Glossary 17 2. TERRACOTTA MODELS 20 2.1 Material, techniques, functions 21 2.2 Typologies 25 2.2.1 Littauer/Crouwel 25 2.2.2 Bollweg 25 2.2.3 Pruß 27 2.2.4 Raccidi 27 2.3 Models Analyses 33 2.3.1 Typological analysis 33 2.3.2 Chronological analysis 36 2.3.3 Spread Analysis 39 2.4 From models to vehicles 43   Rolling Wheels. Carts and Wagons in Syria and Mesopotamia During the 3 rd   Millennium BC. ii 3. WRITTEN SOURCES 46 3.1 Wheeled vehicle terminology 46 3.2 Statistical Analyses 48 3.3 Administrative texts: assignment 50 3.3.1 Assignment texts from Ebla 51 3.3.2 Assignment texts from Umma 57 3.4 Administrative texts: inventory 62 3.5 Administrative texts: offering 66 3 .5.1 Girsu offerings: the “small car” at the Ambar   canal 67 3.5.2 Umma Offerings: the “standing” car and the car “placed at the front”  68 3.5.3 Umma offerings: the car and the moon 68 3.6 Literary and royal/monumental texts 72 3.7 From written sources to vehicles 75 4. GLYPTIC 78 4.1 Types of wheeled vehicles in glyptic representations 78 4.2 The contexts 80 4.3 Statistical analyses 83 4.4 From glyptic representations to vehicles 85 5. “OTHER REPRESENTATIONS”  89 5.1 Metal models 89 5.2 Standards and inlays 92 5.3 Steles and plaques 94 5.4 Vases 98 6. WHEELED VEHICLES 101 6.1 Wheeled vehicles in funerary contexts: the cemeteries at Ur, Ki š  and Susa 101 6.2 The Mari wheels and the cartwright’s house  104 7. THE WHEELED VEHICLES LANDSCAPE 106 7.1. The Khabur Basin 106 7.1.1 Geography and Morphology 106 7.1.2 Brief history of Studies 106 7.2 The Environmental Markers 107 7.2.1 Sites 107   Rolling Wheels. Carts and Wagons in Syria and Mesopotamia During the 3 rd   Millennium BC. iii 7.2.2 Hollow ways 107 7.3. Data and methods 108 7.4 Spatial analysis 110 7.4.1 Reclassification of hollow ways and intra-site arrangement 110 7.4.2 Networks and routes: inter-site arrangement 113 7.5 Wheeled vehicles and circulation patterns 116 8. CONCLUSIONS 119 8.1 Morphology 119 8.1.1 Raw materials 119 8.1.2 Components 120 8.1.3 Types of vehicles  121 8.2 Functions 123 8.2.1 War 123 8.2.2 Worship 124 8.2.3 Hunting 124 8.2.4 Elite means of transport 124 8.2.5 Economic functions 125 8.2.6 Symbolic meanings 125 8.3 Wheeled vehicles and their historical-geographical context. 126 BIBLIOGRAPHY 128 CATALOGUE Terracotta models 161 Written sources 217 Glyptic 263 “Other representations”  270 Wheeled vehicles 275 INDEX OF WHEELED VEHICLE QUOTATIONS IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE TEXTS Administrative texts: Assignment 277 Administrative texts: Inventory 297 Administrative texts: Offering 306
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