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PJ's Chapters 1-4 the Final Solution

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The Final Solution Synopsis The Nazis, under cover of the war, developed the technology, bureaucracy, and psychology of hate to efficiently murder millions of Jews. The details of the Final Solution were worked out at the Wannsee Conference. All Jews in Germany and the occupied cou ntries were deported to sealed ghettos as a holding area. Many were then shipped in cattle cars to labor camps where they lived under brutally inhuman conditions. Hundreds of thousands were sent directly to the ga
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   1 The Final Solution Synopsis   The Nazis, und er cov er of t he wa r , d e v el op e d t he t e c h no l ogy, bu re auc r acy, and psyc h o l ogy of  h at e to e ffici e nt l y mu r d er mi ll ions of J e ws. The d e tai l s of t he Fina l So l ution w ere wo rke d out at t he Wanns ee  Conf  ere nc e . A ll J e ws in G er many and t he occupi e d count r i e s w ere d e po r t e d to s e a le d g he ttos as a h o l dinga re a. Many w ere t he n s h ipp e d in catt le ca r s to l abo r camps w here t he y l iv e d und er b r uta ll y in h umanconditions. Hund re ds of t h ousands w ere s e nt di re ct l y to t he gas c h amb er s in d e at h camps. As t he A ll i e sadvanc e d on t he camps, d e at h ma r c he s fu r t her d e p le t e d t he   r an k s of pot e ntia l camp su r vivo r s. IN  STRUCT  IONAL OBJE  CT  IVE  S   Students will learn that:  1. An e nti re stat e bu re auc r acy was mobi l iz e d so lel y fo r t he pu r pos e of anni h i l ating J e ws.2. G er man t e c h no l ogica l   ex p er tis e was h a r n e ss e d to ma ke t he mass mu r d er as e ffici e nt and l ow-cost aspossib le .3. Sp e cia l camps w ere c re at e d so lel y fo r t he pu r pos e of  k i ll ing J e ws and ot her und e si r ab le s. 4. The conditions in t he s e d e at h camps and ot her conc e nt r ation camps w ere b r uta l , and d e sign e dpu r pos el y to ma ke su r viva l on l y t e mpo r a r y. CH   AP  T  E  R   C  ON  T  EN  T    O n O ctob er 23, 1941, S.S. he ad H e in r ic h Himm ler issu e d an o r d er down t he Nazi c h ain of command w h ic h   her a l d e d a majo r c h ang e in Nazi po l icy wit h   re sp e ct to t he J e wis h p r ob le m. Unti l t he n, t he Nazis wo rke dvigo r ous l y to e ncou r ag e J e ws to e mig r at e . The Madagasca r P l an (s ee b el ow) was on e   ex amp le of st r at e gi e sw h ic h w ere fo r mu l at e d to re mov e J e ws f  r om G er many and its occupi e d l ands. As is d e sc r ib e d in mo re  d e tai l in C h apt er 11, many count r i e s re fus e d to acc e pt J e wis h   re fug ee s. Th is s h ift in po l icy re su l t e d in t he  d e po r tation of J e ws to camps and g he ttos in t he East. The po l icy to re s e tt le J e ws to t he s e g he ttos andcamps was a significant st e p in w h at was to b e com e t he Fina l So l ution t he syst e matic mu r d er of mi ll ionsof J e ws. M adagascar Plan B e fo re t he Fina l So l ution was d e vis e d to mu r d er a ll J e ws in Nazi ju r isdiction, t he sc he m e t he Nazisp l ann e d to r id t he i r   l and of t he J e ws was fo r c e d e mig r ation. In 1940, p l ans w ere d e vis e d by t he Nazis tos h ip a ll J e ws und er Nazi cont r o l to Madagasca r , an is l and in t he Indian O c e an. It was not unti l 1941 t h atNazi bu re auc r ats w ere   re f  err ing to t he Fina l So l ution (G e samt l osung) in t he cont ex t of g e nocid e   r at her  t h an a Terr ito r ia l Fina l So l ution (t err ito r ia le End l osung) in t he cont ex t of fo r c e d e mig r ation. Som e   h isto r ians b el i e v e t h at t he Madagasca r P l an was a smo ke sc ree n fo r Hit ler' s d e si re to mu r d er Eu r op e anJ e w r y (s ee pag e 62 of Ma rr us '   The Ho l ocaust in Histo r y).   2 D eportation In re spons e to t h is n e w re s e tt le m e nt po l icy, t he fi r st d e at h camps w ere d e sign e d. C hel mno was t he sit e  of t he fi r st gassing of J e ws, w h ic h occu rre d on D e c e mb er 8, 1941. The Nazi wa r mac h in e   h ad l imit e d re sou r c e s, inc l uding s l av e   l abo r , muc h of it J e wis h . Ev e n so, t he Nazis mad e a d e cision t h at t he anni h i l ationof t he J e ws of Eu r op e was a mo re impo r tant ac h i e v e m e nt t h an t he va l u e of t he i r   l abo r . Simi l a rl y, t he Nazismad e a d e cision not to le t t he n ee d fo r t r anspo r t fo r t he wa r   e ffo r t int er f  ere wit h t he n ee d fo r t r uc k s and r ai l ca r s to ca rr y t he J e ws to conc e nt r ation camps and d e at h c e nt er s. It was Ado l f Eic h mann w h omast er mind e d t he   l ogistics of t he d e po r tation of J e ws. (1)D e po r tation was t he fi r st st e p in t he Fina l So l ution. T ypica ll y, t he J e ws w ere info r m e d t h at t he y w ere  going to b e   re s e tt le d fo r wo rk . Eac h was to l d to ta ke som e c l ot h ing, b l an ke ts, s h o e s, e ating ut e nsi l s (but no k nif  e ), a bow l , and som e mon e y. Round e d up, t he y w ere   her d e d into t r uc k s fo r t he t r ip to t he   r ai l station,o r w ere fo r c e d to wa lk . The   r ai l ca r s w ere oft e n st r at e gica ll y l ocat e d at a distanc e f  r om t he pass e ng er  t er mina l s, so t h at t h is sc e n e wou l d not a r ous e t he i re of t he   l oca l popu l ac e . Many w h o did s ee c h os e not top r ot e st. The d e po r t ee s w ere fo r c e d into r ai l ca r s, most of w h ic h w ere window le ss, un he at e d catt le ca r s, andsqu ee z e d in so tig h t l y t h at most w ere fo r c e d to stand. The doo r s w ere t he n s e a le d s h ut f  r om t he outsid e .N e it her d r in k ing wat er no r sanita r y faci l iti e s w ere avai l ab le . Eac h ca r   hel d mo re t h an 120 p e op le , andmany f  r oz e o r suffocat e d to d e at h o r succumb e d to dis e as e du r ing t he t r ip to t he camps. The d e ad w ere  not re mov e d f  r om t he ca r s du r ing t he jou r n e y b e caus e t he Nazi bu re auc r acy insist e d t h at e ac h body e nt er ing a ca r b e account e d fo r at t he d e stination. (1) Adolph Eichmann Tr anspo r ting e noug h J e ws to f  ee d t he d e at h camps was a majo r   l ogistica l und er ta k ing. The Nazi offic er inc h a r g e of t h is duty was Ado l p h Eic h mann, w h o t r av ele d f  r om count r y to count r y t h at was und er G er manoccupation to syst e matica ll y p l an t he d e po r tation of t he   l oca l J e wis h popu l ation to t he d e at h camps.Eic h mann re c e iv e d va r ious le v el s of coop er ation f  r om e ac h of t he va r ious occupi e d gov er nm e nts. But incount r i e s suc h as Ho ll and, B el gium, A l bania, D e nma rk , Fin l and and Bu l ga r ia, som e J e ws w ere sav e d f  r omt he i r d e at h s by t he action of t he sympat he tic popu l ac e and gov er nm e nt officia l s. D e nma rk' s gov er nm e ntand popu l ac e w ere   exe mp l a r y in t he i r   her oism in saving J e ws. In ot her count r i e s suc h as Po l and, G ree c e ,F r anc e , and Yugos l avia, t he d e po r tation of J e ws to t he d e at h camps was faci l itat e d by t he coop er ation of t he gov er nm e nt. Ghettoization ( D ecember 1939 to M arch 1942) A l t h oug h t he Nazis w ere succ e ssfu l in iso l ating J e ws socia ll y and e conomica ll y, t he actua l p h ysica l iso l ationof t he East er n Eu r op e an popu l ation did not b e gin unti l D e c e mb er 1939. J e ws h ad k nown t he g he tto sinc e  t he Midd le Ag e s, a l t h oug h J e ws w ere t he n p er mitt e d to le av e t he g he tto du r ing t he day and pa r ticipat e int he busin e ss of t he g e n er a l community. The pu r pos e of t he Nazi g he tto, h ow e v er , was to c re at e a tota l  confin e m e nt fo r t he J e wis h popu l ation, tu r ning e nti re n e ig h bo rh oods into a p r ison un l i ke t he g he ttos of c e ntu r i e s past.   3 The Nazis h op e d t h at t he w re tc he d g he tto conditions wou l d d e p le t e t he J e wis h popu l ation quic kl y andnatu r a ll y t hr oug h sta r vation, dis e as e and co l d. The g he tto a l so s er v e d as t he   h o l ding a re a fo r   e v e ntua l  t r anspo r t to t he d e at h camps fo r t h os e w h o w ere ab le to su r viv e .G he tto in h abitants in many a re as w ere fo r c e d to b e com e s l av e s fo r G er man indust r y. Facto r i e s w ere bui l ta l ongsid e o r wit h in g he tto wa ll s so t h at indust r i e s cou l d ta ke advantag e of t h is f  ree   l abo r . The  administ r ation of J e wis h   l if  e was t he   re sponsibi l ity of t he J e wis h Counci l s, t he Jud e n rö t e (s ee C h apt er 11).Lif  e in t he g he tto was abominab le , and t h ousands di e d. There was no m e dicin e . The food r ation a ll ow e dwas a qua r t er of t h at avai l ab le fo r t he G er mans, ba rel y e noug h to a ll ow su r viva l . The wat er supp l y wascontaminat e d in many g he ttos. Epid e mics of tub er cu l osis, typ h oid, and l ic e w ere common. Bodi e s of n e wvictims pi le d up in t he st ree ts fast er t h an t he y cou l d b e ca r t e d away. In t he Wa r saw g he tto, mo re t h an70,000 di e d of  ex posu re , dis e as e , and sta r vation du r ing t he fi r st two wint er s. A l most a ll of t h os e w h osu r viv e d t he Wa r saw g he tto w ere   e it her   k i lle d w he n t he g he tto was r az e d in 1943 o r di e d in t he d e at h  camps. Theresienstadt Ghetto The   There si e nstadt g he tto was e stab l is he d by t he Nazis in an 18t h c e ntu r y fo r t re ss in Cz e c h os l ova k ia onNov e mb er 24, 1941. Mo re t h an 150,000 J e ws pass e d t hr oug h t he g he tto du r ing its fou r -y e a r   ex ist e nc e ,w h ic h was us e d as a h o l ding a re a fo r   e v e ntua l mu r d er in Ausc h witz. By 1943, r umo r s b e gan ci r cu l ating int he int er nationa l community t h at t he Nazis w ere   ex t er minating J e ws in gas c h amb er s, and t h at t he  conditions of t he g he ttos did not p er mit su r viva l . The Nazis re bui l t pa r ts of t h is g he tto to s er v e as a s h owpi e c e fo r p r opaganda pu r pos e s. F l ow er ga r d e ns w ere p l ant e d in t he g he tto. S h ops, sc h oo l s, and acaf  e w ere bui l t. W he n an inv e stigating commission of t he Int er nationa l R e d C r oss cam e to visit, t he y didnot s ee a typica l g he tto. In Ju l y 1944 t he Nazis mad e a docum e nta r y p r opaganda fi l m about l if  e in t h isg he tto. Aft er t he movi e was comp le t e d, most of t he J e wis h acto r s w ere s h ipp e d to t he i r d e at h atAusc h witz. Wannsee Conference At t he Wanns ee Conf  ere nc e on Janua r y 20, 1942 in Wanns ee , a B erl in subu r b, t he d e tai l s of t he Fina l  So l ution w ere wo rke d out. The m ee ting was conv e n e d by R e in h a r d H e yd r ic h , w h o was t he   he ad of t he S.S.main offic e and S.S. C h i e f H e in r ic h Himm ler' s top aid e . The pu r pos e of t he m ee ting was to coo r dinat e t he  Nazi bu re auc r acy re qui re d to ca rr y out t he Fina l So l ution, w h ic h p r ovid e d fo r:   y   D e po r tation of J e ws to k i ll ing c e nt er s. y   Imm e diat e d e at h fo r t h os e w h o w ere unab le to wo rk o r t he v er y young, t he o l d, and t he w e a k . y   S e g re gation by g e nd er of t he   re maining J e ws. y   D e cimation t hr oug h fo r c e d l abo r wit h insuffici e nt nou r is h m e nt. y   Ev e ntua l d e at h fo r t he   re mnant. Concentration Camps The Nazi conc e nt r ation camps w ere   e stab l is he d b e ginning in 1933 fo r t he pu r pos e of imp r isoning po l itica l  oppon e nts. Aft er t he Nig h t of t he Long Kniv e s (s ee C h apt er 8, pag e 65), aut h o r ity and manag e m e nt of t he conc e nt r ation camps was tu r n e d ov er to t he S.S. The S.S. ex pand e d t he conc e nt r ation camp syst e m,and us e d t he s e faci l iti e s to wa reh ous e ot her und e si r ab le s, inc l uding h und re ds of t h ousands of J e ws.   4 Dac h au, Buc he nwa l d and Sac h s e n h aus e n w ere among t he fi r st conc e nt r ation camps bui l t by t he Nazis n e a r  Munic h , W e ima r , and B erl in re sp e ctiv el y.Upon a rr iva l at a camp, t he inmat e s w ere usua ll y st r ipp e d of a ll t he i r va l uab le s and c l ot he s. The y w ere  t he n s h o r n of body h ai r , disinf  e ct e d, giv e n a s h ow er , and issu e d a st r ip e d p r ison unifo r m wit h out re ga r d tosiz e . Eac h st e p of t he p r oc e ss was d e sign e d to d eh umaniz e t he p r ison er s, bot h p h ysica ll y and e motiona ll y.Eac h p r ison er was giv e n a numb er . At Ausc h witz, fo r   ex amp le , t he numb er was tattoo e d on t he a r m, butsom e camps did not tattoo t he i r inmat e s.Lif  e in t he camps was a l iving hell . As d e sc r ib e d by Juda h Pi l c h in Y e a r s of t he Ho l ocaust :   The Factua l  Sto r y, w h ic h app e a r s in The J e wis h Catast r op he in Eu r op e , a typica l day in t he   l if  e of a conc e nt r ation campinmat e b e gan at dawn, w he n t he y w ere   r ous e d f  r om t he i r ba rr ac k s w h ic h   h ous e d 300-800 inmat e s e ac h . The i r b e ds w ere bun k s of s l att e d wood two and t hree ti er s h ig h . F re qu e nt l y t hree to fou r p r ison er ss h a re d e ac h bun k , not p er mitting spac e   e noug h fo r t he m to st re tc h out fo r no r ma l s lee p. The inmat e sw ere o r ganiz e d into g r oups to go to t he toi le ts, ma r c he d to a dist r ibution c e nt er fo r a b re a k fast consistingof som e b re ad and a l iquid substitut e fo r t e a o r coff  ee , and t he n s e nt out to wo rk fo r 10-14 h ou r s in min e s,facto r i e s, and r oad o r ai r fi el d bui l ding, oft e n in sub-z er o w e at her o r t he s e v ere   he at of summ er . The y w ere  subj e ct e d to constant p h ysica l and e motiona l   h a r assm e nt and b e ating. The inmat e s ' food r ations did notp er mit su r viva l fo r v er y l ong. Th os e w h o re sist e d o r d er s of t he gua r ds w ere s h ot on t he spot. Num er ous r o ll ca ll s w ere   hel d to assu re t h at no p r ison er s h ad e scap e d. If on e did att e mpt an e scap e , a ll of t he  inmat e s suff  ere d fo r it. D eath Camps The G er man s k i ll in adapting t he 20t h c e ntu r y t e c h niqu e s of mass p r oduction was app l i e d in e ngin eer ingt he Fina l So l ution. In 1941, t he   e ngin eer s of t he Fina l So l ution uti l iz e d t he s e sam e p r incip le s to c he ap l yand e ffici e nt l y mu r d er mi ll ions of J e ws and ot her und e si r ab le s. The p l ants e stab l is he d to ca rr y out t h ismass mu r d er w ere t he d e at h camps.Un l i ke conc e nt r ation camps, d e at h camps h ad no ba rr ac k s to h ous e p r ison er s, ot her t h an t h os e fo r  wo rker s at t he camps. In o r d er to p r oc e ss t he mu r d er of t h ousands of p e op le , g re at pains w ere ta ke n tod e c e iv e t he victims conc er ning t he i r fat e . J e ws d e po r t e d f  r om g he ttos and conc e nt r ation camps to t he  d e at h camps w ere unawa re of w h at t he y w ere facing. The Nazi p l ann er s of t he op er ation to l d t he victimst h at t he y w ere b e ing re s e tt le d fo r   l abo r , issu e d t he m wo rk p er mits, to l d t he m to b r ing a l ong t he i r too l sand to ex c h ang e t he i r G er man ma rk s fo r fo re ign cu rre ncy. Food was a l so us e d to coa x sta r ving J e ws ontot he t r ains. O nc e t he t r ains a rr iv e d at t he d e at h camps, t r uc k s w ere avai l ab le to t r anspo r t t h os e w h o w ere  too w e a k to wa lk di re ct l y to t he gas c h amb er s. The ot her s w ere to l d t h at t he y wou l d h av e to b e d el ous e dand e nt er t he bat h s. The victims w ere s e pa r at e d by s ex and to l d to re mov e t he i r c l ot he s. The bat h s w ere in re a l ity t he gas c h amb er s. The s h ow er   he ads in t he bat h s w ere actua ll y t he in le ts fo r poison gas. AtAusc h witz, t he gas c h amb er s hel d 2,000 p e op le at a tim e . Wit h t he int r oduction of a cyanid e -bas e d gasca lle d Zy kl on B, a ll 2,000 occupants cou l d b e   k i lle d in fiv e minut e s. As a re su l t of t h is t e c h no l ogica l   advanc e m e nt, Ausc h witz was ab le to p r oc e ss t he d e at h of 12,000 victims dai l y. B e fo re t he bodi e s w ere   re mov e d by wo rker s wit h gas mas k s and bu r n e d in c re mato r ia, t he t ee t h of t he victims w ere st r ipp e d fo r  go l d, w h ic h was m el t e d down and s h ipp e d bac k to G er many. Innoc e nt victims w ere   ex p l oit e d andd e s e c r at e d to a d e g ree un k nown in h uman h isto r y.Un l i ke t he d e at h camps of  Tre b l in k a, C hel mno, Sobibo r , and B el z e c, w h ic h w ere bui l t and op er at e d so lel yto k i ll J e ws, t he two d e at h camps of Maidan ek and Ausc h witz a l so h ad a wo rk camp attac he d. Upon a rr iva l  at t he s e two camps, a s ele ction was mad e at t he t r ain station conc er ning w h ic h J e ws (about 10 p er c e nt of 
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