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Predicting Job Satisfaction Based on Personality Traits and Psychological Empowerment in Employed Middle-Aged and Elderly People A B S T R A C T

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Objectives The associated factors with job satisfaction can predict the personal and professional progress of middle-aged and elderly people, as well as their future success. The present study aimed to predict job satisfaction based on personality
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  418 Winter 2019. Vol 13. Num 4 *  Corresponding Author: Peyman Hatamian, MSc.Address:  Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanies, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Tel:  +98 (918) 9968103 E-mail:   hatamian152@gmail.com Research Paper Predicng Job Sasfacon Based on Personality Traits and Psychological Empowerment in Employed Middle-Aged and Elderly People 1. Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanies, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.2. Department of Psychology, Faculty of Educaonal & Psychology, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran.3. Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.4. Department of Economy, Faculty of Social Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. *Peyman Hatamian 1   , Mojtaba Ahmadi Farsani 2   , Jahangir Karami 3   , Parastoo Hatamian 4 Objecves  The associated factors with job sasfacon can predict the personal and professional progress of middle-aged and elderly people, as well as their future success. The present study aimed to predict  job sasfacon based on personality traits and psychological empowerment among middle-aged and elderly working people. Methods & Materials   Of all middle-aged and elderly employed people in Kermanshah City, Iran, a sample of 240 people were selected by the convenience sampling method. The study data were collected using NEO ve-factor inventory, short form, psychological empowerment quesonnaire and job sasfacon survey. For data analysis, the Pearson correlaon coecient and regression analysis methods were used. Results   The results revealed that personality characteriscs of extroversm, accountability and exibility were posively associated with job sasfacon with correlaon coecients of 0.42, 0.34, and 0.07, re-specvely. In addion, there was a posive and signicant relaonship between psychological empower-ment and job sasfacon with correlaon coecient of 0.43. However, no signicant relaonship was found between mental health and pleasure with job sasfacon. Conclusion  According to the ndings of this study, personality traits and psychological empowerment can predict job sasfacon in middle-aged and elderly people. A B S T R A C T Keywords: Personality Traits, Empowerment, Job Sasfacon, Elderly Extended Abstract 1. Objectives mployment is one of the issues that has always been one of the main concerns of people, ates, and nations. In every country, there are thousands of jobs and  professions that people are engaged in [1] . The people’s job satisfaction and the eects of E this satisfaction on their morale and productivity have always been considered by psychologis and social scientis [1] . The increasing growth of adult and el - derly people in society and the employment of a large number of them, indicate the need for further research on their mental health. There is a paucity of research on the association between and Job Satisfaction (JS) and variables of Personality Traits (PTs) and Psycho - logical Empowerment (PE), in employed middle-aged and elderly people. Thus, this udy examined the rela - Citation  Hatamian P, Ahmadi Farsani M, Karami J, Hatamian P. [Predicting Job Satisfaction Based on Personality Traits and Psychological Empowerment in Employed Middle-Aged and Elderly People (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2019; 13(4):418-427. https://doi.org/10.32598/SIJA.13.4.418  : https://doi.org/10.32598/SIJA.13.4.418 Use your device to scan and read the arcle online Received:  16 Apr 2018 Accepted:  25 Oct 2018 Available Online:  01 Jan 2019  419 Winter 2019. Vol 13. Num 4 tionship between these variables. We explored whether  personality traits and psychological empowerment in employed middle-aged and elderly people can predict their job satisfaction. 2. Methods and Materials This was a descriptive correlational udy. Study pop - ulation consied of all middle-aged and elderly people employed in various occupational sectors (public and  private) in Kermanshah City, Iran, in 2016. Of these, 240 samples were selected using convenience sampling method. To collect data, the following queionnaires were used: Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) with 36 items;  NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), short form with 60 items developed by Coa and McCrae (1989). The Cronbach alpha coecient for the reliability of the Per  - sian version of NEO-FFI, short form have been reported as 0.76, 0.65, 0.59, 0.48, and 0.75 [2]; Psychological Em -  powerment Queionnaire (PEQ) with 20 items designed  by Spreitzer (1995). He reported the Cronbach alpha coef  - cient of 0.85 for this tool.After obtaining consent from the udy participants and assuring them of the condentiality of their in - formation, the queionnaires were diribute among them. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS using Pearson correlation coecient and regression analysis. This udy was approved by the Department of Psy - chology of Razi University. 3. Results The Mean±SD age of 240 samples was 66.89±1.93 years. Almo 67% of the samples were male. The Kol - mogorov-Smirnov te results suggeed the normality of data diribution. To te the correlation between PTs and PE, and JS, Pearson correlation coecient was used. The results revealed that, the correlation coe - cient for neuroticism and JS was r=-0.29; for extraver  - sion and JS, r=0.42; for openness and JS, r=0.07; for agreeableness and JS, r=0.38, and for conscientious - ness and JS, r=0.43. For evaluating the predictability of JS based on PTs and PE, simultaneous multiple regres - sion analysis was used. According to the results, both PTs and PE can predict 18% of changes in JS. Among 5 PTs, conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness dimensions could predict JS with beta values of 0.18, 0.11, and 0.19, respectively. PE with beta value of 0.37 was also able to predict JS. Therefore, among predict - ing variables, PE is more likely to predict JS (Table 1).Overall, results demonrate a signicant positive relationship between extraversion and JS. This indi - cates that extroverts do not blame themselves for the miakes. They do not get disappointed. They are ac - tive, hardworking and courageous, and take the right decisions in critical situations, and are more satised with their jobs. Results also indicate a signicant posi - tive relationship between JS and dimensions of con - scientiousness and openness. However, neuroticism and agreeableness had no signicant correlation with JS. PE also had a signicant correlation with JS in the middle-aged and elderly people. Thus, JS increases with the increase in PS and vice versa. 4. Conclusion Personality traits and psychological empowerment in the middle-aged and elderly people had a signicant re - lationship with their job satisfaction. This is consient with the ndings of Karuk et al. [4], Birneh et al. [5] , Caves and Demur [6], and other similar udies [7-10]. According to the results of the current udy, personality traits (conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness) and psychological empowerment can predict job satis - faction in employed middle-aged and elderly people. Therefore, we sugge that managers and employers Table 1.  Regression results for evaluating the predictability of JS Variable   Model Summary   PredictorBβ   Sig. JSR=0.47Adjusted R 2 =0.18F=31.17P=0.001Conscienousness0.230.180.01Extraversion0.240.110.001 Openness 0.320.190.04PE0.560.370.001 Hatamian P, et al. Predicting Job Satisfaction Based on Personality Traits and Psychological Empowerment. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2019; 13(4):418-427.  420 Winter 2019. Vol 13. Num 4 consider the impact of these factors on job satisfaction of their a. The samples had dierent personality traits. Thus, their degree of collaboration in research also varied depending on their personal and working conditions. This point was a limitation to our udy. Ethical Considerations Compliance with ethical guidelines In this paper, ethical guidelines including awareness of participants about the research process, condential - ity of their information, and the right to withdraw the udy at any time were observed. The consent obtained from them was verbal. Funding Authors received no nancial support. Authors contributions Conceptualization, formal analysis, validation, and draft preparation: Peyman Hatamian; Inveigation and methodology: Paraoo Hatamian; Editing: All authors; Resources and funding acquisition: Mojtaba Ahmadi Farsani; and Supervision: Jahangir Karami. Conict of interest The authors declared no conict of intere. Hatamian P, et al. Predicting Job Satisfaction Based on Personality Traits and Psychological Empowerment. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2019; 13(4):418-427.  421 4 هر ش  .13 هرود  .1397 ن سمز : ل سم   هدسی  * نااح   ناپ . ا ور   هوگ   ا مع   ه د   سر   ت   ها د   ن    : اش + 98 )918( 9968103 : ف hatamian152@gmail.com  : کورک تسپ  󰘪􀘴􀛌 ب   ت  􀛌 قف 󰙈 م   و  󰘯󰙈󰘴 󐙄󰘺󰘧󰘴 􀙆 اد  󰙆􀙄󰘧󰘳 و  􀙆󰙄󰘧 سن 󰘧􀛌 م  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 و   ی 󰘯 رف   تف  􀛌   󰘨􀘨󰘳 دنا 󰙈󐘪 󰛌 م  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 󰘧 ب   ط  􀘨󐘪 رم  􀘹  ب 󰘧󰙆 م  󰛌󰘳󰘱 رب   ف  یز 󰘧󰘳 د  󰙆󐙆 ا 󰙈󐘪 و  󰛌􀘪􀛌 صخ  󰘴 ی 󰘧 ه  󰛌 گژ  󐛌 و  􀘳󰘧󰘳 ا   رب  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 󰛌󰙆􀛌 ب  󐘴􀛌   󰙁 ده  󰘧 ب   ض 󰘧 ح  󐘴 هوژ 󰘱󰘯 . د  󰙆 ک  󰛌󰙆􀛌 ب  󐘴􀛌   󰙇 د  󰙆󐛌 آ  󰘱󰘯 ا 󰘱 󰘧 ه  􀙆 آ . د  󰘴 󰙅󰘧 جنا  󐙄󰘺󰘧󰘴 􀙆 اد  󰙆􀙄󰘧󰘳 و  􀙆󰙄󰘧 سن 󰘧􀛌 م     􀛌 ب  󰘱󰘯 󰛌􀘪󰘮󰘧󰙆󰘴 􀙆 او 󰘱  شو   󰘱 􀙇 ب   ر  􀙁 ن  􀀲􀀴􀀰 􀙅 جح  󰘧 ب   یا  􀙇 ن 󰙈󐙆 ، 󰙇󰘧􀘴 ن 󰘧 مرک   ر  󐙇󰘴 󐙄󰘺󰘧󰘴 􀙆 اد  󰙆􀙄󰘧󰘳 و  􀙆󰙄󰘧 سن 󰘧􀛌 م  󰙅󰘧      􀛌 ب   زا  􀙇 ع 󰘧󰘷 م     󐛌 ا  󰙅󰘧 جنا  󰘱󰙈 ظ  󰙆 م  􀙇 ب      شور   و   د م   و  󰛌􀘪󰘮󰘧󰙆󰘴 􀙆 او 󰘱 یز 󰘧󰘳 د  󰙆󐙆 ا 󰙈󐘪 􀙇 م 󰘧 ن  󐘴󰘳 ر ، 󰙈 ئن   ت  􀛌 صخ  󰘴 󰚯󰘱󰘲 ب  󐙄 م 󰘧󰘹 󰘬󰙆   􀘳󰘧􀛌 قم  󰙂󐛌 ر  􀘷 زا  󰘧 ه  󰙇󰘯 ا 󰘯 . د  󰘴 󐘨󰘧 خ  􀘪 نا  􀘳󰘪󰘳󰘯 󰘱󰘯 یر  􀛌 گ  􀙇 ن 󰙈󐙆. د  󰘴 ی 󰘱 وآ  􀘹󐙅􀘬 󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 􀙇 م 󰘧 ن  󐘴󰘳 ر 󰘯 ا 󰘯 􀙆󰘧􀘴 ن  󰘬󐛌󰘧􀘪 ن  . د  󰘴 󰙇󰘯󰘧􀙁􀘪󰘳 ا  􀙆󰙈􀛌󰘳 رگ 󰘱 󐙄􀛌 ل  󰘭󐘪 شو 󰘱 و  􀙆󰙈󰘳 ر  􀛌   󰛌􀚯􀘪 س  􀘨󐙅 ه   ی 󰘱󰘧 مآ   ی 󰘧 ه   شو 󰘱 زا  󰘧 ه  󰙇󰘯 ا 󰘯 󐙄􀛌 ل  󰘭󐘪 یارب       ی   ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 󰘧 ب  􀀰/􀀰􀀷 و  􀀰/􀀳􀀴 ، 􀀰/􀀴􀀲 󰛌􀚯􀘪 س  􀘨󐙅 ه  󰘨󐛌 ض  󰘧 ب  󰘨􀛌󐘪 ر  󐘪 􀙇 ب   یر  󐛌 ذ 󰙁󰘧󰘷 عنا   و   یر  󐛌 ذ ت  􀛌  󰙈 ئسم   ، 󰛌󐛌 ارگ  􀙆 ورب  󰛌􀘪􀛌 صخ  󰘴 ی 󰘧 ه  󰛌 گژ  󐛌 و  󰘯󰙈􀘬 و   ی 󰘱 ا 󰘯󰘧󰙆 عم   و   ت  􀘨 ثم  􀙇󰘷 با 󰘱 􀀰/􀀴􀀳 󰛌􀚯􀘪 س  􀘨󐙅 ه  󰘨󐛌 ض  󰘧 ب  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 و   یز 󰘧󰘳 د  󰙆󐙆 ا 󰙈󐘪   􀛌 ب     􀛌󰙆 چ  󐙅 ه  . دن 󰘱 ا 󰘯 ت  􀘨 ثم  􀙇󰘷 با 󰘱 󰛌 لغ  󰘴. د  􀘴 ن   تف 󰘧󐛌 󰘱 ا 󰘯󰘧󰙆 عم  􀙇󰘷 با 󰘱 󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 󰘧 ب  􀙆󰘯󰙈 ب   ر  󐛌 ذ  󰙾  󰘯 و   یدنژن  􀙆 او 󰘱   􀛌 ب  󰘧 ما   ، 󰘯󰘱 ا 󰘯 󰛌󰙆􀛌 ب  󐘴􀛌   􀙆 ا 󰙈󐘪 ، 󰛌􀘪󰘮󰘧󰙆󰘴 􀙆 او 󰘱 یز 󰘧󰘳 د  󰙆󐙆 ا 󰙈󐘪 و  󰛌􀘪􀛌 صخ  󰘴 ی 󰘧 ه     󰛌 گژ  󐛌 و   تفرگ  􀙇 ج  􀛌􀘪 ن  􀙆 ا 󰙈󐘪 󰛌 م  􀙇 ع 󰘧󰘷 م     󐛌 ا   ی 󰘧 ه  􀙇􀘪 ف 󰘧󐛌 􀙇 ب  􀙇􀘬󰙈󐘪 󰘧 ب   گ   ج  . دن 󰘱 ا 󰘯 ا 󰘱 􀙆 اد  󰙆􀙄󰘧󰘳 و  􀙆󰙄󰘧 سن 󰘧􀛌 م  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 :     هژ و   ت   ا   گژیو   تیاضر   زا    و   ناا   غن ا همدم  󰘧 ه   تو 󰘯 ، 󰘧 ه  􀙆󰘧 سنا   ه 󰘰 󰙇󰘱 ا 󰙈󐙅 ه  􀙇 ک   ت  󰘳 ا  󰛌   ل  󰘦󰘧 سم  􀙇 ل  󐙅􀘬 زا    󰘧 غ  􀘪󰘴 ا   ی 󰘱󰙈􀘴 ک   ره  󰘱󰘯 󰙇 زورما  . ت  󰘳 ا  􀙇􀘪󰘴 ا 󰘯  󰙈 غ  􀘴 م  󰘯󰙈󰘮 􀙇 ب   ا 󰘱 󰘧 ه   تلم   و   زا   و   دن 󰘱 ا 󰘯  󰘧 غ    􀘪󰘴 ا  󰘧 ه  􀙆 آ  􀙇 ب  󰘯 ارفا  􀙇 ک  󰘯󰘱 ا 󰘯 󰘯󰙈􀘬 و  􀙇 فرح   و  󐙄 غ  󰘴 􀙆 ا 󰘱 ا 󰘲 ه   رظندم    󰙇󰘱 ا 󰙈󐙅 ه  􀙇 چنآ   .[􀀱]   د  󰙆 ه 󰘯 󰛌 م  􀙇 ما 󰘯 ا  󰘯󰙈󰘮 󰛌 گدنز  􀙇 ب   ، 󰙂󐛌 ر  􀘷   󐛌 ا  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 ، 󰙇󰘯󰙈 ب  󰛌󰘹   􀘪􀘬 ا  󰙅󰙈 ل  󰘹 􀙆 اد  󰙆󐙅􀘴󐛌 دنا   و  􀙆󰘧󰘳󰘧󰙆󰘴 􀙆 او 󰘱  ت  󰘳 ا  􀙆󰘧󰘴󰘱󰘧 ک  󰛌 ه 󰘯 ز 󰘧 ب   و  󰘧 ه  􀙆 آ  􀙇􀛌 حو 󰘱 󰘱󰘯 ت    󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱   󐛌 ا  󰘱󰘧󰘫 آ   و  󰘯 ارفا  󰘯 رف   ره  󰛌 م 󰙈󐙅󰘹 و  󰛌 لک   شر  􀚯 ن  󰛌󰙆 ع  󐛌  􀀱 󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 تق  􀛌 قح 󰘱󰘯 . [􀀱]   ی 󰘪􀘴􀛌 ب  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 􀙇 ک  󰛌 سک       󐛌 ارب 󰘧󰙆 ب  .󰘯󰙈󰘮 󐙄 غ  󰘴 􀙇 ب   ت  􀘨 سن   .[󰀲   ]  󰘯󰘱 ا 󰘯 󰛌􀘪􀘨 ثم   شر  􀚯 ن  󰘯󰙈󰘮 􀙇 فرح  􀙇 ب   ت  􀘨 سن  󰛌󰙆 ع  󐛌 ،د  󰘴󰘧 ب  􀙇􀘪󰘴 ا 󰘯    󰘴 ا 󰘯 ت  󰘳 و 󰘯 󰛌󰙆 ع  󐛌 󰛌   لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 􀙇 ک   ت  􀙁 گ  􀙆 ا 󰙈󐘪 󰛌 م     􀛌󰙆 چ  󐙅 ه  󰛌󰘴 ا 󰘯󰘧  و  󰙅󰘧 جنا  󰘱󰘧 ک  􀙆 آ  󰘱󰘯 􀙇 ک  󰛌󰘷󐛌 ا   ؛ 󐙄 غ  󰘴 󰚩󐛌 󰙅 زا 󰙈    و   ط    󐛌 ا 1. Job sasfacon . [󰀳]  󰘯󰙈󰘴 󰛌 م   تف 󰘧󐛌󰘱󰘯 􀙆 آ   یارب     􀙇􀘬󰙈󐘪 􀙆 آ  􀙇 ب   د  󐛌󰘧 ب  􀙆󰘧 مز 󰘧󰘳 ره  󰘱󰘯 􀙇 ک  󰛌󐘪󰘧󰘹󰙈󰘶󰙈 م     󐛌 ر  󐘪 􀙅󐙇 م   زا  󰛌􀚩󐛌  ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 󐚩󰘧   󰘧 ه   رظن  􀙇 ب   .[󰀴]   ت  󰘳 ا  􀙆󰘧󰙆 ک 󰘱󰘧 ک  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 ، 󰘯 رک   ، 󰛌 ناو 󰘱 󐙄 ما 󰙈󰘹 󰘧 ب   و   ت  󰘳 ا   یدعبد  󰙆󰚆 و  󰙇 د  􀛌 چ  􀛌   󰛌 م   󰙈󐙇􀙁 م  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 󰘨􀘬󰙈 م  󐙄 م 󰘧󰘹 󰚩󐛌 󰘧󐙇󰙆󐘪 ، 󰛌 فر  􀘷 زا  .󰘯󰘱 ا 󰘯 󐘷󰘧􀘨󐘪󰘱 ا  󰛌󰘹   􀘪􀘬 ا   و  󰛌 نس  􀘬 󐙄 ما 󰙈󰘹 􀙇󰘹󰙈󐙅 جم   زا  󰛌󰙆􀛌 عم  󰘨􀛌 کر  󐘪 􀙇􀚩 لب   ، 󰘯󰙈󰘴 󰛌󐙆 󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱  زا   ، 􀙆󰘧 مز   زا  󰛌󰙆􀛌 عم  􀙇 ظ  󰘭   󰘱󰘯 󐙄󰘺󰘧󰘴 󰘯 رف  􀙇 ک  󰘯󰙈󰘴 󰛌 م  󰘨􀘨󰘳 􀙆󰙈 گ 󰘧 ن 󰙈 گ . [􀀵]  󰘯 ب   ذ   و   د  󰙆 ک   ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 􀘳󰘧 سحا  󐙄 غ  󰘴 󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 󰘱󰘯 󰛌󐙅󐙇 م  󐘴 قن  􀙇 ک  󰛌 لما 󰙈󰘹   󐛌 ر  󐘪 􀙅󐙇 م   زا  󰛌􀚩󐛌  󰀳 󰘧􀘪󰘳󰘧 ک   و   یرک  󰚩 م  . [􀀶]   ت  󰘳 ا   󰀲 󰛌􀘪􀛌 صخ    󰘴 ی 󰘧 ه  󰛌 گژ    󐛌 و   ، 󰘯󰘱 ا 󰘯 󰘯 ارفا   ی 󰘧 ه   و 󰘧􀙁󐘪 󰘯󰘧 عبا  􀙆 ا 󰙈󰙆󰘹 􀙇 ب   ا 󰘱 󰛌􀘪􀛌 صخ  󰘴 ی 󰘧 ه  󰛌 گژ  󐛌 و  (􀀱􀀹􀀹󰀰)  و  􀘳󰘧 سحا   ،ر    􀚩 ف  󰘱 اد    󐛌󰘧  ی 󰘧 ه  󰙈􀚯 ا  􀙆󰘯 ا 󰘯 􀙆󰘧􀘴 ن  󐙄󐛌󰘧   󰘱󰘯 ی 󰘯 رف 2.  Personality traits 3. McCrae & Costa   . ن ی ن    سر   ت   ها د   ا مع   ه د   ا ور   هوگ  -1. ن ی ی   ی   ها د   ا ور   و      مع   ه د   ا ور   هوگ  -2. ن ی هااک   ز ر   ها د      و   عا مع   ه د   ا ور   هوگ  -3 . ن ی هااک   ز ر   ها د      و   عا مع   ه د   داق هوگ  -4      خ    ن ور   ز     و          گیو   س        تی ضر      پغ    ن     و   ن  م   4 نح   سپ   3 مک   هج   2 سر   حا   م   1 نح   نپ   * 1397 یدروف  27   : تف یرد   خیر  1397 ن ب 03  : شیذپ   خیر  1397 د  11  : ر ن خیر   422 4 هر ش  .13 هرود  .1397 ن سمز     􀛌 وا  󰛌􀘪􀛌 صخ  󰘴 ی 󰘧 ه  󰛌 گژ  󐛌 و  . [󰀷]   د  󰙆󰙆 ک  󰛌 م  󐙁󐛌 رع  󐘪 󐙄󐙅󰘹  رب   و   د  󰙆􀘪 سه  󰘯 ارفا  󰛌􀙁􀘷󰘧󰘹 و  󰛌􀘪󰘮󰘧󰙆󰘴 ت  􀛌 ع  󰘶 و  󰘵􀛌 خ  􀘴󐘪 ی  󰙆 ها 󰘱 󰘯 ارفا  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 󰘧󐛌 ی 󰘯 رف     􀛌 ب   ی 󰘧 ه  󰘱󰘧􀘪 ف 󰘱 و  󰛌󰘹   􀘪􀘬 ا  󰛌􀙁􀘷󰘧󰘹 ی 󰘧 ه  󐘴 قن  󐙄 غ  󰘴 و   ت  􀛌 صخ  󰘴   􀛌 ب   ی 󰘱󰘧 گز 󰘧󰘳 󰘱 دق  󰚆 ره  .[􀀸]   دن 󰘱 اذگ  󰛌 م   ر  􀛌󰘫 أ  󐘪  و   ؛ت  󰘴 ا 󰘯 دها 󰙈󰘮 󰛌   󰘱󰘯 ا 󰘱 ی   󰘪􀘴􀛌 ب  󰛌   لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 ،د  󰘴󰘧 ب  󰘪􀘴􀛌 ب  󰘪󐙅 ک  󰛌   لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 ،د  󰘴󰘧 ب  󰘪󐙅 ک   ی 󰘱󰘧 گز 󰘧󰘳 و  󰛌 نا 󰙈 خ  󐙅 ه  󰘱 دق  󰚆 ره   ط  􀛌󰘭 م   ، 󰘧 ه   ت  􀛌 صخ  󰘴 󐘹 ا 󰙈 نا   زا  󰚩󐛌 ره   یارب     󐛌 ارب 󰘧󰙆 ب  .󰘯󰙈 ب   دها 󰙈󰘮 .[􀀹]   ت  󰘳 ا  󰘨󰘳󰘧󰙆 م  󰛌󐘪 و 󰘧􀙁􀘪 م  󰛌 لغ  󰘴  ت  􀛌 صخ  󰘴   􀛌 ب  󰘯 ا 󰘯 􀙆󰘧􀘴 ن  󰘯󰙈󰘮 󐘴 هوژ 󰘱󰘯 (󰀲󰀰􀀱􀀱) 󰙇󰘯 از  󰛌 م 󰘧󰘳    󰙂􀛌 ق  󰘭󐘪 󰘱󰘯 .[􀀱󰀰]  󰘯󰘱 ا 󰘯 󰘯󰙈􀘬 و  󐘷󰘧􀘨󐘪󰘱 ا  􀙆󰘧 نآ  󰛌 لغ    󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 󰘧 ب  􀙆 ار    􀛌 ب 󰘯    󐙄􀘵󰘧 ح  󰘬󐛌󰘧􀘪 ن   دن 󰘯 ا 󰘯 󰙅󰘧 جنا  (󰀲󰀰􀀱󰀲) 󰀴 تن 󰙈 م   و   رل  􀛌 ه   ، 󰘱󰘯󰘧􀘬 􀙇 ک   یر  􀚯󐛌󰘯 󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 󰘧 ب  􀙆 ا 󰘯 رم   و  􀙆󰘧 نز  󰛌􀘪􀛌 صخ  󰘴 ی 󰘧 ه  󰛌 گژ  󐛌 و     􀛌 ب  󰘯 ا 󰘯 􀙆󰘧􀘴 ن  󰘬󐛌󰘧􀘪 ن   ،ر  􀚯󐛌󰘯 󰛌􀘴 هوژ 󰘱󰘯 . [􀀱􀀱]  󰘯󰘱 ا 󰘯 󰘯󰙈􀘬 و  󰘱 ا 󰘯󰘧󰙆 عم  􀙇󰘷 با 󰘱 􀙆󰘧 نآ     􀙇􀘵 ر  󰘹 󰘱󰘯 󰛌􀘨 ل  􀘷 󰙇󰘧􀘬 ، 􀙆󰘯󰙈 ب  󰘪󐙇 ب  􀙇 ب  󐙄󐛌󰘧      􀛌 ب  􀙇 ک  󰘯󰙈 ب  􀙆 آ   ر  􀚯 ن 󰘧􀛌 ب  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 󰘧 ب  􀙆 د  󰘴   􀛌􀚯󐙅􀘴󰘮 󰛌 ن 󰘧󰘳 آ  􀙇 ب   و  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 و  󰛌󰘹   􀘪􀘬 ا . [􀀱󰀲]  󰘯󰘱 ا 󰘯 󰘯󰙈􀘬 و   ی 󰘱 ا 󰘯 󰛌󰙆 عم  􀙇󰘷 با 󰘱  یز   󰘧󰘳 د  󰙆󐙆 ا 󰙈󐘪 ،ض 󰘧 ح  󐘴 هوژ ی 󰘧 هر  􀛌 غ  􀘪 م   زا   ر  􀚯󐛌󰘯 󰛌􀚩󐛌 󰘱󰘯 􀙆 ار  󐛌 دم  󐘴  󰘧󰚆   󐛌 ر  󐘪 􀙅󐙇 م   یز 󰘧󰘳 د  󰙆󐙆 ا 󰙈󐘪 . ت  󰘳 ا   􀀵 󰛌􀘪󰘮󰘧󰙆󰘴 􀙆 او 󰘱 􀙆 و 󰘲 فا   زو 󰘱 ی 󰘧 ه   تب 󰘧􀙂󰘱 󐙄􀛌  󰘯 􀙇 ب  󰘧 ه  􀙆󰘧 مز 󰘧󰘳 􀙇 کار    󰚆 ؛ت  󰘳 ا   ض 󰘧 ح  󐘵󰘹    د  󐛌 د  􀘬 ی 󰘧 ه  󰙇 د  󐛌 ا   زورب   و    󰘧󰘹   􀘷 ا   ی 󰘱 و 󰘧󰙆 ف   ش 󰘪 سگ   و  􀙇 ع  󰘳󰙈󐘪 ، 󰛌 ن 󰘧󐙇􀘬 􀘹󐛌󐘳 ار  􀛌􀛌 غ  󐘪 􀘶 رعم  󰘱󰘯 􀙆󰘧󐛌󰘪􀘴 م   ی 󰘧 ه  􀙇􀘪󰘳 ا 󰙈󰘮 و  󰘧 ه  󰛌 گژ  󐛌 و  󰘱󰘯  تب 󰘧􀙂󰘱 زا  􀙆 دن 󰘧󐙆 󰘧􀘬 یارب   .[􀀱󰀳]   دن 󰘱 ا 󰘯 󰘱 ار  􀙂 󰛌󰙆􀛌 ب  󐘴􀛌   󐙄 ب 󰘧􀙂 ر  􀛌󰘺 و   ا 󰘱 󰛌 ن 󰘧 سنا   یو   ر  􀛌 ن  󰛌󰙆 ع  󐛌 󰘯󰙈󰘮 􀘹􀘨󰙆 م     󐛌 ر  󐘪 􀙅󐙇 م   د  󐛌󰘧 ب  󰘧 ه  􀙆󰘧 مز 󰘧󰘳 ، 󰛌 ن 󰘧󐙇􀘬  د  󐙇 ع  󐘪 ،د  󰙆􀘪 سه   ر  󐘪 د  󰙆󐙆 ا 󰙈󐘪 􀙇 ک  󰛌 ن 󰘧󰙆 ک 󰘱󰘧 ک  . [􀀱󰀴]   د  󰙆󰙆 ک  󰘧󐛌󰙈  و   د  󰙆󐙆 ا 󰙈󐘪  و   ی 󰘱󰘧􀚩󐙅 ه   ً 󰙄   􀘪 حا   و   دن 󰘱 ا 󰘯 ی 󰘪󐙅 ک  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 󰘱󰘧􀘴 ف   و  󰘪􀘴􀛌 ب   ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 و   د  󰙆󐛌 ارف   یار  􀘬 ا  󰘧 ب  . د  󰙆 ه 󰘯 󰛌 م  􀙆󰘧􀘴 ن  󰘯󰙈󰘮 زا   ی 󰘪􀘴􀛌 ب   ی 󰘱󰘧 ک   تک 󰘱󰘧􀘴 م   ت  󰘳󰘯 􀙆󰘧 مز 󰘧󰘳 󰙁 ادها  􀙇 ب  􀙆 ا 󰙈󐘪 󰛌 م  󰛌 ن 󰘧󰘳 آ  􀙇 ب   ، 􀙆󰘧󰙆 ک 󰘱󰘧 ک   یز 󰘧󰘳 د    󰙆󐙆 ا 󰙈󐘪 󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 󐘴󐛌 ا 󰘲 فا   ، 󰘱󰘧 ک   ط  󐛌 ا  󰘯󰙈􀘨󐙇 ب  􀙆󰙈 چ  󐙅 ه  󰛌󐛌󰘧󐛌 ا 󰘲 م   زا   و   تف 󰘧󐛌. [􀀱􀀵]   د  󰘴 د  󰙆 م  󰙇 ر  󐙇 ب  󐘹󰙈􀘬󰘱 󐘨󰘧 ب 󰘱 ا   ید  󰙆 م   ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 و  􀙆󰘧󰙆 ک 󰘱󰘧 ک   ت  󐛌 ح   دن 󰘯 ا 󰘯 􀙆󰘧􀘴 ن  󰘯󰙈󰘮 󐘴 هوژ 󰘱󰘯 (   󰀲󰀰􀀱􀀱) 􀀶 󰙈    و  󐚯 ن 󰘧󰚆  ی   د  󰙆󐙆 ا 󰙈󐘪 و  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 󰙇 د  󰙆󰙆 ک  󰛌󰙆􀛌 ب  󐘴􀛌  دنا 󰙈󐘪 󰛌 م  󰛌 ن   󰘧 مز 󰘧󰘳 󰛌􀘴 هوژ 󰘱󰘯 (   󰀲󰀰􀀱󰀲   )  󰀷 􀙇􀛌󰘳 و  󐚯 ن 󰘧􀛌󰚆 . [􀀱􀀶]   د  󰘴󰘧 ب  󰛌 ن 󰘧 مز 󰘧󰘳 󰘨󐛌 ض  󐚩 م   ر  􀛌 غ  􀘪 م  󰘧 ب     􀛌 ب  󐘴􀛌  ی 󰘧 هر  􀛌 غ  􀘪 م     􀛌 ب  􀙇 ک   دن 󰘯 رک  􀙆󰘧􀛌 ب  (󰀲󰀰􀀱󰀰) 􀀸 ر  󐙅󐛌󰘯 و   یدف   .[􀀱󰀷   ] 󰘯󰘱 ا 󰘯 󰘯󰙈􀘬 و   ی 󰘱 ا 󰘯 󰛌󰙆 عم  󰛌􀚯􀘪 س  􀘨󐙅 ه  󰘲􀛌 ن  (󰀲󰀰􀀱󰀴) 󰛌 مار  󐙇 ب   و  󰛌󰘹󰙈􀘴󰘮 و   ،  (󰀲󰀰􀀱󰀴) 󰙇󰘯 ا 󰘲􀛌 ل  󰘹 و  􀙅󰘸󰘧 ن   ،   یز 󰘧󰘳 د  󰙆󐙆 ا 󰙈󐘪   􀛌 ب  􀙇 ک   دند  􀛌󰘳󰘱 􀙇 ج  􀛌􀘪 ن     󐛌 ا  􀙇 ب  󰘯󰙈󰘮 ی 󰘧 ه  󐘴 هوژ 󰘱󰘯 󰘧 ب   یز 󰘧󰘳 د  󰙆󐙆 ا 󰙈󐘪   􀛌 ب   و   ت  􀘨 ثم  􀙇󰘷 با 󰘱 󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 و  󰛌􀘪󰘮󰘧󰙆󰘴 􀙆 او 󰘱 .[􀀱􀀸   -󰀲󰀰]  󰘯󰘱 ا 󰘯 󰘯󰙈􀘬 و  󰛌􀙁󰙆 م  􀙇󰘷 با 󰘱 󰛌   لغ  󰘴 󰛌 گ 󰘯󰙈󰘳 رف 4. Judge, Heller & Mount5. Psychological empowerment6. Chang & Liu7. Chiang & Hsieh 8. Fade & Demur     󐙄󰘺󰘧󰘴 󰘲􀛌 ن   و  􀙇 عم 󰘧􀘬 󰘱󰘯 د  󰙆􀙄󰘧󰘳 و    󰘧 سن 󰘧􀛌 م  􀙂 􀙅􀛌 ظ  󰘹 󰛌 گ 󰘯󰘪 سگ  󰘯 ادع  󐘪 󰘧 ب  󰘧 ه  􀙆 آ  􀙇 نازو 󰘱 􀙇󐙇􀘬 ا 󰙈 م  󰘲􀛌 ن   و  󰘯 ارفا       󐛌 ا   زا   ی 󰘯󰘧󐛌 ز  󰘯 ادع  󐘪 􀙆󰘯󰙈 ب  󰘵􀛌 خ  􀘴󐘪 یارب  󰘪􀘴􀛌 ب    󰘧 ق  􀛌 ق  󰘭󐘪  󰘱 وض   ر  􀚯 ن 󰘧􀛌 ب   ، 󐘹󰙈􀘬󰘱 󐘨󰘧 ب 󰘱 ا   ی 󰘯󰘧󐛌 ز   و  󰛌􀘪󰘮󰘧󰙆󰘴 􀙆 او 󰘱 ی 󰘧 ه  􀙇􀙁 ؤم  􀙇 ب  􀙇􀘬󰙈󐘪 و  󰛌 ناو 󰘱 ت  󰘴 اد  󐙇 ب   ی 󰘧 ه   ت  󐛌󰙈 وا  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 ت  􀛌󐙅 ها   فرگ   رظن  󰘱󰘯 󰘧 ب  . ت  󰘳󰘧 ه  􀙆 آ  󰘧 ب   ط  􀘨󐘪 رم  󐙄 ما 󰙈󰘹  یارب   ا 󰘱 󰛌󐛌󰘧 ه 󰘱󰘧􀚩 ها 󰘱 􀙆 ا 󰙈󐘪 󰛌 م   ، 󐙄󰘺󰘧󰘴 􀙆 اد    󰙆􀙄󰘧󰘳 و  􀙆󰙄󰘧 سن 󰘧􀛌 م       􀛌 ب  󰘱󰘯   .󰘯 رک  􀙇󰘦 ا 󰘱 ا  󰛌􀘪󰘮󰘧󰙆󰘴 􀙆 او 󰘱 یز 󰘧󰘳 د  󰙆󐙆 ا 󰙈󐘪 ت  􀘨 ثم   ی 󰘧 ه  􀙇􀘨󰙆􀘬 󐘴󐛌 ا 󰘲 فا   یز 󰘧󰘳 د  󰙆󐙆 ا 󰙈󐘪 󐘴 قن   رب  􀙆 ار  􀚯􀘴 هوژ 􀙇􀘪󰘴 ذگ   ی 󰘧 ه  󐘴 هوژ 󰘱󰘯 􀙇󰚆 رگا   و  󰘯 ارفا  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 󰘱󰘯 ت  􀛌 صخ  󰘴 ی 󰘧 ه  󰛌 گژ  󐛌 و   و  󰛌􀘪󰘮󰘧󰙆󰘴 􀙆 او 󰘱 􀙇 ب  􀙆󰙈󰙆 ک 󰘧󐘪 󰛌􀘴 هوژ 􀚆􀛌 ه   ،دنا  󰙇󰘯 رک   د  􀛌 کأ  󐘪 󐙁 ل  􀘪 خم  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ی 󰘧 هورگ  󰛌􀘪􀛌 صخ  󰘴 ی 󰘧 ه  󰛌 گژ  󐛌 و   و  󰛌􀘪󰘮󰘧󰙆󰘴 􀙆 او 󰘱 یز 󰘧󰘳 د  󰙆󐙆 ا 󰙈󐘪 􀙆󰘧 م 󰘲󐙅 ه  󰘱󰙈􀘷 󰛌󰘳󰘱 رب  󐙄󰘺󰘧󰘴 􀙆 اد  󰙆􀙄󰘧󰘳 و  􀙆󰙄󰘧 سن 󰘧􀛌 م     􀛌 ب  󰘱󰘯 󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 󰘧 ب   ا 󰘱  یارب  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 􀙇 ک  󰛌􀘪􀘨 ثم  󰘬󐛌󰘧􀘪 ن  􀙇 ب  􀙇􀘬󰙈󐘪 󰘧 ب     󐛌 ارب 󰘧󰙆 ب  . ت  󰘳 ا  󰙇󰘯 ر  􀚩 ن   رب  󰛌 لغ  󰘴 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 󰛌󰙆􀛌 ب  󐘴􀛌   󐘴 هوژ   󐛌 ا  󰙁 ده   ، 󰘯󰘱 ا 󰘯 􀙆󰘧 مز 󰘧󰘳 و  󰘯 رف     􀛌 ب  󰘱󰘯 󰛌􀘪󰘮󰘧󰙆󰘴 􀙆 او 󰘱 یز 󰘧󰘳 د  󰙆󐙆 ا 󰙈󐘪 و  󰛌􀘪􀛌 صخ  󰘴 ی 󰘧 ه  󰛌 گژ  󐛌 و  􀘳󰘧󰘳 ا .󰘯󰙈 ب  󰙇󰘧􀘴 ن 󰘧 مرک   ر  󐙇󰘴 󐙄󰘺󰘧󰘴 􀙆 اد  󰙆􀙄󰘧󰘳 و  􀙆󰙄󰘧 سن 󰘧􀛌 م ه طم   شور  􀙇 عم 󰘧􀘬 .󰘯󰙈 ب  󰛌􀚯􀘪 س  􀘨󐙅 ه  󰛌􀙁􀛌􀘵󰙈󐘪 یا  􀙇 ع 󰘧󰘷 م   ض 󰘧 ح  󐘴 هوژ ر  󐙇󰘴 󐙄󰘺󰘧󰘴 􀙆 اد  󰙆􀙄󰘧󰘳 و  􀙆󰙄󰘧 سن 󰘧􀛌 م  󰙅󰘧   󐙄 م 󰘧󰘴 󐘴 هوژ   󐛌 ا   ی 󰘱󰘧 مآ  􀘳󰘪󰘳󰘯 󰘱󰘯 یر  􀛌 گ  􀙇 ن 󰙈󐙆 شو 󰘱 􀙇 ب  􀙇 ک  󰘯󰙈 ب  󰀱􀀳󰀹󰀵  󰘧󰘳 󰘱󰘯 󰙇󰘧􀘴 ن 󰘧 مرک     󰀸􀀰 󐙄 م 󰘧󰘴 􀙇 ک   دند  󰘴 󐘨󰘧 خ  􀘪 نا   ر  􀙁 ن  􀀲􀀴􀀰 􀙆󰘧 گ 󰘱󰙈 م   ود    􀘬 􀘳󰘧󰘳 ا   رب   و  . د  󰙆􀘪󰘴 ا 󰘯 󰘱 ار  􀙂  󰘧󰘳 􀀷󰀵 󰘧󐘪 󰀵􀀰 󰛌󰙆󰘳 􀙇󰙆 ما 󰘯 󰘱󰘯 و   دن 󰘯󰙈 ب  󰘧􀙂 آ  󰀱󰀶􀀰 و  􀙅 ن 󰘧󰘮  زا    . دن 󰘯󰙈 ب  󰘱󰘧 ک  􀙇 ب    󰙈 غ  􀘴 م   ر  󐙇󰘴 󐙁 ل  􀘪 خم   ی 󰘧 ه  󐘴 خب  󰘱󰘯 󰘯 ارفا     󐛌 ا  󰘱󰘧 ک  􀙇 ب    󰙈 غ  􀘴 م  󰘧 جنآ  󰘱󰘯 󰘯 ارفا     󐛌 ا  􀙇 ک  󰛌󐛌󰘧 ه  􀙆󰘧 مز 󰘧󰘳 󰘧 ب  󰙅 ز 󰙄 󰛌􀚯󰙆 هه  󰘧 ه  􀙆 آ  􀙇 ب     󰙾󰘳 ،د  󰙆􀙄󰘧󰘳 و    󰘧 سن 󰘧􀛌 م  󰘯 ارفا  󰘯󰙈󰘮 ت  󐛌󰘧󰘶󰘱 󰘲􀛌 ن   و   دن 󰘯󰙈 ب   ط  󰘳󰙈󐘪 󰙇 د  󰘴 󰙇󰘯 ا 󰘯 􀘮󰘳󰘧   󰘯 ا 󰙈 م   زا  󰙅 ادک  􀚆􀛌 ه    􀙇 ک   د  󰘴 󰙇󰘯 ا 󰘯 ر  􀘷󰘧󰘮 􀙆󰘧󰙆􀛌󐙅􀘷 ا  󰛌􀘵󰙈 ص  󰘮 󰘧󐛌 󰛌􀘪 و 󰘯 ی 󰘧 ه  􀙆󰘧 مز 󰘧󰘳 و    󰘧 خ    󰘴 ا  􀘳󰘪󰘳󰘯 󰘱󰘯 󰛌 ن 󰘯󰙈 مزآ       󰙾󰘳 . ت  󰘳 ا  󰛌􀘴 هوژ 􀙇 ع 󰘧󰘷 م   یارب   طقف  􀙆 آ  󰘬󐛌󰘧􀘪 ن   و  󰘯 ر  􀛌 گ  󰛌󐙆 󰘱 ار  􀙂  زا   و   تفرگ  󰘱 ار  􀙂 􀙆󰘧 گد  󰙆󰙆 ک   تک  󰘱󰘧􀛌􀘪󰘮 ا  󰘱󰘯 󰘯󰙈􀘬󰙈 م   ی 󰘧 ه  􀙇 م 󰘧 ن  󐘴󰘳 ر زا   ،دند  􀘴 ن  􀙇􀘬󰙈􀘪 م   ا 󰘱 􀙇 م 󰘧 ن  󐘴󰘳 ر زا  󰛌󐘪󰙄 اؤ  󰘳 􀙇 چن 󰘧󰙆󰚆 د  󰘴 􀙇􀘪󰘳 ا 󰙈󰘮 󰘧 ه  􀙆 آ   ی 󰘱 وآ  􀘹󐙅􀘬 زا    ر  󰘮 آ  󰘱󰘯 . ده 󰘯 􀘭􀛌󰘶󰙈󐘪 ا 󰘱 󰘨   ل  󰘷 م   د  󰙆 ها 󰙈 خب   ر  􀚯􀘴 هوژ . د  󰘴 ی 󰘱 ا 󰘲􀚯󰘳󰘧󰙾󰘳 و   ر  􀚩􀘴󐘪 􀙆󰘧 گد  󰙆󰙆 ک   تک  󰛌 م 󰘧    زا  󰘧 ه  􀙇 م 󰘧 ن  󐘴󰘳 ر 󰘧 ب  􀙆󰙈􀛌󰘳 رگ 󰘱 و  󰛌􀚯􀘪 س  􀘨󐙅 ه   ی 󰘱󰘧 مآ   ی 󰘧 ه  󰘵󰘮󰘧󰘴 زا  󰙇󰘯󰘧􀙁􀘪󰘳 ا  󰘧 ب  󰘧 ه  󰙇󰘯 ا 󰘯  ی 󰘱 وآ 󰘯 رگ  󰘱󰙈 ظ  󰙆 م  􀙇 ب  . د  󰘴 󐙄􀛌 ل  󰘭󐘪 و  􀙇󐛌󰘲 ج  󐘪 􀀲󰀱 􀙇 خسن   SPSS  󰘱 ا 󰘲 فا  󰙅 رن   . د  󰘴 󰙇󰘯󰘧􀙁􀘪󰘳 ا   ر  󐛌 ز   ی 󰘧 ه 󰘱 ا 󰘲 با   زا  󐘴 هوژ ی 󰘧 ه  󰙇󰘯 ا 󰘯   9  س    و      کم      گرب   م    جپ   هم    سپ  󰘧􀘪󰘳󰘧 ک   و   یرک  󰚩 م  󰙈 ئن  􀙆󰙈 مزآ  󰙇󰘧󐘪󰙈 ک  󰙅 رف   زا  󐘴 هوژ   󐛌 ا  󰘱󰘯 􀙆󰘯󰘱 وآ   ت  󰘳󰘯 􀙇 ب   یارب  .󰘯󰘱 ا 󰘯 اؤ  󰘳   󰀶􀀰 􀙇 ک   د  󰘴 󰙇󰘯󰘧􀙁􀘪󰘳 ا  (󰀱󰀹󰀸󰀹)  زا  (􀀲􀀰􀀰􀀲) 􀙆 ا 󰘱󰘧􀚩󐙅 ه   و   کرک  󐘴 هوژ 󰘱󰘯 􀙆󰙈 مزآ     󐛌 ا  󰛌󐛌󰘧󐛌󰘧      󐛌 ا  󰛌󐛌󰘧󐛌󰘧   . ت    󰘳 ا  󰙇 د  󰘴 󰙇󰘯󰘧􀙁􀘪󰘳 ا  󰛌󐛌󰘧 مزآز 󰘧 ب   و  󐘮󰘧􀘨 نورک   ی 󰘧􀙁 آ   شو 󰘱 9. McCrae and Costa personality big ve personality inventory (NEO) غ    ن     و   ن  م      خ    ن ور   ز     و          گیو   س        تی ضر      پ     . ن ر    و   ن     ن پ
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We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

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We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

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