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Problems in the History and Archaeology of the Greek Colonsation in the Black Sea, in Grammenos D.V. & E. K. Petropoulos, Ancient Greek Colonies in the Black Sea. Thessaloniki, 2003.

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Problems in the History and Archaeology of the Greek Colonsation in the Black Sea, in Grammenos D.V. & E. K. Petropoulos, Ancient Greek Colonies in the Black Sea. Thessaloniki, 2003.
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   Problems in the History and Archaeology of the Greek Colonization of the Black Sea 17 PROBLEMS IN THE HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGYOF THE GREEK COLONIZATION OF THE BLACK SEA  ELIAS K PE!"#P#$L#S   %edicated to the memory of &'riy Germano(itch )inogrado( The general qe!"#$n %$n%ern#ng "he Gree& %$l$n#al e'(an!#$n #n "he "err#"$r) !rr$n*#ng"he Bla%& Sea #! n*$+"e*l) $ne $, "he -$!" #-($r"an" an*. -$re$/er. #n"ere!"#ng "$(#%! $, an%#en" Gree& h#!"$r)0 In (ar"#%lar. "he (r$+le- #! %$nne%"e* #"h "he arr#/al an* !e""le-en"2+e #" (er-anen" $r "e-($rar)3 $, "he an%#en" Gree& %$l$n#4er! #n "he ne,$n* lan* $, "heE'#n! P$n"!. a! ell a! #n "he en"#re Me*#"erranean +a!#n. here Gree& !e""le-en"! eregenerall) e!"a+l#!he*0 A! a r$gh e!"#-a"e. 566 a*oikiai  ere ,$n*e* $nl) #n "he %#r%-($n"#%reg#$n0 One $, "he #!!e!. here a grea" *eal $, #-($r"an%e ha! re%en"l) +een a""a%he*. #! "he (hen$-en$n $, %$ha+#"a"#$n +e"een "he Gree& !e""ler! an* "he na"#/e ($(la"#$n! #n "he%$l$n#4e* area!0 Ar%hae$l$g#%al re!ear%h $n "he P$n"#% reg#$n! 2+$"h $n "he %$a!" an* #nlan*3ha! -a*e a ,a#r %$n"r#+"#$n #n "h#! *#re%"#$n an* #"! re!l"! ha/e enr#%he* "he *$-a#n an*e'"en*e* "he h$r#4$n $, !%#en"#,#% #n/e!"#ga"#$n an* $r#en"a"#$n0 In "h#! re!(e%". !$-e !(e%#,#%#!!e! %$n%ern#ng "he (r$+le-! $, an%#en" Gree& %$l$n#4a"#$n ha/e n*erg$ne ra*#%al %hange!#n "er-! $, "he +a!#% rea!$n#ng an* "he arg-en"! #" %$n!#!"! $, 2F$r ,r"her #n,$r-a"#$n !ee.,$r #n!"an%e. "he re%en" *#!%!!#$n $, "he (r$+le- a+$" "he l$%al#4a"#$n $, "he %#") $, Phanag$r#a. $n "he A!#a"#% B$!($r! Z+are/ 80 G0. 1999. (0 159:1;1<  Ctr  K4ne"!$/ 80 D0.5666a. (0 ;6:;5< #*e-. 5661a. (0 557:55=0 M$re$/er. "he n$n:M#le!#an $r#g#n $, "he ne%r$($l#!$, Ke($# an* $, "he !e""le-en" #"!el, #! "$(#%al "$*a) !ee S$r$&#na N0 P0. S*are/ N0 I0. 5666. (0>?:>730A! #! ell &n$n. re!ear%h $n Gree& %$l$n#4a"#$n +egan #n "he -#**le $, "he 1= "h  %en"r)2B$ga#n/#lle @0 P0 *e. 17>3. +" "he %are,l !%#en"#,#% #n/e!"#ga"#$n $, "he -a""er !"ar"e* -%hla"er 2He#%helhe#- F0. 19;1. (0 559:5>< #*e-. 19=. (0 5;9 ,03. hen. *e "$ "he !%#en"#,#%*e-an*!. e'"en*e* !e $, ar%hae$l$g#%al an* n-#!-a"#% e/#*en%e a! %$n!#*ere* ,$r "he ,#r!""#-e0 Th!. ne !$l"#$n! ha/e +een $,,ere* "$ "he %$l$n#4a"#$n (r$+le-. h#%h a! !een a! ann!r(a!!a+le $+!"a%le *r#ng "he ,#r!" *e%a*e! $, "he 56 "h  %en"r)0 E/er !#n%e. "he re!ear%h ha!ga#ne* ne *#-en!#$n! an* ha! $(ene* ne /#!"a! ,$r ,"re #n/e!"#ga"#$n a! a h#!"$r#%al (r$+le-0 The /er) #-($r"an" ar%hae$l$g#%al e'%a/a"#$n! (er,$r-e* #n "he la!" )ear!. "$ge"her #"h "he !e $, "he la"e!" re!ear%h -e"h$*!. ha/e grea"l) #-(r$/e* "he le/el $, !"*) $, "he%$l$n#4a"#$n an*. generall). $, "he (re!en%e $, "he an%#en" Gree& %$--n#"#e! an* !e""le-en"!$n "he Bla%& Sea !h$re! an* ar$n* "he Sea $, A4$/0 In %$nn%"#$n #"h "he!e #-(r$/e-en"!. 17  1=  E K Petro*o'los "here #! an$"her #-($r"an" an* /ala+le ,a%" "he !"ar" $, a ne (er#$* #n "he 1996!.%hara%"er#4e* +) "he (+l#%a"#$n $, a !er#e! $, -a"er#al %$n"a#n#ng "he re!l"! $, "he -$!" re%en"ar%hae$l$g#%al e'%a/a"#$n!. e!(e%#all) $n "he n$r"hern !#*e $, "he E'#n! P$n"!0 There!ear%h (r$%e*re an* "he -e"h$* $, !"*) are "h! ,a%#l#"a"e* "$ a grea" e'"en". n$" $nl) #n"er-! $, "he general (r$+le-! $, %$l$n#4a"#$n. +" al!$ #n "he ,#el* $, -$re !(e%#al#4e* #!!e!.h#%h e'(an* "he ,r$n"#er! $, $r &n$le*ge $n !$-e *#!"#n%" -a""er! $n "he $ne han*. +" $n"he $"her "he) !e" ne qe!"#$n! an* "h$gh"!0 The "ra%#ng an* "a%&l#ng $, "h$!e qe!"#$n! $n"he +a!#! $, "he ne. -a#nl) ar%hae$l$g#%al. *a"a #! "he (r($!e $, "he (re!en" %ha("er. h#%h #!al!$ an a""e-(" "$ $/er%$-e. here ($!!#+le. !$-e $, "he #-(e*#-en"! $, "he re!ear%h (r$%e*re0 The %$n"r#+"#$n $, all "he #n"erna"#$nal %$ngre!!e! $n an"#q#"#e! ,$n* #n "he Bla%& Seareg#$n! #! l#&e#!e $, grea" !#gn#,#%an%e ,$r $r !+e%". an* e!(e%#all) "he -$!" re%en" $ne!0The ,#r!" "$$& (la%e #n "he (en#n!la $, Ta-an. #n !$"hern R!!#a. "he !e%$n* a" B#l&en"n#/er!#"). #n Tr&e). an* "he "h#r* a" 8an#. #n Ge$rg#a 2,$r-er SSR3. "$ h$n$r O"ar L$r*:&#(an#*4e0 A n-+er $, e-#nen" re!ear%her! ,r$- all "he %$n"r#e! !rr$n*#ng "he Bla%& Sea.an* al!$ ,r$- !$-e -$re *#!"an" area!. (ar"#%#(a"e* #n "h$!e %$n,eren%e!. ea%h $, "he- -a&#ngh#! $r her n#qe an* e'%e("#$nal %$n"r#+"#$n "$ "he (r!#" $, !$l/#ng -an) $, "he (r$+le-!%$n%ern#ng "he Gree& an"#q#"#e! #n "he re!(e%"#/e ge$gra(h#%al 4$ne0T$ anal)"#%all) #n"r$*%e an* !"*) "he (r$+le-! $, "he Gree& %$l$n#4a"#$n $, "he %#r:%-($n"#% reg#$n. an* +e%a!e. !$ ,ar. "he *#,,eren" %hr$n$l$g#%al a((r$a%he! "$ "he ,a%"! ha/e*#/#*e* e'(er"!. e !h$l* !"ar" ,r$- "he -$!" #-($r"an" an* (erha(!. "he -$!" n%er"a#n $ne0B) "ha" #!. $, %$r!e. -ean" "he !#gn#,#%an" #!!e $, "he earl#e!" arr#/al $, "he an%#en" Gree&! #n"he Bla%& Sea reg#$n. a! ell a! all "he (ar"#%lar -a""er! #" ($!e!0 A! #! ell &n$n. "he la%& $, ell:gr$n*e* an* rel#a+le e/#*en%e. a" (re!en" %a!e! hea*a%he! "$ "he !%#en"#,#%%$--n#")0 In ,a%". "he %$n,r$n"a"#$n +e"een ar%hae$l$g#!"! an* h#!"$r#an! a! "$ "he%hr$n$l$g) $, "he earl#e!" arr#/al an* !e""le-en" $, "he an%#en" Gree&! #n "he E'#n! P$n"!. #!al!$ ell:&n$n 2Mar#n$/#"%h L0 P0. K$!helen&$ G0 A0. 1997. (0 5?930S#n%e "he r#""en !$r%e! are #n!,,#%#en" an* !$ n%er"a#n "ha" "he) *$ n$" all$ ! "$rea%h a rel#a+le %$n%l!#$n. a""e-("#ng "$ !$l/e "he (r$+le-. e !hall (r$%ee* "$ a !%%#n%"e'a-#na"#$n $, "he ne an* (ar"#%larl) #n"ere!"#ng ar%hae$l$g#%al -a"er#al ,$n* $n "he Bla%& Sea l#""$ral0 The %$n"r#+"#$n $, ar%hae$l$g#%al ,#n*! #! n$" %$n,#ne* "$ enr#%h#ng "$ a grea"e'"en" "he %$n%en"ra"e* ar%hae$l$g#%al *a"a+a!e0 I" al!$ all$! a ne a((r$a%h "$ "he !"*) $, $ne $, "he -$!" #-($r"an" (r$+le-! #n "he h#!"$r) $, "he Gree& %$l$n#4a"#$n $, "he Bla%& Seareg#$n!. an*. e!(e%#all) $, "he earl#e!" Gree& arr#/al #n "ha" (ar" $, "he an%#en" $rl*0Th! ,ar. all "he!e (r$+le-! ha/e %ea!ele!!l) ar$!e* #n"ere!" a-$ng!" "he re!ear%her!.%$n!$l#*a"e* n$" $nl) +) "he #n%rea!#ng /$l-e $, ar%hae$l$g#%al *#!%$/er#e!. +" al!$ +) "herea((ra#!al $, "he an%#en" r#""en "ra*#"#$n a+$" "he earl#e!" /#!#"! $, "he Gree&! #n "he en"#reP$n"#% area0 The ,#r!" !e""le-en"! ere e!"a+l#!he* #n "he /er) +eg#nn#ng $, "h$!e /#!#"!0 Le" !-en"#$n. ,$r #n!"an%e. S#n$(e. "he ,#r!" Gree& a*oikia  #n "he Bla%& Sea 2I/an"%h#& A0 I0. 5661. (0 1;9:1;3 ,$n*e*. a%%$r*#ng "$ "he "ra*#"#$n. +) "he Arg$na"! A"$l)%$!. De#le$n. an*Phl$g#$! 2A($ll0 Rh$*0. II. 9  s++, Pl"0 80 L%0 III. ;:?< P!0:S%)-n0 9>1:95< P!0: 1=   Problems in the History and Archaeology of the Greek Colonization of the Black Sea 19 Arr#an  Peri*l's Ponti E'-ini .  .. , A((#an0  /ithr  0 =;< 8al0 Fla%0.  Arg  0 8. 11:11;< S"ra+$ II.;. 1130 There,$re. "he ne%e!!#") $, ree/ala"#ng (re/#$! $(#n#$n! +e%$-e! #-(era"#/e ea%h"#-e a ne ar%hae$l$g#%al *#!%$/er) #! -a*e0A! #! ell &n$n. n$ rel#a+le ar%hae$l$g#%al e/#*en%e ha! +een re/eale* !$ ,ar #n $r*er "$*e-$n!"ra"e "he Gree& (re!en%e #n "he P$n"#% reg#$n! +e,$re "he !e%$n* qar"er $, "he 7 "h %en"r) B0C0. #0e0 earl#er "han "he )ear ?76 B0C0 2 Ctr  Ognen$/a:Mar#n$/a L0. 19=. (0 5;=:5;930 The e'%a/a"#$n! a" "he !#"e $, "he an%#en" !e""le-en" $, S#n$(e ere e'(e%"e* "$ near"hne $+e%"!. e!(e%#all) ($""er). "ha" %$l* %$n!eqen"l) %$n,#r- "he Gree& (re!en%e #n "he area0H$e/er. n$"h#ng $, "he &#n* ha! )e" ha((ene*. (r$+a+l) +e%a!e "he reg#$n ha! *#,,#%l"a%%e!!. h#%h #-(e*e! #n/e!"#ga"#$n!0 There #! al!$ a !er#e! $, $"her rea!$n!. -a#nl) ($l#"#%al2L$r*&#(an#*4e O0 D0. 1996. (0 1530 A! a re!l". ,$r "he "#-e +e#ng. "here #! har*l)n$ %han%e $, *#!%$/er#ng ne %le!! a+$" "he earl#e!" h#!"$r) $, "he Gree&! #n "he area0In "he#r a""e-(" "$ e'(la#n "he la%& $, ar%hae$l$g#%al e/#*en%e $l*er "han "he !e%$n* qar"er $, "he 7 "h  %en"r) B0C0 #n "he en"#re reg#$n. %er"a#n !(e%#al#!"! ha/e ,$r-la"e* a "he$r)a%%$r*#ng "$ h#%h "he an%#en" Gree&! ere n$" a+le "$ %r$!! "he Thra%#an B$!($r! #n"$ "heBla%& Sea0 Onl) a,"er "he #n/en"#$n $, "he ,#r!" ($er,l !a#l#ng /e!!el. "he (en"e%$n"er $, ,#,")$ar!. *#* "he) -anage "$ $/er%$-e "he na/#ga"#$n *#,,#%l"#e! %a!e* +) "he !"ra#"! !"r$ng%rren"! 2Car(en"er R. 19>=. (0 1:16< K$r,-ann M0. 19=?. (0 ?:730In +r#e,. "he#r h)($"he!#! %$l* +e (" a! ,$ll$!  !hro'gho't anti+'ity0 no (essel co'ld  sail into the Black Sea  2La+aree B0 0. 197. (0 ;130 S%h an $(#n#$n h$e/er. a! e'(e%"e*.ha! n$" +een a*$("e* +) a large n-+er $, !%h$lar!0 N#ne )ear! la"er. an$"her h#!"$r#an (+l#!he* a ne (a(er 2#+#*. (0 59:;;3. a%%$r*#ng "$ h#%h "he an%#en" Gree&! -#gh" ha/e ha*"he a+#l#") "$ na/#ga"e #n "he a"er! $, "he Bla%& Sea (r#$r "$ "he )ear ?=6 B0C0 In h#! ar"#%le.h#%h #! an a""e-(" "$ *e-$n!"ra"e "ha" Car(en"er! %a"eg$r#%al !"a"e-en" %ann$" +e a%%e("e*.B0 0 La+aree -a*e !e $, ,a%"! -en"#$ne* +) an%#en" $ra"$r! 2#+#*0 (0 ;;. hereDe-$!"hene! re,eren%e "$ "he %$--er%#al rela"#$n! #"h "he P$n"! #! %#"e*30 S$-e $"her !(e%#al#!"! al!$ !(($r"e* "he ne $(#n#$n 2Graha- A0 @0. 19=. (0 5:>530Ha/#ng anal)4e* "he #n,$r-a"#$n g#/en +) "he an%#en" a"h$r!. A0 @0 Graha- %$n%l*e* "ha""he Gree& %#"#e! $, S#n$(e an* Tra(e4! ha* a%"all) +een ,$n*e* #n "he = "h  %en"r) B0C0 2#+#*. (0 ;9:>530 The !a-e !%h$lar #n"er(re"e* "he la%& $, ($""er) +el$ng#ng "$ "ha" (er#$* "hr$gh$""he en"#re area a! a l$g#%al %$n!eqen%e $, "he "$"al a+!en%e $, ar%hae$l$g#%al e'%a/a"#$n!al$ng "he !$"hern !h$re! $, "he Bla%& Sea 2#+#*. (0 ;1:;;< C$$& @0 M0. 19?5. (0 71:75. =>30Se/eral $"her $r&! "$%h#ng $n "he !a-e !+e%" ere (+l#!he* *r#ng "he ,$ll$#ng )ear!. (a)#ng -$re a""en"#$n "h#! "#-e "$ "he %$-(ar#!$n! +e"een r#""en an* ar%hae$l$g#%al !$r%e!2R$e+%& C0. 199. (011?:15>< C$$& @0 M0. 19?5. (0 ;:9< H'le) G0 L0. 19??. (0 ?>:?930 A,e )ear! la"er. A0 @0 Graha- rea,,#r-e* h#! (re/#$! ($!#"#$n -a&#ng ,r"her %$--en"ar#e! $n"he E'#n! P$n"! 2Graha- A0 @0. 1971. (0 ;:>7. !ee (ar"#%larl) (0 >5. here "he !e""le-en"$, C)4#&!. #n "he Pr$($n"#! area #! *a"e* "$ "he -#**le $, "he = "h  %en"r) B0C0 A0 S0 R!)ae/a"h#n&! "ha" "he Gree&! !e""le* "he Pr$($n"#! ar$n* 766 B0C0 R!)ae/a A0 S0. 1997. (0 >0S$-e $"her !%h$lar! +el#e/e "ha" "he ,#r!" Gree& !e""le-en" #n "he Pr$($n"#! !h$l* +e *a"e* "$"he ,#r!" hal, $, "he 7 "h  %en"r) B0C0 L$&$($l$ L0. 19=9. (0 >;. #"h +#+l#$gra(h) #n n0 >< 19  56  E K Petro*o'los Ognen$/a:Mar#n$/a L0. 19=?. (0 5;9:5>630An$"her !%h$lar. R0 Dre!. la"er !(($r"e* "he a+$/e #*ea! #n an ar"#%le #n h#%h he *e:/el$(! h#! ,$rernner! "h$gh"! ,r"her 2Dre! R0. 197?. (0 1=:;130 A0 @0 Graha-! %$-(le"e!"*). #n%l*#ng all h#! /#e! $n "he -a""er an* "he#r ,ll arg-en"a"#$n. re(re!en"! h#!,n*a-en"al $r& an* are #n%l*e* #n a %ha("er $n Gree& %$l$n#4a"#$n #n "he Cambridge Ancient History  2Graha- A0 @0. 19=5. (0 1?6:1?530 Th!. "$ *#,,eren" /#e($#n"! ere%$n!$l#*a"e* #n "he re!ear%h $, "he!e (r$+le-! ar%hae$l$g#!"!. h$!e %$n%l!#$n! ere en"#rel) +a!e* $n ar%hae$l$g#%al e/#*en%e. re(re!en"e* "he ,$r-er0 A%%$r*#ng "$ "he-. "he earl#e!" Gree&  a*oikiai  all $/er "he Bla%& Sea ha* +een ,$n*e* *r#ng "he !e%$n* hal, $, "he 7 "h  %en"r) B0C0On "he $"her han*. "here a! "he $(($!#ng ($#n" $, /#e. e'(re!!e* +) "he h#!"$r#an!0 In "he#r $(#n#$n. !"#ll +a!e* $n re,eren%e! $, "he +#l*#ng $, ne !e""le-en"!. +) an%#en" a"h$r!. "he,#r!" a*oikiai  -!" ha/e a((eare* -%h earl#er0The *e+a"e $n "h#! #!!e (r$-("e* -$n"#ng "en!#$n! *r#ng "he ne'" ,e )ear!0 Theh#!"$r#an! -a#n"a#ne* "he#r ,$r-er $(#n#$n a+$" "he ,$n*a"#$n $, S#n$(e +) M#le!#an! ar$n*7? B0C0. !#ng a! an arg-en" "he "e!"#-$n) +) S&)-n$! $, Ch#$! 2P!0:S%)-n. 9=?:99730 A!,ar a! A0 @0 Graha- a! %$n%erne* 2Graha- A0 @0. 1996. (0 5:>3. he a%%e("e* "he !a-e *a"ea! a lan*-ar& ,$r "he ,$n*a"#$n $, an$"her !e""le-en". "ha" $, Tra(e4!. a*oikia  $, S#n$(e2en$,0  Anabasis  I8. =. 5530 M$re$/er. #n $r*er "$ -$"#/a"e h#! /#e! a+$" "he earl) arr#/al$, "he an%#en" Gree&! $n "he !$"hern %$a!" $, "he Bla%& Sea *r#ng "he = "h  %en"r) B0C0. he *#*n$" he!#"a"e "$ a**. a-$ng!" "he $"her !$r%e!. a ,e earl) ar%hae$:l$g#%al ,#n*#ng! 2Graha- A0 @0. 1996. (0 ;:>< "he (r$+le- #! anal)4e* #n Pe"r$($l$! E0.199930Regar*#ng all "he a+$/e. "he e!!en"#al qe!"#$n "$ +e a!&e* a" "h#! ($#n" $l* +e he"her "here #! an) gr$n* ,$r "he a!!-("#$n "ha" "he an%#en" Gree&! &ne a+$" "he e'#!"en%e $, "heBla%& Sea -%h earl#er an* e!(e%#all) $, #"! n$r"hern !#*e!. h#%h ere al!$ "he -$!" re-$"e.a! !een ,r$- "he en"ran%e #n"$ "he E'#n! P$n"!0 I" #! /er) ($!!#+le "ha" "he na"#/e ($(la"#$n! $, "he lan*! !rr$n*#ng "he Bla%& Sea ha* %$-e #n"$ %$n"a%" #"h #nha+#"an"! $, "he Aegean I!lan*! l$ng +e,$re "he !e%$n* qar"er $, "he 7 "h  %en"r) B0C0 The earl#e!" !%h%$n"a%"! %$l* +e *a"e* "$ "he !e%$n* -#llenn#- B0C0. a" #"! /er) +eg#nn#ng 2T%hern)a&$/ I0T0. 19==. (0 ??:?=< Ger!h&$/#"%h Ya0 P0. Kl$"%h&$ 80 I0. E/*$&#-$/ G0 L0. 19=7. (0 1>5:17<Kl$"%h&$ 80 I0. 19=7. (0 =:9< #*e-. 1996. (0 16:17< #*e-. 1997. (0 7:=< S%hra-- G0. 1997. (0 151:15;. #"h re,eren%e "$ Dan$,, Chr0 M0. 19?5. (0 =??:11730 n,$r"na"el). ,r$- ha"e &n$ "$*a). n$ rel#a+le ar%hae$l$g#%al e/#*en%e ha! +een *#!%$/ere* !$ ,ar "$ !(($r" !%han $(#n#$n0M)%enaean ($""er) ha! $nl) +een ,$n* $n "he !$"hern !#*e $, "he Bla%& Sea. %l$!e "$ "he-$*ern "$n $, Ma!a". "en") &#l$-e"er! !$"h $, Sa-!n. #n "he Ma!a" H)& *#!"r#%"0 The/e!"#ge! ere *#!%$/ere* a" "$ !"ra"#gra(h#%al le/el! $, "he H#""#"e (er#$* 2Mell#n& M0. 197>. (0 116< #*e-. 197. (0 56>. 56=< #*e-. 197?. (0 5?>:5?. 57630 The ((er !"ra"- re/eale*. +e!#*e! "he H#""#"e "ra%e!. a -l"#"*e $, ($"!her*! $, M)%enaean $r#g#n  n'mero's /ycenaean shreds constit'ting some si- flasks and stirr'* 1ars0 a**arently small in size and  sim*le in decoration    2Mee Chr0. 197=. (0 1;5:1;;30 All $, "he- ha/e +een *a"e*. +) -ean! $,  56   Problems in the History and Archaeology of the Greek Colonization of the Black Sea 51 a h#er$gl)(h#% !#gne". ar$n* 1;66 B0C0 The M)%enaean ($""er) +el$ng! "$ "he La"e Hella*#%III A 5:B (er#$* 2#+#*e-. (0 1;;< Mell#n& M0. 19=>. (0 >>< #*e-. 19=. (0 =30A%%$r*#ng "$ !(e%#al#!"!. "he (re!en%e $, "he re!(e%"#/e ($""er) #! n$" !,,#%#en" "$neq#/$%all) (r$/e "he A%haean (ene"ra"#$n $, "he E'#n! P$n"! *r#ng "he -en"#$ne* (er#$* 2Fren%h D0 H0. 19=5. (0 19:;630 A-$ng!" "he re!ear%her!. "here are $, %$r!e !e/eralh$ a%%e(" !$-e %$n"a%" +e"een "he Bal&an! an* "he Ana"$l#an Pen#n!la *r#ng "he La"eBr$n4e Age a! ($!!#+le 2Th#!!en L0. 199;. (0 567:5;730 S$-e $, "he /e!"#ge!. $, h)($"he"#%alM)%enaean $r#g#n. %$-e ,r$- "he e!"ern an* n$r"he!"ern !#*e! $, "he Bla%& Sea0S$r*!. !(ear!. an* *$+le a'e! $, M)%enaean ")(e are #n%l*e* a-$ng!" "he- 2B$4e& @0. 19=. (0 ;1:;. >1:>?. 51;:51>< #*e-. 1996. (0 1;:130 Aegean !$r*! an* *$+le a'e!ere al!$ ,$n* #n "he N$r"h Ca%a!! 2#+#*. 19=. (0 ;. >?. =530 In !(#"e $, "he#r (re!en%e #n"he area. !$-e !%h$lar! a!!er" "ha" "here #! n$ qe!"#$n $, M)%enaean %$l$n#4a"#$n $, "he Bla%& Sea reg#$n!. -en"#$n#ng #n a**#"#$n "ha" "he /e!"#ge! (r$+a+l) re(re!en" "he 2res'lt of royal trade 2T!e"!&hla*4e G0 R0. 199>. (0 11;3  along the %an'be and in the !ransca'casian region03hich incl'ded0 among 4other5 commodities0 amber   2K#l#an K0. 1996. (0 >?30A" "h#! ($#n". #" #! ne%e!!ar) "$ ra#!e "he -a""er $, "he Gree&! /#!#"#ng "he P$n"#% reg#$n!*r#ng "he M)%enaean (er#$*0 S#n%e n$ rel#a+le ar%hae$l$g#%al "ra%e! ha/e +een re/eale* )e"*e-$n!"ra"#ng "he e'#!"en%e $, M)%enaean a*oikiai  #n "he area. e %er"a#nl) ha/e l#""le +a!#! "$"al& a+$" M)%enaean %$l$n#4a"#$n0 Ne/er"hele!!. "ha" %ann$" *#-#n#!h $r r#gh" "$ a!!-e "ha""he (re!en%e $, "he +$l* M)%enaean !a#l$r! (re!en%e a! /er) !"r$ng #n "he reg#$n. h#%h "he)!%$re* #n $r*er "$ ge" ,a-#l#ar #"h al"h$gh. generall). "he#r /#!#"! a" "ha" "#-e. !"#ll ha* a,$r"#"$! na"re0 A! a %$n,#r-a"#$n $, "he earl#e!" an* (r$+a+l) ,$r"#"$! (ene"ra"#$n $, "heBla%& Sea +) M)%enaean !h#(!. le" ! -en"#$n "he #n,$r-a"#$n e ha/e a+$" a %$--n#")"ha" l#/e* #n "he lan* $, C$l%h#! an* a l#""le n$r"h $, #" an* ere &n$n a! A%haean!0 The La"#nh#!"$r#an A--#an! Mar%ell#n! "e!"#,#e! "he ,a%" +) re,err#ng. $, %$r!e. "$ (re/#$! a"h$r!r#"#ng!0 A%%$r*#ng "$ h#- Pal- a+ h#! 4he means the Heniochi0 another *eo*le of Colchis5 . !e%ern"r A%hae#. q# +ell$ an"er#$re q$*a- a(* Tr$#a- %$n!--a"$. n$n %- !(er Helena%er"are"r. " a%"$re! (r$*#*ere n$n nll#. #n P$n"- re,lan"#+! /en"#! err$re *ela"#%n%"#!qe h$!"#l#+!. !"a+#le- *$-#%#l##! !e*e- n!qa- re(er#en"e! /er"#%#+! -$n"#-#n!e*ere !e-(er n#/al#-    2A--#an! Mar%ell#n!. II. =. 532A%%$r*#ng "$ h#! "e!"#-$n). #n Tr$) a ar ha/#ng ,#n#!he* (r#$r "$ "he H$-er#% $ne. "heA%haean!. h$ ere ne#gh+$r! $, "he Hen#$%h# #n C$l%h#! an* n$r"h $, #" *r#ng an"#q#").ere *r#/en +) n(r$(#"#$! #n*! an* en"ere* "he a"er! $, "he P$n"!30 Be!#*e! "he a+$/e "e!"#-$n). e %an al!$ #n*#%a"e a !er#e! $, earl) Gree& -)"h$l$g#%al"ra*#"#$n!. re,err#ng. +) !$-e -ean! $r $"her. "$ a%"#/#"#e! #n "he Bla%& Sea0 Th$!e "ra*#"#$n!#n/$l/e na-e! $, &n$n her$e!. l#&e Her%le!. A%h#lle!. I(h#gen#a $r P$l)'ena 2A! "he %a!e $, "he E"r!%an! #n Ca-(an#a. h$ a*$("e* O*)!!e! Mal&#n I0. 5665. (0 1?1:17130 The) al!$-en"#$n "he I!lan* $, Le&e. h#%h #! %$n!#*ere* "$ +e "he #!lan* $, "he Ble!!e* 2Ma&are!32H$--el H0. 19=1. (0 ;:7?< I/an"%h#& A0 I0. 1991. (0 51:;>< #*e-. 1999. (0 1>1:195< H#n* @0.199?. (0 9:?5< Sha+0 I0 Y0. 5665. (0 1=?:1=9< Brge!! @0. 5661. (0 9:16< Ch-+le) S0. 51
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